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   2013| January-March  | Volume 9 | Issue 33  
    Online since March 5, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Chemical composition and biological evaluation of essential oils of Pulicaria jaubertii
Ghada A Fawzy, Hanan Y Al Ati, Ali A El Gamal
January-March 2013, 9(33):28-32
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108133  PMID:23661990
Background: The present study reports and compares the results of Gas Chromatographic-Mass analyses of Pulicaria jaubertii leaf (P-1) and root (P-2) essential oils, as well as their in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of P-1 and P-2 essential oils of P. jaubertii, was investigated by GC-MS. Moreover, the essential oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the broth micro-dilution assay for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The crystal violet staining method (CVS) was used for evaluation of their cytotoxic activity on HEPG-2 and MCF-7 human cell lines. Results: This investigation led to the identification of 16 constituents in P-1 , and 23 constituents in P-2 , representing 99.92% and 94.74% of the oils respectively. Oxygenated monoterpenes were found to be the major group in both P-1 (99.47%) and P-2 (89.88%). P-1 consists almost entirely of p-Menth-6-en-2-one (Carvotanacetone, 98.59%). P-2 is characterized by high contents of each of Dimethoxydurene (38.48%), Durenol (26.89%) and 2′,4Ͳ-Dimethoxy-3′-methylacetophenone (20.52%). Both oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive strains and C. albicans. However, no activity was shown against Gram-negative bacteria. P-1 showed a significant cytotoxic activity against both MCF-7 and HEPG-2 (IC 50 = 3.8 and 5.1 μg/ml, respectively), while P-2 showed selective cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line (IC 50 = 9.3 μg/ml). Conclusion: The potent cytotoxic and moderate antimicrobial activities of P-1 may be attributed to its high content of Carvotanacetone.
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Dietary phytochemicals as potent chemotherapeutic agents against breast cancer: Inhibition of NF-κB pathway via molecular interactions in rel homology domain of its precursor protein p105
Mohammad K. A. Khan, Irfan A Ansari, M Salman Khan
January-March 2013, 9(33):51-57
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108140  PMID:23661994
Background: Dietary phytochemicals consist of a wide variety of biologically active compounds that are ubiquitous in plants, many of which have been reported to have anti-tumor as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: In the present study, we aimed to validate these findings by using docking protocols and explicate the possible mechanism of action for a dataset of nine phytochemicals namely boswellic acid, 1-caffeoylquinic acid, ellagic acid, emodin, genistein, guggulsterone, quercetin, resveratrol, and sylibinin from different plants against the nuclear factor- kappaB (NF-κB) precursor protein p105, an important transcription factor reported to be overexpressed in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: 2-D structures of all phytochemicals were retrieved from PubChem Compound database and their subsequent conversion into 3-D structures was performed by using online software system CORINA. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the NF-κB precursor p105 was extracted from Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Molecular docking simulation study was carried out by using AutoDock Tools 4.0. Results: Our results showed significant binding affinity of different phytochemicals with the Rel homology domain of the NF-κB precursor protein p105. Quercetin and 1-caffeoylquinic acid were found to be very effective inhibitors against target molecule as they showed binding energy of −12.11 and −11.50 Kcal/mol, respectively. The order of affinity of other ligands with p105 was found as follows: guggulsterone > sylibinin > emodin > resveratrol > genistein > boswellic acid > ellagic acid. Conclusion: Our in silico study has explored the possible chemopreventive mechanism of these phytochemicals against the NF-κB precursor protein p105 and deciphered that quercetin, 1-caffeoylquinic acid and guggulsterone were the potent inhibitors against target molecule. In addition, large scale preclinical and clinical trials are needed to explore the role of these chemotherapeutic molecules against the NF-κB precursor protein p105 in cure and prevention of breast cancer.
  11 3,936 73
Characterization and chemical composition of fatty acids content of watermelon and muskmelon cultivars in Saudi Arabia using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy
Hassan M Albishri, Omar A Almaghrabi, Tarek A. A. Moussa
January-March 2013, 9(33):58-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108142  PMID:23661995
Background: The growth in the production of biodiesel, which is principally fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), has been phenomenal in the last ten years because of the general desire to cut down on the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and also as a result of the increasing cost of fossil fuels. Objective: Establish whether there is any relationship between two different species (watermelon and muskmelon) within the same family (Cucurbitaceae) on fatty acid compositions and enumerate the different fatty acids in the two species. Materials and Methods: Extraction of fatty acids from the two species and preparation the extract to gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis to determine the fatty acids compositions qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: The analyzed plants (watermelon and muskmelon) contain five saturated fatty acids; tetrdecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid with different concentrations, while muskmelon contains an extra saturated fatty acid named eicosanoic acid. The watermelon plant contains five unsaturated fatty acids while muskmelon contains three only, the two plants share in two unsaturated fatty acids named 9-hexadecenoic acid and 9-octadecenoic acid, the muskmelon plant contains higher amounts of these two acids (2.04% and 10.12%, respectively) over watermelon plant (0.88% and 0.25%, respectively). Conclusion: The chemical analysis of watermelon and muskmelon revealed that they are similar in saturated fatty acids but differ in unsaturated fatty acids which may be a criterion of differentiation between the two plants.
  7 5,531 85
Effect of Mangiferin and Mahanimbine on Glucose Utilization in 3T3-L1 cells
B Dinesh Kumar, K Krishnakumar, Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mahitosh Mandal
January-March 2013, 9(33):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108145  PMID:23661997
Background: Stem barks of Mangifera indica contain a rich content of mangiferin (xanthone glucoside), whereas Murraya koenigii leaves contain rich sources of mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) and used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: To investigate the effects of mangiferin (xanthone glucoside) and mahanimbine (carbazole alkaloid) on glucose utilization in 3T3-L1 cells. Materials and Methods: Mangiferin was isolated from stem barks of Mangifera indica and mahanimbine was isolated from Murraya koenigii leaves. These isolated compounds were subjected to MTT assay and glucose utilization test with 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Treatment of the 3T3-L1 cells with mangiferin and mahanimbine increased the glucose utilization in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 1 mM, mangniferin showed 2-fold increase in glucose utilization compared with untreated control. In case of mahanimbine, the observed effect at 1 mM was almost equivalent to positive control (insulin at 1 μM). Moreover, MTT assay showed that both of these compounds were less toxic at a concentration of 1 mM (nearly 75% cells are viable). Conclusion: The present results indicated that these natural products (mangiferin and mahanimbine) exhibited potential ethnomedical uses in management of diabetes.
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Anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro of polysaccharides from Ganoderma capense
Chunyan Yan, Fansheng Kong, Dezhi Zhang, Jiangxia Cui
January-March 2013, 9(33):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108132  PMID:23661989
Background : Ganoderma capense is a Ganoderma species and is widely used, especially in Asia, as a well-known medicinal mushroom for health-promoting effect and for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, aging, etc. G. capense is rich of polysaccharide. Objective: To isolate the polysaccharides from G. capense and evaluate their anti-glycated and antiradical activities in vitro. Materials and Methods : The dried powder of submerged fermentation culturing mycelium of G. capense was defatted, extracted with water/ alkaline water followed by ethanol precipitation and deproteinated. And four crude polysaccharides, named as GC50, GC70, GC90 and GCB, were obtained. For the first time, the in vitro anti-glycated activities of the four samples were studied by non-enzymatic glycation reaction. Then, the DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical assays were established to estimate the antiradical capacity of the four samples. Meanwhile the contents of polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulphuric acid colorimetry. Results and Conclusion : Preliminary antiradical in vitro studies indicated that the four crude polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent scavenging abilities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. The evaluation of anti-glycation activity suggested that GC70 had good potential for inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed for all GC70 samples.
  4 3,057 40
Simultaneous determination of 10 components in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule by reversed-phase-high-performance liquid chromatographic-diode array detector
Yingfei Hu, Tulin Lu, Chunqin Mao, Hao Wu, Xing Zhang, JV Wang, Juanjuan Gu
January-March 2013, 9(33):33-38
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108136  PMID:23661991
Background: Dachaihu Granule, commonly used for treating cholecystitis, is derived from a famous traditional Chinese formula named Dachaihu Decoction. No analytical method has been reported for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds for quality control in Dachaihu Granule so far. Objective: To develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) for simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive compounds (paeoniflorin, aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin) in traditional Chinese medicine Dachaihu Granule. Materials and Methods : The samples were separated on a Kromasil C 18 (250 × 4.6 mm,i.d. with 5.0 μm particle size)column with multi-wavelength detection method by a gradient elution using acetonitrile (A) and 0.2% acetic acid (B) as the mobile phase. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for paeoniflorin, 254 nm for aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion, 280 nm for naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, and baicalin. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision and the accuracy of this method was in the range from 94.0% to 103.1%, all of the 10 compounds showed good linearity (r > 0.999) in a detected concentration range. Conclusion: The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneously of these active components in Dachaihu Granule from different production batches.
  3 2,733 51
Linum narbonense: A new valuable tool for biotechnological production of a potent anticancer lignan Justicidine B
Iliana Ionkova, Pavlina Sasheva, Todor Ionkov, Georgi Momekov
January-March 2013, 9(33):39-44
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108138  PMID:23661992
Background: Arylnaphthalene lignan Justicidin B is a lead compound in the management of bone cancer and osteoclastogenesis . The compound is the main cytotoxic principle of rare medicinal plant Linum narbonense L. (Linaceae). However, there have been no reports on the bioreactor production of justicidin B. Objective: to develop cost-effective biotechnology for production of this anticancer metabolite. Materials and Methods: The genetic transformation in hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834, was proven by PCR analysis. The control of bioreactor was synthesized by gradient method. The optimal values of the controlling parameters were estimated with presence of technological limitation. The general structure of control system was based on "Hardware in the Loop" (HIL). Results: Hairy roots produced five-fold higher yields of justicidin B (7.78mg/g DW) compared to callus. A rapidly growing root line was selected for cultivation in 2-L stirred tank bioreactor. After optimization, maximum biomass of 22.5 g.l -1 dry wt was harvested from the bioreactor culture vessel (recording about 8 times increase over initial inoculum), with 1.42 % ± 0.12 Justicidine B, greater than contents from flasks were obtained. The extracts were tested in a panel of human tumor cell lines, using the MTT-dye reduction assay, exert inhibitory effects against malignant cells. Conclusion: Our findings are the first work on large cultivation of L. narbonense hairy roots and bioreactor production of plant anticancer agent Justicidin B. To extend the research to human clinical studies, we have found a reliable biotechnological supply of plant material, produced this target compound.
  3 2,757 26
A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations
Jihan M Badr
January-March 2013, 9(33):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108124  PMID:23661986
Background: Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. Materials and Method: In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum sheets precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (97:3:0.2), which gave compact bands of yohimbine hydrochloride. Results: Linear regression data for the calibration curves of standard yohimbine hydrochloride showed a good linear relationship over a concentration range of 80-1000 ng/spot with respect to the area and correlation coefficient (R 2 ) was 0.9965. The method was evaluated regarding accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 5 and 40 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method efficiently separated yohimbine hydrochloride from other components even in complex mixture containing powdered plants. The amount of yohimbine hydrochloride ranged from 2.3 to 5.2 mg/tablet or capsule in preparations containing the pure alkaloid, while it varied from zero (0) to 1.5-1.8 mg/capsule in dietary supplements containing powdered yohimbe bark. Conclusion: We concluded that this method employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in quantitative determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations is efficient, simple, accurate, and validated.
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Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha
Anthonio O Adefuye, Roland N Ndip
January-March 2013, 9(33):45-50
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108139  PMID:23661993
Background : Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50 ) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (R f values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC 50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials.
  2 4,670 64
Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis
Katsunori Yamaura, Ayana Tomono, Eriko Suwa, Koichi Ueno
January-March 2013, 9(33):9-13
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108127  PMID:23661987
Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus.
  2 5,083 37
Secondary metabolites from the stem of Ravenia spectabilis Lindl
Md Mozammel Haque, Sufia Begum, Md Hossain Sohrab, Monira Ahsan, Choudhury M Hasan, Nuruddin Ahmed, Rashedul Haque
January-March 2013, 9(33):76-80
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108147  PMID:23661998
Background: Ravenia spectabilis is a medium tall shrub found widespread in South America. It also found in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. Few alkaloid and steroid compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract from the stems of Ravenia spectabilis were partitioned into n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions, respectively. The crude methanol extract, carbon tetrachloride fraction and chloroform fraction were fractionated by column chromatography of Silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 for isolation and purification of compounds. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectral analysis, including 2D NMR, mass spectroscopy etc. Results: Ten compounds, γ-fagarine (1), ravenoline (2), N-methyl atanine (3),2,3,3,5-tetramethyl-2,3,4,5- tetrahydrofurano [3,2-c] quinolin-4-one (4), arborinine (5), 3-geranyl indole (6), atanine (7), steroids sitosta-4-en- 3-one (8), stigmasterol (9) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (10) were isolated from the stems of Ravenia spectabilis. Conclusion: Compounds N-methyl atanine (3), 2,3,3,5-tetramethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrofurano [3,2-c] quinolin-4-one (4) , 3-geranyl indole (6), sitosta-4-en-3-one (8) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (10) were isolated from this plant for the first time. 3-geranyl indole (6) was also isolated second time from natural sources.
  1 2,301 34
CORRIGENDUM
Corrigendum

January-March 2013, 9(33):81-81
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EDITORIAL
Top cited articles from Pharmacogn. Mag in 2012
KK Mueen Ahmed
January-March 2013, 9(33):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108103  PMID:23661985
  - 3,304 26
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Potential antianxiety activity of Fumaria indica: A preclinical study
Gireesh K Singh, Sudhir K Chauhan, Geeta Rai, Shyam S Chatterjee, Vikas Kumar
January-March 2013, 9(33):14-22
PMID:23661988
Background: In the view of diverse CNS modulating properties of Fumaria indica, present study was planned to evaluate its putative anxiolytic activity in behavioural models of rats, followed by elucidation of mechanism of observed activity through biochemical estimations. Materials and Methods: Effects of seven daily 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg oral doses of a Fumaria indica extract (FI) was compared with those of an acute oral dose (5 mg/kg) of lorazepam in a battery of rat models consisting of open-field, elevated plus and zero maze, social interaction, and novelty induced feeding tests. Results: Dose dependant antianxiety effects of FI observed in all tests were qualitatively similar to those of the reference anxiolytic drug. Although FI treatments did not alter the concentrations of noradrenaline and serotonin in hippocampus and hypothalamus, concentrations of both these monoamines were dose dependently elevated in prefrontal cortex of FI treated animals. Flunitrazepam binding in brain frontal cortex was also elevated by the extract. Moreover, higher levels of brain expressions of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10 observed in animals with prior experience on elevated plus maze were almost completely reversed by the lowest dose of FI tested in the behavioral models. Conclusion: Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that FI is a functionally novel type of antianxiety agent, and that inhibition of cytokine expressions in the brain could be involved in its mode of action.
  - 3,970 36
The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints study of Awei capsules
Rong Han, Jie Xue, Erwei Hua, Longlong Zhou
January-March 2013, 9(33):67-71
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.108143  PMID:23661996
Background: Awei Capusules are Hospital preparation for Hyperlipidemia. It was composed by Awei, Magnoliae Officinalis and Polygonum Bistoral etc. Manufacture and quality standard of Awei Capusules had been studied. Results of animal pharmacodynamic and clinical study all displayed that Awei Capusules can reduce serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, increases HDL-C/TC. It was safe. It could improve hemorrheology and vessel function of blood stasis animal. On the basis of these, we studied on fingerprint of Awei capsule. Materials and Methods: The gradient elution method was used for analyzing samples on HPLC. Fingerprint similarity calculation software was used for data analysis. Results: We got a good separation of Awei Capusules peaks. There were 15 peaks in fingerprint of Awei capusles. Gallic acid, magnolol and honokiol were identified. Conclusion: HPLC fingerprinting of Awei Capusules can provide to reference. It can control preparations quality of Awei Capusules.
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