Figure 5: Effect of rice hull extract on LPS-induced ERK and JNK activation. Cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) with or without rice hull extract (200 μg/ml) for 30 min, and lysates were prepared to evaluate ERK and JNK levels. Activation of ERK and JNK was evaluated by Western blot analysis using antibodies against the phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated forms of ERK and JNK. All data are presented as the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. *p < 0.05, statistically significant differences compared to treatment with LPS alone.