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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Yukgunja-tang water extract treatment reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide-exposed mice. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (a) and interleukin-6 (b) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in the NC, cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide, roflumilast, and Yukgunja-tang water extract groups. Values are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (n = 5). # P < 0.05 and ## P < 0.01, compared with the NC group; *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01, compared with the cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide group

Figure 3: Yukgunja-tang water extract treatment reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide-exposed mice. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (a) and interleukin-6 (b) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits in the NC, cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide, roflumilast, and Yukgunja-tang water extract groups. Values are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (<i>n</i> = 5). <sup>#</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.05 and <sup>##</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.01, compared with the NC group; *<i>P</i> < 0.05 and **<i>P</i> < 0.01, compared with the cigarette smoke/lipopolysaccharide group