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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Effect of piperine on the expression of renal nuclear factor-kappa B (a), inducible nitric oxide synthase (b), cyclooxygenase-2 (c), and caspase-3 (d) in ischemia–reperfusion injured rats. Values represent mean ± standard deviation (n = 7). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01 versus the sham group;#P < 0.05,###P < 0.001,####P < 0.0001 versus ischemia–reperfusion injury group. IRI: ischemia-reperfusion injury; Pip: Piperine

Figure 3: Effect of piperine on the expression of renal nuclear factor-kappa B (a), inducible nitric oxide synthase (b), cyclooxygenase-2 (c), and caspase-3 (d) in ischemia–reperfusion injured rats. Values represent mean ± standard deviation (<i>n</i> = 7). * <i>P</i> < 0.05, ** <i>P</i> < 0.01 versus the sham group;<sup>#</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05,<sup>###</sup><i>P</i> < 0.001,<sup>####</sup><i>P</i> < 0.0001 versus ischemia–reperfusion injury group. IRI: ischemia-reperfusion injury; Pip: Piperine