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   2009| October-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 20  
    Online since December 8, 2009

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Hypolipidemic Effects of Seed Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens ) in Rats
Kamal Mansi, Adel M Abushoffa, Ahmad Disi, Talal Aburjai
October-December 2009, 5(20):301-305
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58149  
The hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract of A. graveolens L. (Apiaceae) were investigated. Forty adult male albino rats weighing about 260 g each, were divided into four groups (n = 10). Experimental animals were gavaged at doses of 213 and 425 mg/kg body wt. for sixty consecutive days. Extract showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and significant increase (p<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in the treated groups. The oral administration of ethanol extract of A. graveolens revealed good hypolipideamic effects in adult male albino rats. The results have given a considerable agreement to the traditional use of A. graveolens in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; it could possibly lead to appropriate changes in blood lipid profiles.
  14,746 296 5
Antimutagenic potential and phytochemical analysis of selected Philippine plants
Christine L Chichioco-Hernandez, Noemi D Paguigan
December 2009, 5(20):388-393
Chemopreventive agents can act to prevent or stop genetic mutation that can lead to cancer. Several promising chemopreventive agents include vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals, all of which are obtained from plants. Natural products derived from plants continue to be a fertile source of cure for cancer. In this study, selected Philippine plants were tested for their ability to inhibit chromosomal damage induced by tetracycline in the in vivo micronucleus test (MT). The methanolic extract of Canarium ovatum Engl., locally recognized as pili, showed the most promising activity by reducing the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by 54.41% in the preliminary MT screening. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of C. ovatum leaves have identified the most active portion in the hexane fraction. Further isolation and purification will be done to determine the constituent/s responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity in C. ovatum. Identification and characterization of the bioactive compound/s in this plant could be a starting point in the search for other chemopreventive substances, and for the possible synthesis and development of more efficacious agents.
  11,855 210 -
Antifungal activity of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) sampled in different harvest time
Halit Aladag, Sezai Ercisli, Duymus Zeynep Yesil, Arzu Gormez, Meryem Yesil
December 2009, 5(20):437-440
Antifungal activity of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.), sampled 3 different harvest time (May, July and September) from Rize region in Turkey, against a number of fungi (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida kruseii, Candida parapsilosis and Candida dubliensis) has been investigated. In addition, the catechin-based flavonoids in green tea leaves such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC) were determined. All methanol extract of green tea samples showed a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against all Candida species in broth microdilution bioassays. However maximum activity of methanol extract (>17 mm inhibition zone) was observed against Candida albicans at 3rd harvest time. In general, antifungal activity increased from 1 st harvest time to 3 rd harvest time. Catechin-based flavonoids have also increased from 1st harvest to 3rd harvest indicating a correlation with antifungal activity.
  9,616 146 -
Antidiabetic Effect and Antioxidant Potential of Rosa canina Fruits
N Orhan, M Aslan, S Hosbas, Orhan D Deliorman
October-December 2009, 5(20):309-315
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58151  
Rosa canina L. fruits (Rosaceae) are used to treat diabetes in Anatolia traditionally. In this study, the ethanol extract of R. canina fruits and its fractions were screened for their antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities. The ethanol extract that was administered for 7 days possessed a remarkable hypoglycemic effect at 250 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Then it was fractionated through successive solvent extractions to yield CHCl 3 Fr., EtOAc Fr., n -BuOH Fr. and R-H 2 O Fr. respectively. These fractions were administrated to normal plus glucose hyperglycemic rats. Additionally the subacute antidiabetic activities of the fractions were studied in diabetic rats for 7 days. The experimental data indicated that R-H 2 O Fr. Possessed significant antidiabetic activity (50-62%) in diabetic rats. Also, a minor hypoglycemic effect was observed in normoglycemic plus glucose-hyperglycemic animals treated with R-H 2 O Fr. (15%). In vitro antioxidant experiments revealed that EtOAc Fr. Showed the highest radical scavenging activity on DPPH (79.5±0.4%), whereas CHCl 3 Fr. exhibited the maximum reducing power. The highest total phenolic content was observed in CHCl 3 Fr. (18.5±0.6% gallic acid equivalent g/g fraction) but no correlation was observed between the antidiabetic activity of fractions and their phenolic contents. Our findings support the traditional usage of R. canina fruits as a folk remedy in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey.
  9,143 328 24
In-vitro anticancer activity of standard extracts used in ayurveda
SN Gaidhani, GS Lavekar, AS Juvekar, S Sen, Arjun Singh, Suman Kumari
December 2009, 5(20):425-429
The hydro-alcoholic extracts of five Ayurvedic medicinal plants, pericarp of Terminalia chebula, rhizome of Acorus calamus, stem bark of Bauhinia variegate, whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus, root of Glycyrrhiza glabra were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on fourteen cancer cell lines. These plant extracts were tested by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay for its anti proliferative activity and four extracts except Glycyrrhiza glabra were found active against prostrate cancer cell line (DU145. In addition to this Terminalia chebula exhibited activity against leukemia cancer cell line (K562).
  8,533 257 -
Chemical composition of blood orange varieties from Turkey: A comparative study
Ebru Kafkas, Sezai Ercisli, Koc Namik Kemal, Konce Baydar, Huseyin Yilmaz
October-December 2009, 5(20):329-335
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58155  
Three blood orange varieties, Moro Blood, Sanguinello and Cara Cara grown together in Mediterranean region of Turkey were characterized for their total lipid, fatty acids, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C, total phenols, total flavonoid contents and aroma compounds. The total phenol content of blood orange varieties was in range of 441.0 to 527.0 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 121.70 to 239.80 mg/L. The order of vitamin C, expressed as mg per 100 mL among different blood orange varieties was Sanguinello (41.59 mg)>Cara Cara (34.24 mg)>Moro Blood (31.83 mg). Moro Blood variety had the highest total lipid ratio (2.01 %), and followed by cv. Cara Cara (0.65 %) and cv. Sanguinello (0.59 %), respectively. Sixteen fatty acids were detected in blood orange varieties and C18:2 (linoleic acid) was predominant for all varieties ranged from 23.15 to 31.83 %. A total of 46 aroma compounds were identifi ed in juices and among varieties, cv. Cara Cara had the highest number of aroma compounds. The study revealed that dietary intake oranges may supply substantial health components.
  8,559 218 10
Physico-chemical characteristics of some wild grown European elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) genotypes
Mustafa Akbulut, Sezai Ercisli, Murat Tosun
October-December 2009, 5(20):320-323
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58153  
Wild grown European elderberry ( Sambucus nigra ) plants are widespread in different parts of Turkey and have been used in folk medicine so a long time. Some selected physico-chemical characteristics such as berry weight, protein, pH, total acidity, soluble solid, reducing sugar, vitamin C, total antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay), total phenolic and total anthocyanins of four pre-selected wild grown European elderberry fruits were investigated. Significant differences on most of the chemical content were detected among the genotypes used. The genotype AR2 had the highest protein content (2.91%), while AR4 had the lowest protein content (2.68%). The genotypes with the highest total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total anthocyanin content were AR2 (6.37 mmol/100 g fw; 432 mg GAE/100 g fw and 283 mg cyaniding-3-glucoside/100 g fw). The results showed that European elderberry very rich in terms of health components
  7,222 219 10
Triterpenoids and steroids from Holarrhena pubescens seeds
Sanjib Bhattachartya, Saswati Tarafdar, Chandra Nath Saha
December 2009, 5(20):407-411
In present study, three known pentacyclic triterpenoids namely lupeol, betulinaldehyde, and betulinic acid and a steroidal compound stigmasterol were isolated from the seeds of Holarrhena pubescens (Buch. Ham.) (Apocynaceae); commonly known as Kurchi in commerce. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and comparison with the authentic samples.
  5,910 132 -
Hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Santanu Sannigrahi, Upal Kanti Mazumder, Dilipkumar Pal, Silpi Lipsa Mishra
December 2009, 5(20):394-399
Hepatoprotective potential of methanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (MECI), which was widely used in Indian indigenous system of medicine, was studied against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Methanol extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered daily along with carbon tetrachloride once in 72 hours for 14 days. The study was evaluated by assaying the serum biochemical parameters glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and total protein. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase activity (CAT) was determined to explain the possible mechanism of the activity. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin were restored towards normalization significantly by the extract. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. MDA concentration was decreased, while the liver antioxidative enzyme activity was elevated in all the MECI treated rats. All the results were compared with standard drug silymarin. In addition, histopathology of liver tissue was investigated to observe the morphological changes, showed the reduction of fatty degeneration and liver necrosis. The results of this study revealed that methanol extract of C. infortunatum has moderate hepatoprotective activity. This effect may be due to the ability of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation and increase in the anti-oxidant enzymatic activity.
  5,665 167 -
Antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L. stigma and its bioactive constituents, crocin and safranal
Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Fahimeh Shamsaie, Soghra Mehri
December 2009, 5(20):419-424
The antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal were evaluated using deoxyribose, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation methods in vitro. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts in different concentrations (10, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml), crocin and safranal at 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM were tested. Results showed that test compounds could diminish the extent of MDA generation in three methods (P<0.01 VS control). The effect of crocin at 1,2 mM and ethanolic extract at 500 and 1000 µg/ml in liver microsomal lipid peroxidation were similar to BHT 100 µM in liver microsomal lipid peroxidation (P>0.05). Crocin the main carotenoid in saffron extracts probably and relatively safranal may have an important role in antioxidant properties of the extracts.
  5,439 174 -
Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Assets and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Preface of Various Fresh-Water and Marine Macroalgae
Murat Kartal, Ilkay Orhan, Mahmud Abu-Asaker, FS Senol, Tahir Atici, Bilge Sener
October-December 2009, 5(20):291-297
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58147  
The ethanol extracts from the fresh-water algae; Chara hispida L., Cladophora glomerata (Dilw.) Kόtz, C. fracta (Dilw.) Kόtz, Spirogyra gratiana Transeau, Mougeotia sp. (C.A. Agardh), Vaucheria sessilis (Vauch.) De Candolle, Geminella mutabilis (Breb.) Wille, the fresh-water plants; Ranunculus rionii Lagger and Ceratophyllum demersum L., as well as the marine algae; Sciniaia furcellata (Turn.) J. Agardh, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lam., Padina vickersiae Hoyt, Halopteris scoparia (L.) Sauvagau, and the sea grass; Posidonia oceanica (L.) Dell. were assessed in vitro for their antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity test at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg ml -1 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg ml −1 concentrations. Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. The extracts were further analyzed qualitatively by LC-DAD-MS. S. gratiana had the best antioxidant activity, followed by R. rionii. LC-DAD-MS showed rich gallic acid and its ethyl ester contents in S. gratiana , while prosperous vitamin C content has been detected in P. oceanica for the first time in this study. S. gratiana possessed the highest inhibition (42.5±2.28%) at 2.0 mg ml −1 against AChE.
  5,368 145 17
Cytotoxic Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Sambucus ebulus Compared With Etoposide on Normal and Cancer Cell Lines
M Shokrzadeh, SS Saeedi Saravi, M Mirzayi
October-December 2009, 5(20):316-319
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58152  
Sambucus ebulus is a native botany and exists in large amount in Iran and consists of anti-cancer substances such as ebulin (RIP-II, ribosome inactivated protein-II), flavonoids, etc. Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants, has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for anti-tumor effects. In previous studies, anti-inflammatory effects of n-hexane and methanolic extracts of S. ebulus , nephro- and hepato-toxic effects of ethylacetate extract of this plant and evaluation of role of vitamins C and E on prevention of cellular and pathological disorders induced by the ethyl acetate extract was performed and reported. So, cytotoxic activity and IC50 of specific concentrations of ethyl acetate extract of fruits of S.ebulus on 4 normal and cancer cell lines was studied. Also, Etoposide, a chemotherapeutic drug, was administered to control positive group. The normal cell lines were CHO and rat fibroblast and cancer cell lines were HepG2 and CT26. The cytotoxic effects and IC50 of the extract on the cell lines were studied followed by MTT assay. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of Sambucus ebulus possesses lower IC50 in the cancer cell lines in comparison with the normal cell lines. On the other hand, the extract possesses higher IC 50 in comparison with Etoposide on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (P<0.05), but it manifested a good cytotoxic compound which can introduce as an anticancer compound.
  4,691 112 10
Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Constituents from the Roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. Growing in Egypt
Ehab Saad Elkhayat
October-December 2009, 5(20):324-328
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58154  
Phytochemical study of the roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. (Astraceae) Growing in Egypt, afforded loliolide 1 for the first time from the genus Sonchus in addition to 15-O- β -glucopyranosyl-11 β ,13-dihydrourospermal A 2 , ursolic acid 3 , lupeol 4 and β-sitosterol- 3-O-glucopyranoside 5 for the fi rst time from the plant. The biological evaluation of the isolated compounds showed cytotoxic activity of 1 and 2 against PC33 and L5187Y cell lines, in addition to antibacterial activity against S.aureus , B. subtilis , E. Coli and N. gohnorea . The structures of the compounds were elucidated using 1D ( 1 H and 13C), 2D (H-H COSY, H S QC and HMBC) NMR and MS spectroscopic data.
  4,200 131 5
Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of the aqueous and the ethanolic extracts of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes in rats
L.S.R Arambewela, L.D.A.M Arawwawala, WD Ratnasooriya
December 2009, 5(20):412-418
Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) is a common medicinal plant cultivated in Asian countries including Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities of A. calcarata which are not investigated so far. This was tested in normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetic rats using oral administration of the hot water extract (HWE) and the hot ethanolic extract (HEE). In normoglycemic rats both HWE and HEE significantly lowered the blood glucose levels in a dose - dependent manner. Further, both HWE and HEE markedly improved the oral glucose tolerance in rats. The hypoglycemic activity of the HEE was generally higher than that of the HWE. However, the HWE or the HEE failed to reduce blood glucose levels of STZ - induced diabetic rats. Further, the HEE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the small intestine and increased the glycogen accumulation in both liver and skeletal muscle. It is concluded that A. calcarata rhizomes possess strong hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activities.
  4,107 117 -
Phytochemical Study and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Neuroprotective and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Activities of Galeopsis ladanum L. extracts
Pueyo I Uriarte, MI Calvo
October-December 2009, 5(20):287-290
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58146  
The antioxidant activity, neuroprotective effect and acetylcholinesterase activity of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of seeds, leaves and roots of Galeopsis ladanum L. were investigated. Ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH). Methanol and water extracts of seeds and the water extract of roots showed neuroprotective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Some dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water extracts exhibited antiacetylcholinesterase activity by TLC.
  3,680 142 3
Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Grangea maderaspatana Poir.
Veena Patel, Sangita Shukla, Sandip Patel
October-December 2009, 5(20):381-387
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58156  
The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Grangea maderaspatana Poir (Compositae). The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated using fi ve in vitro assays and was compared to standard antioxidant (Ascorbic acid). Further, Total phenolic contents of the extract were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method in order to evaluate a relationship between the antioxidant activity and the phytochemical constituents. The total phenolic content was found to be 121.45 ± 2.56 μg Gallic acid equivalent of phenol. The extract and ascorbic acid were found to have different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. Methanolic extract of Grangea maderaspatana (GMME) exhibited significant (p<0.05) reducing power ability, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) scavenging activity and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. In DPPH radical scavenging activity NO scavenging activity,H 2 O 2 scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching assay the IC 50 values obtained for GMME were found to be 46.55 ± 1.67 μg/mL,120.73 ± 0.694 μg/mL, 30.54 ± 1.11 μg/mL and 209.73 ± 4.63 μg/mL respectively and for Ascorbic acid the IC 50 values were found to be 24.96 ± 1.95 μg/mL, 236.37± 1.394 μg/mL, 57.34± 1.29 μg/mL and 339.16 ± 5.30 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant property depends upon concentration and increased with increasing amount of the extract. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the extract. The results obtained in the present study indicate that Grangea maderaspatana is a potential source of natural antioxidants.
  3,644 129 3
Discrimination Of Radix Pseudostellariae According To Geographical Origin By FT-NIR Spectroscopy And Supervised Pattern Recognition
Bang-xing Han, Nai-fu Chen, Yong Yao
October-December 2009, 5(20):279-286
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58145  
Radix Pseudostellariae is one of the most popular Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for promoting the immune system, treating asthenia after illnesses with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. Rapid discrimination of R. Pseudostellariae according to geographical origin is crucial to pharmacodynamic action control. FT-NIR spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate R. Pseudostellariae according to geographical origin in this work. LDA, ANN and SVM were used to construct the discrimination models based on PCA, respectively. The number of PCs and model parameters were optimized by crossvalidation in the constructing model. The performances of three discrimination models were compared. Experimental results showed that the performance of SVM model is the best among three models. The optimal SVM model was achieved when 5 PCs were used, discrimination rates being 100% in the training and 88% in prediction set. The overall results demonstrated that FT-NIR spectroscopy has a high potential to discriminate qualitatively R. Pseudostellariae according to geographical origins by means of an appropriate supervised pattern recognition technique.
  3,627 143 4
Effect of natural remedies on dead space wound healing in wistar rats
Pirbalouti Abdollah Ghasemi, Abed Koohpayeh, Iraj Karimi
December 2009, 5(20):433-436
The natural remedies include the chloroform extract of Malva sylvestris Linn flowers (4%), the ethanol extract of Punica granatum Linn flowers (2%), aqueous extract of Achillea kellalensis Boiss flowers (2%), and honey (2%) were used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on male Wistar rats (150-200 g) using excision and incision wound models. A 1.0×1.5-cm full thickness excision wound was made in the dorsal area of the rats. The animals were divided randomly into three groups of nine each. Group 1 was treated with nitrofurazone ointment and served as a reference standard (200 mg/kg/day); Group 2 was treated topically with the simple ointment prepared from natural remedies (200 mg/kg/day); Group 3 (control) was treated topically with the simple ointment (200 mg/kg/day). The treated animals by natural remedies showed reduction in the wound area when compared with nitrofurazone and control. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 6, 9, and 16 from natural remedies showed increased well-organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts, and a few inflammatory cells when compared with the nitrofurazone and control which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibers, and fibroblasts. Enhanced wound contraction and histological findings suggest the use of natural remedies in the management of wound-healing.
  3,521 198 -
The antioxidant activity of cocoa
Hasan Kilicgun, Dehen Altiner
October-December 2009, 5(20):298-300
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58148  
In this study we aimed to determine the antioxidant effects of Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.), which is commonly used in both chocolate and cocoa drinks all over the world , on lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glutathione (GSH) and protein oxidation levels in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) treated for male Wistar rats. Two control groups and one treatment group of rats were formed. The control groups were nourished with a standard diet, while the Cocoa group was nourished with standard diet which was enriched with % 6 by weight dried Cocoa powder. After three months, a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) was performed in Control II (CCl4 ) and Cocoa groups (1ml/kg, as 20% in olive oil) intraperitoneally and single dose of olive oil was administered (1ml/kg,i.p.) in the same way as rats in Control I group. They were sacrificed two hours later. Lipid peroxide levels in liver, protein oxidation in liver, glutathione levels in liver, ALT and AST in plasma were measured. Cocoa decreased liver lipid peroxide, liver glutathione levels and plasma ALT and AST activities previously increased by CCl4 treatment, to the Control I levels The protein oxidation levels in the rats in the Cocoa group compared with the rats in CCl4 treated control group were found to have significantly lessened. These fi ndings suggest that cocoa has strong antioxidant activity because of the fact that cocoa inhibits liver injury.
  3,443 126 2
Phenotypic variation in physico-chemical properties among cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) from Turkey
Celil Toplu, Sedat Serce, Sezai Ercisli, Onder Kamiloglu, Memnune Sengul
December 2009, 5(20):400-406
Several physico-chemical properties such as fruit weight and dimensions, skin width, external and internal fruit color, vitamin A, vitamin C, acidity, pH, soluble solid content, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of twenty five selected promising cactus pear accessions were determined. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of fruits were determined by β-Caroten bleaching and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. The results showed great qualitative and quantitative differences in the physico-chemical characteristics of cactus pear accessions. Vitamin A (beta carotene) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of genotypes were found between 2.64 and 25.13 (μg/g) and 18.04 and 37.31 mg/100 g. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of cactus pear genotypes were between 45.5-76.8% and 19.4-49.4 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight basis. The results provide important information on how to make the best use of cactus pear genotypes investigated for different uses, which is of significance for both technological research and processing practice.
  3,402 78 -
Quantitative Estimation of Berberine in Roots of Different provenances of Berberis aristata DC by HPLC and Study of their Antifungal Properties
Rashmi , A Rajasekaran, Rekha Pokhriyal, Rashmi , YP Singh
October-December 2009, 5(20):355-358
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58566  
Berberis (Family: Berberidaceae), a genus of stiff shrubs, is distributed in temperate and subtropical parts of Asia, Europe and America. Berberis aristata DC is one of the chief sources of the drug (Rasaut) which is useful in the treatment of jaundice and enlargement of spleen. Alkaloids, terpenoids, flavanoids, sterols, anthocyanins, vitamins and carotenoids have been characterized from the different parts of the plant. Berberine is considered to be its active ingredient besides palmatine, jatrorhizine, berbamine, etc. In spite of its use as an ingredient of several formulations, the precise and sensitive analytical method for quantification of berberine is not available. A precise, sensitive and reproducible method using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was developed to quantify berberine alkaloid in the root samples of B. aristata. The separation was carried out using C-18 column and mobile phase used was acetonitrile and water (1:1). The detection was performed using UV-VIS detector. The proposed method can be used for detection, monitoring and quantification of berberine in B.aristata. Differential antifungal activity against three common forest pathogens was also quantified in varied sources of B. aristata.
  3,185 157 3
Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L.) essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative
Atul Kumar Singh, Chandrabhan Seniya, Shriram Prasad
October-December 2009, 5(20):343-349
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58564  
Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea), Zea mays (Maize), Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea), Hordeum vulgare (Barley), Oryza sativa (Rice) and Sorghum vulgare (Millet) were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189) were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244) from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominant encountered in all the samples, followed by Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium species. The highest percent relative density was recorded in case of Aspergillus flavus (36.24) followed by A. niger (28.45) and C. cladosporoides (10.95) while the lowest was found in case of Trichoderma viride (1.16). Some of the A. flavus isolates were toxigenic secreting aflatoxin B 1 . The survey reveals that the contamination of food commodities with storage fungi and mycotoxin is alarming and appropriate quality control measures should be taken urgently. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. showed highest antifungal efficacy. The thyme oil absolutely inhibited the mycelial growth of A. flavus at 0.7µl ml -1 . The oil also showed significant antiaflatoxigenic efficacy as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B 1 production at 0.6µl ml -1 . Thyme oil as fungitoxicant was also found superior over most of the prevalent synthetic fungicides. The findings recommend the thyme oil as potential botanical preservative in eco-friendly control of biodeterioration of food commodities during storage.
  2,874 69 1
Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice
Arti Sharma, Veena Sharma, Leena Kansal
October-December 2009, 5(20):364-371
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58568  
Allium sativum (Meaning pungent) belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti­tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p.), showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH) and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.
  2,771 48 13
Effect of Subacute Exposure of Wrightia tinctoria Bark Extract on Hematological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Enzyme Parameters of Rat
Papiya Bigoniya, AC Rana
October-December 2009, 5(20):372-380
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58569  
Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R.Br. extensively used in the Indian system of medicine, is a small deciduous tree of the family Apocynaceae The plant is very useful as stomachic, antidysenteric, carminative, astringent, aphrodisiac and diuretic, used in the treatment of abdominal pain, skin diseases and bilious affections. This plant is reported to have fungicidal, antinociceptive, wound healing, immunomodulatory and antiulcer activity. The major phytoconstituents are triacontanol, tryptanthrin, (â-amyrin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, (â-sitosterol, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, (â-sitosterol, lupeol, wrightial, 14á-methylzymosterol desmosterol and clerosterol. A number of poly herbal formulations containing W. tinctoria is available in market for psoriasis, diarrhoea and dysentery, dandruff and for rejuvenation of joint function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sub-acute administration of W. tinctoria bark extract on some haematological, biochemical, histological and antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver and kidney following 21 and 45 days treatment. The animals were observed for gross physiological and behavioural responses, food and water intake and body weight changes. Free radical scavenging activity and histopathology was done on liver and kidney samples. W. tinctoria showed significant hemopoiesis with increase in body weight signifying anabolic effect. It significantly reduced serum SGOT level and increased glucose levels. W. tinctoria caused increased SOD activity of liver along with catalase of both liver and kidney and decreased liver peroxidase (P<0.001). These features indicate that W. tinctoria upto 1000 mg/kg daily dose is safe and has potential to be consumed for long time in management of various diseases.
  2,709 61 -
Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Genetic transformation of Abrus precatorius L
Vijai Singh Karwasara, VK Dixit
October-December 2009, 5(20):336-342
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58563  
Abrus precatorius L. known as Indian liquorice is a common deciduous vine containing sweet principle compound known as glycyrrhizin. Hence it can be used as a very good substitute for Liquorice. Genetic transformation has proved to be an effective way to enhance secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures. The transformation of Abrus precatorius L. mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes was studied using three bacterial strains i.e. MTCC 532, MTCCC 2364 and NCIM 5140. Putative hairy roots were obtained after the transformation. The effects of bacterial strains, bacterial concentration, acetosyringone and co-cultivation pH on transformation of Abrus were investigated. Co-cultivation with Strain MTCC 532 for 2 days with 100 µmol L -1 acetosyringone at pH 6.5 provided the optimal conditions under which transformation frequency approached 84%.
  2,654 63 4
Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Quantitative Estimation of Oleanolic acid as Marker in Total Methanolic extract of Fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk
Movalia Dharmishtha, Shri Hari Mishra, Gajera Falguni
October-December 2009, 5(20):350-354
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58565  
The objective of the present investigation was to develop a validated HPTLC method for the determination of oleanolic acid as marker in the Methanolic extract of fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk. Analysis of oleanolic acid was performed on TLC aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consists of Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Glacial acetic acid (7:3:0.1 v/v/v). Linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The plate was sprayed with 10% sulphuric acid, heated at 110°C and immediately scanned at 540nm using Camag TLC scanner III. The system was found to give compact spots for oleanolic acid (R f value of 0.58 ± 0.01). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 = 0.9922 ± 0.0002 in the concentration range 50-500ng per spot. The mean value (± S.D) of slope and intercept were 5.989 ± 0.0491 and 211.547 ± 4.5092 respectively. According to ICH guidelines the method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness and ruggedness. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 ng/spot and 30 ng/spot respectively. The oleanolic acid content of methanolic extracts was 3.45%. Recovery values from 99.38 - 100.79 % showed excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective. Since the proposed mobile phase effectively resolves oleanolic acid, the developed HPTLC method can be applied for identification and quantification of oleanolic acid in herbal extracts and formulations.
  2,588 76 1
Micropropogation and Organogenesis in Adhatoda vasika For The Estimation Of Vascine
Kadam Shalaka Dinesh, Sandhya Parameswaran
October-December 2009, 5(20):359-363
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58567  
Adhatoda vasika (Family: Acanthaceae) commonly known as vasaka has been used in traditional system of medicine for several respiratory tract ailments. Vasicine and vasicinone are the important alkaloids of vasaka having bronchodilatory and expectorant effect. In the present study we have tried to develop callus cultures of vasaka from leaf, petiole and nodes by using different plant growth regulator (PGR) combinations. The best PGR combination in terms of growth index, bioactive secondary metabolite content and repeatability to induce callus was determined. Secondary metabolite recovered from callus was identified using a standard sample of vasicine by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. MS medium prepared with 10.7µM NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid) and 2 .2µM 6BA (6 benzylaminopurine) showed 90% repeatability to induce callus with 7th day callus induction and secondary metabolite concentration of 3.2 % on gram dry weight basis. An attempt to increase secondary metabolite concentration using cell suspension culture was tried and a rise in alkaloidal content was obtained during a period of one month study. Organogenesis was established using nodes as an explant and shoots were observed after 18 days. The results of the present study revealed that the developed callus, shoot and root invitro cultures can be used as alternative source for production of vasaka alkaloids of pharmaceutical interest.
  2,350 38 6
Effect of Allium sativum on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase activity of Haemonchus contortus in vitro
Lakshmi K Navaneetha, L Veerakumari
December 2009, 5(20):430-432
Effect of Allium sativum bulb extract (AsBE) on the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEP) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity of Haemonchus contortus was studied.Maximum level of inhibition in both PEPCK and PK activities were observed in worms treated at 10 mg ml-1 concentration of AsBE after 8 h incubation. This inhibition in the enzyme activity affects the energy generating process, which ultimately proves fatal to the parasite.
  2,133 40 -
Megastigmane glycoside from Ludwigia Stolonifera
Abou El-Hamd, H Mohamed, Adila E Mohamed, Abeer M Ismail, Magdi A El-sayed, Mohamed J Sheded
October-December 2009, 5(20):306-308
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58150  
Ludwigia genus belongs to family Onagraceae, is an edible medicinal plant and is also used as a vegetable by the local people in Southwestern China. Some species of this plant, has been used as a traditional treatment for edema, nephritis, and hypertension. Phytochemical study of the CH2 Cl2 : MeOH (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Ludwigia stolonifera afforded a megastigmane glycoside named, roseoside. The structure was determined by comprehensive NMR studies including DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and MS.
  1,970 41 -
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