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   2010| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 21  
    Online since February 13, 2010

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Anticancer and antiradical scavenging activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae)
AH Adebayo, NH Tan, AA Akindahunsi, GZ Zeng, YM Zhang
January-March 2010, 6(21):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59968  PMID:20548938
Ageratum conyzoides has been used in folklore for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In the present investigation, the in vitro activity of ethanol, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, butanol, and water extracts of A. conyzoides were screened in some cancer cell lines using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. These cell lines include: Human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A-549), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human golima (U-251), human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), human prostate carcinoma (DU-145), human hepatic carcinoma (BEL-7402), and mouse leukemia (P-388) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, kaempferol was isolated from the ethylacetate extract and the structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. The effect of DPPH antiradical activity on the extracts and kaempferol was also determined. The results showed that ethylacetate extract exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity on A-549 and P-388 cancer cells with IC 50 values of 0.68 and 0.0003 µg/ml, respectively. Kaempferol isolated from the ethylacetate extract of A. conyzoides rapidly scavenged DPPH at a concentration of 130.07 ±17.36 g/kg. The result therefore showed that A. conyzoides possessed anticancer and antiradical properties.
  15,081 532 50
Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity
Vadivel Arulmozhi, Mani Krishnaveni, Kandhan Karthishwaran, Ganesan Dhamodharan, Sankaran Mirunalini
January-March 2010, 6(21):42-50
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59965  PMID:20548935
The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/ kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.
  13,097 437 34
Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Safoura Derakhshan, Morteza Sattari, Mohsen Bigdeli
January-March 2010, 6(21):57-61
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59967  PMID:20548937
Seeds of the cumin plant (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been used since many years in Iranian traditional medicine. We assessed the effect of cumin seed essential oil on the biofilm-forming ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and on the integrity of a native resistance plasmid DNA from K. pneumoniae isolates, treated with essential oil. Antibacterial coaction between the essential oil and selected antibiotic disks were determined for inhibiting K. pneumoniae. The essential oil of the cumin seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clavenger system. A simple method for the formation of biofilms on semiglass lamellas was established. The biofilms formed were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of essential oil on plasmid integrity was studied through the induction of R-plasmid DNA degradation. The plasmid was incubated with essential oil, and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. Disk diffusion assay was employed to determine the coaction. The essential oil decreased biofilm formation and enhanced the activity of the ciprofloxacin disk. The incubation of the R-plasmid DNA with essential oil could not induce plasmid DNA degradation. The results of this study suggest the potential use of cumin seed essential oil against K. pneumoniae in vitro, may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of this essential oil.
  11,684 359 25
Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay
A Aytekin Polat, Oguzhan Caliskan, Sedat Serce, Onur Saracoglu, Cemal Kaya, Mustafa Ozgen
January-March 2010, 6(21):5-8
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59959  PMID:20548929
Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani,' and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than others, although 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest pH and high soluble solids. 'Baduna 5' and 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Çukurgöbek') mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.
  10,015 281 19
Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice
KS Sim, AM Sri Nurestri, SK Sinniah, KH Kim, AW Norhanom
January-March 2010, 6(21):67-70
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59969  PMID:20548939
Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia.
  7,994 300 30
Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits
Sedat Serce, Sezai Ercisli, Memnune Sengul, Kazim Gunduz, Emine Orhan
January-March 2010, 6(21):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59960  PMID:20548930
The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 µg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.
  7,146 267 33
Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)
Saeideh Momtaz, Namrita Lall, Ahmed Hussein, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Abdollahi
January-March 2010, 6(21):34-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59964  PMID:20548934
The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured 'Hela cells'. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 µg/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 37.7 µg/ml on the viability of 'HeLa cells' using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: 'Tutin' and 'hyenanchin' were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant ( P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts.
  6,657 201 31
Licorice infusion: Chemical profile and effects on the activation and the cell cycle progression of human lymphocytes
Jose Cheel, Gabriela Onofre, Doris Vokurkova, Lenka Tumova, Jarmila Neugebauerova
January-March 2010, 6(21):26-33
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59963  PMID:20548933
A licorice infusion (LI) and its major constituents were investigated for their capacity to stimulate the activation and the cell cycle progression of human lymphocytes, measured by the CD69 expression and DNA content, respectively. The chemical profile of LI was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results: Two major components of LI were identified as liquiritin (1) and glycyrrhizin (2); total flavones and flavonols were shown as its minor constituents. The LI (100-800 µg/ml) stimulated the expression of CD69 on lymphocytes in a concentration-independent manner. Values of the activation index (AI) of total lymphocytes treated with LI (100-800 µg/ml) did not differ significantly among them ( P < 0.05), but were 50% lower than the AI value exhibited by cells treated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The LI showed a similar effect on T cells, but on a lower scale. Compounds 1 and 2 (12-100 µg/ml) did not stimulate the CD69 expression on lymphocytes. The LI, 1 and 2 showed no meaningful effect on cell cycle progression of lymphocytes. The experimental data indicates that LI stimulates the activation of lymphocytes as a result of a proliferation-independent process. This finding suggests that LI could be considered as a potential specific immune stimulator.
  6,056 186 8
Natural products from the termite Nasutitermes corniger lowers aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentrations
Henrique D.M Coutinho, Alexandre Vasconcellos, Hilzeth L Freire-Pess˘a, Carlos A Gadelha, Tatiane S Gadelha, Geraldo G Almeida-Filho
January-March 2010, 6(21):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59958  PMID:20548928
Bacterial infectious agents present a risk to populations, as they are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. For combating these pathogens, our main line of defense is the use of antibiotics. However, indiscriminate use of these drugs develops resistant strains to these same drugs. The present study has tested the antibacterial and modifying antibiotic activity of natural products from Nasutitermes corniger (Termitidae) (Motschulsky), a termite used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil, by the microdilution and checkerboard methods, respectively. In this study, the aqueous extract from the nest of N. corniger (ANCE) was prepared and tested with chlorpromazine (CPZ) for its antimicrobial activity, using the microdilution method. CPZ and ANCE were used independently and also in combination with aminoglycosides, against a strain of Escherichia coli resistant to these antibiotics, to determine the participation of efflux systems in resistance mechanisms. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index was calculated and evaluated for the occurrence of synergism, using the checkerboard method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) values were ≥ 2048 µg/mL for both strains of E. coli assayed, indicating low antibacterial activity. However, synergism was observed with kanamycin when the decoction was used, but when chlorpromazine was used, synergism was observed with kanamycin, amikacin, and neomycin. This synergism with CPZ indicated the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Therefore, it was suggested that the natural products from N. corniger could be used as a source of zoo-derived natural products with kanamycin-modifying activity, resulting in a new approach against bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
  5,801 211 17
A validated method for analysis of Swerchirin in Swertia longifolia Boiss. by high performance liquid chromatography
M Shekarchi, H Hajimehdipoor, M Khanavi, N Adib, M Bozorgi, B Akbari-Adergani
January-March 2010, 6(21):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59961  PMID:20548931
Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae) grow widely in the eastern and southern Asian countries and are used as traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Swerchirin, one of the xanthones in Swertia spp., has many pharmacological properties, such as, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic, and hypoglycemic effects. Because of the pharmacological importance of Swerchirin in this investigation, it was purified from Swertia longifolia Boiss. as one of the main components and quantified by means of a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with acetone 80%. Phenolic and non-phenolic constituents of the extract were separated from each other during several processes. The phenolic fraction was injected into the semi-preparative HPLC system, which consisted of a C 18 column and a gradient methanol: 0.1% formic acid mode. Using this method, we were able to purify six xanthones from the plant, in order to use them as standard materials. The analytical method was validated for Swerchirin as one of the most important components of the plant, with more pharmacological activities according to the validation parameters, such as, selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.9998), precision (≤3.3), and accuracy, which were measured by the determination of recovery (98-107%). The limits of detection and quantization were found to be 2.1 and 6.3 µg/mL, respectively. On account of the speed and accuracy, the UV-HPLC method may be used for quantitative analysis of Swerchirin.
  5,526 205 38
In vitro tetraploid induction and generation of tetraploids from mixoploids in Dioscorea zingiberensis
He-Ping Huang, Shan-Lin Gao, Lan-Lan Chen, Kun-Hua Wei
January-March 2010, 6(21):51-56
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59966  PMID:20548936
This article describes an efficient colchicine-mediated technique for the in vitro induction of tetraploids in Dioscorea zingiberensis and its confirmation by flow cytometry. Buds immersed in 0.2% colchicine solution for 36 hours prior to culture induced as high as 35.6% tetraploid plants. Colchicine-induced tetraploids remained stable after six months in soil. Leaf characteristics of diploids and tetraploids in D. zingiberensis were compared. It was determined that the leaf sizes of glasshouse-grown plants and stomatal sizes of both in vitro and glasshouse-grown plants were suitable parameters for identifying putative tetraploids in D. zingiberensis. Besides generating tetraploids, this technique generated mixoploids in D. zingiberensis. Calli derived from mixoploid leaves were induced to form buds and shoots. Individual shoots were classed as diploid, mixoploid, and tetraploid by flow cytometry. This callus-based technique could be employed when a genome-doubling agent generated mixoploids, but no tetraploids.
  5,390 199 5
A cross-sectional study on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine in Dembia district, north western Ethiopia
Muthuswamy Ragunathan, Hawi tadesse, Rebecca tujuba
January-March 2010, 6(21):19-25
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59962  PMID:20548932
A cross-sectional study pertaining to the practices and perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners on Traditional Medicine (TM) was carried out from February 25 to April 4, 2008.The results of the study showed that almost all the practitioners in both systems expressed their willingness to collaborate among each other to promote the positive elements of TM. As traditional healing knowledge is still being handed over from one generation to the next, mainly through word of mouth, which will lead to distortion or a total demise of the original knowledge, this report indicates the urgency to document the same. Moreover, the report also implies the need for educating and training the practitioners of the two systems. More also has to be done to create a discussion forum for both modern and TM practitioners, to enable them to share their knowledge. Government support for promotion and development of TM should be considered as a goal to be seriously pursued. The government should also contribute by helping them financially and by arranging training and education for the improvement of the healthcare system given to the public.
  4,495 139 6