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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 4: Effects of mugunghwa extracts on nitric oxide production and inflammatory cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced murine macrophage cell line. (a) RAW 264.7 cell viability; (b) nitric oxide production; (c) the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6/1β, andcyclooxygenase-2 with GAPDH as an internal control; (d) analysis of mRNA EXPRESSION Cell inflammation was induced by treatment with lipopolysaccharide at 1 μg/mL. Dexamethasone at 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL was used as a positive control. All data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. Number signs indicate highly significant differences from control cells. ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001. Asterisks indicate highly significant differences from controls. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001

Figure 4: Effects of mugunghwa extracts on nitric oxide production and inflammatory cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced murine macrophage cell line. (a) RAW 264.7 cell viability; (b) nitric oxide production; (c) the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6/1β, andcyclooxygenase-2 with GAPDH as an internal control; (d) analysis of mRNA EXPRESSION Cell inflammation was induced by treatment with lipopolysaccharide at 1 μg/mL. Dexamethasone at 0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL was used as a positive control. All data are shown as the mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent experiments. Number signs indicate highly significant differences from control cells. ##<i>P</i> < 0.01, ###<i>P</i> < 0.001. Asterisks indicate highly significant differences from controls. *<i>P</i> < 0.05, **<i>P</i> < 0.01, ***<i>P</i> < 0.001