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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Protective effects of quercetin on liver injury induced by ethanol
Xi Chen
April-June 2010, 6(22):135-141
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62900  PMID:20668581
Quercetin, a natural compound of multiple origins, has broad biopharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, directly scavenging free radical, and hepatoprotectivity effects. This study is designed to investigate the interveneous effect of quercetin on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats. The rats that were orally treated with 50% ethanol for continuous ten days, which resulted in cell necrosis, fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration, were included in this study. Higher contents of AST, ALT ADH, γ-GT, TG in plasma and MDA in liver tissue, and lower content of GSH in liver tissue were highlighted in ethanol-treated rats when compared with healthy ones. The levels of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in rats plasma were also significantly enhanced, and level of IL-10 was obviously lowered through ethanol treatment. By preventive and synchronism treatment with quercetin for fourteen days, the contents of AST, ALT ADH, γ-GT, TG and MDA, and levels of IL-1β, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were significantly reduced, whereas GSH and level of IL-10 were obviously increased. It may be deduced that quercetin, by multiple mechanisms interplay, demonstrated somewhat protective effect on liver injury induced by ethanol in rats.
  40 7,535 285
Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves
AM Metwally, AA Omar, FM Harraz, SM El Sohafy
July-September 2010, 6(23):212-218
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66939  PMID:20931082
Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-b-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds.
  38 13,554 403
Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Saideh Davoodi
October-December 2010, 6(24):309-314
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71799  PMID:21120034
Background: Saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of Crocus sativus flowers. It is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food as a perfume. It is often used for treating several diseases. We investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of saffron to induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in cultured carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells in comparison with non-malignant (L929) cells. Materials and Methods: Both cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron at various concentrations for two consecutive days. Our study resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, such as loss of cell viability, morphology changes that were evaluated by MTT assay and invert-microscope, respectively. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of saffron decreased cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the lung cancer cell line were determined as 1500 and 565 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. However, the extract at different concentrations could not significantly decrease the cell viability in L929 cells. Morphology of MCF7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the MTT results. Conclusion: We also showed that even higher concentrations of saffron is safe for L929, but the extract exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a lung cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer.
  38 6,999 124
Anticancer and antiradical scavenging activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae)
AH Adebayo, NH Tan, AA Akindahunsi, GZ Zeng, YM Zhang
January-March 2010, 6(21):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59968  PMID:20548938
Ageratum conyzoides has been used in folklore for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In the present investigation, the in vitro activity of ethanol, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, butanol, and water extracts of A. conyzoides were screened in some cancer cell lines using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. These cell lines include: Human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A-549), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human golima (U-251), human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), human prostate carcinoma (DU-145), human hepatic carcinoma (BEL-7402), and mouse leukemia (P-388) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, kaempferol was isolated from the ethylacetate extract and the structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. The effect of DPPH antiradical activity on the extracts and kaempferol was also determined. The results showed that ethylacetate extract exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity on A-549 and P-388 cancer cells with IC 50 values of 0.68 and 0.0003 µg/ml, respectively. Kaempferol isolated from the ethylacetate extract of A. conyzoides rapidly scavenged DPPH at a concentration of 130.07 ±17.36 g/kg. The result therefore showed that A. conyzoides possessed anticancer and antiradical properties.
  36 14,179 407
Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family
Maryam Shekarchi, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Morteza Pirali Hamedani
January-March 2012, 8(29):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.93316  
Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g -1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .
  34 10,798 313
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars
Sadiye Gözlekçi, Onur Saraçoglu, Ebru Onursal, Mustafa Özgen
April-June 2011, 7(26):161-164
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80681  PMID:21716925
The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.
  34 6,670 23
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara linn
Erlanio O Sousa, Natalya F Silva, Fabiola F.G Rodrigues, Adriana R Campos, Sidney G Lima, Jose Galberto M Costa
April-June 2010, 6(22):79-82
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62890  PMID:20668570
In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7Χ, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity.
  32 5,949 263
RESEARCH ARTICLES
In vitro Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Diospyros lotus and Pyrus boissieriana growing in Iran
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Mojtaba Fazelian, Bahman Eslami
April-June 2009, 5(18):122-126
Current research into free radicals has confirmed that foods rich in antioxidants play an essential role in the prevention of many diseases. The potential antioxidant activities of Diospyros lotus and Pyrus boissieriana fruits investigated employing six in vitro assay systems. IC 50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 1.45 ± 0.03 for D. lotus and 3.0 ± 0.04 mg ml -1 for P. boissieriana, respectively. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging and Fe 2* chelating ability activity. The D. lotus extracts was better than P. boissieriana. The peroxidation inhibition of D. lotus and P. boissieriana extracts exhibited values from 89 (at 24 th ) to 94% (at 72 nd hrs) and 91 to 95% respectively. Neither of them showed good scavenging activity of H 2 0 2 . The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extracts was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Both of them had high total phenolic and flavonoid contents.
  32 8,289 198
Sambucus ebulus elburensis fruits: A good source for antioxidants
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Somayyeh Ehsanifar, Bahman Eslami
July-September 2009, 5(19):213-218
The antioxidant activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Sambucus Ebulus (SE) was examined employing various in vitro assay systems, i.e. DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power, linoleic acid and iron ion chelating power. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 202.50 ± 1.38 for aqueous extract (SW) and 723.62 ± 3.36 μg ml-1 for methanol extract (SM). Reducing powers of all the extracts also increased with the increase of their concentrations. Both of them exhibited a weak reducing power at 25-800 μg ml-1. The SW extract had shown better reducing power than SM. Tested extracts exhibited week Fe2+ chelating ability. Both extracts exhibited high antioxidant activity. There were no significant differences between them in peroxidation inhibition. SW extracts manifested better pattern of activity than Vitamin C and BHA at different incubation times. SE fruit extracts exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the models studied. The SE extracts had good reductive capability for anti-lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide-scavenging activity. Aqueous extract had higher total phenol and flavonoid contents than methanol extract.
  31 5,187 130
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity
Vadivel Arulmozhi, Mani Krishnaveni, Kandhan Karthishwaran, Ganesan Dhamodharan, Sankaran Mirunalini
January-March 2010, 6(21):42-50
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59965  PMID:20548935
The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/ kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.
  30 12,317 348
Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae)
Saeideh Momtaz, Namrita Lall, Ahmed Hussein, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Abdollahi
January-March 2010, 6(21):34-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59964  PMID:20548934
The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured 'Hela cells'. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 µg/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of 37.7 µg/ml on the viability of 'HeLa cells' using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: 'Tutin' and 'hyenanchin' were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant ( P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were used. F.E showed significant anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity effects, therefore it can be considered as an effective inhibitor alone or in combination with other plant extracts.
  28 5,899 154
Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts
KS Sim, AM Sri Nurestri, AW Norhanom
July-September 2010, 6(23):248-254
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66945  PMID:20931088
The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as "Jarum Tujuh Bilah" in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and b-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau's method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in b-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia.
  28 8,870 315
Correlation between antioxidant effect mechanisms and polyphenol content of Rosa canina
Hasan Kilicgun, Dehen Altiner
July-September 2010, 6(23):238-241
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66943  PMID:20931086
Rosa canina L. is a member of Rosaceae family, which is well-known for its high phenolic contents. These compounds are known to possess antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. However, they have yet to pass controlled clinical trials for efficacy, and their potential for prooxidant activity is an understudied field of research. In order to estimate the correlations between phenolic contents and antioxidant/proxidant effect mechanisms, different concentrations of R. canina fruit extracts were examined in this study. R. canina showed antioxidant activities at all concentrations with respect to the reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging (O2·-) activity assays, whereas a negative correlation was observed with the metal ion chelating activity and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) % inhibition] assays at higher concentrations with the phenolic content of R. canina. These results suggest that R. canina may act not only as an antioxidant, but also as a prooxidant with the effects depending on its concentrations.
  26 10,956 227
A validated high performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of thymol and carvacrol in Thymus vulgaris L. volatile oil
H Hajimehdipoor, M Shekarchi, M Khanavi, N Adib, M Amri
July-September 2010, 6(23):154-158
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66927  PMID:20931071
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant that contains important compounds such as thymol and carvacrol and it has been used in many pharmaceutical dosage forms. Thymol and carvacrol in essential oils are often quantified by gas chromatography (GC) technique but in this work, a validated and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of these two components in T. vulgaris essential oil. The essential oil of the plant was analyzed by HPLC and GC techniques. The HPLC system consisted of ACE C 18 column and an isocratic acetonitrile:water (50:50) as the mobile phase which was kept at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.997 for both thymol and carvacrol), precision (intra-day 0.8-1.9, 1.7-2.6; and inter-day 3.5-4.5, 3.6-4.7) and recovery (97.7%, 97.6%) for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantization (LOQs) were calculated to be 2.8, 0.6 μg/ml and 8.6, 1.8 μg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The GC system consisted of flame ionization detector (FID) and CP-SIL 8 column. The concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in essential oil obtained by HPLC (41.2%, 4.3%) and GC (40.7%, 4.2%) were compared by statistical methods and they showed good agreement.
  25 14,845 592
A validated method for analysis of Swerchirin in Swertia longifolia Boiss. by high performance liquid chromatography
M Shekarchi, H Hajimehdipoor, M Khanavi, N Adib, M Bozorgi, B Akbari-Adergani
January-March 2010, 6(21):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59961  PMID:20548931
Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae) grow widely in the eastern and southern Asian countries and are used as traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. Swerchirin, one of the xanthones in Swertia spp., has many pharmacological properties, such as, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic, and hypoglycemic effects. Because of the pharmacological importance of Swerchirin in this investigation, it was purified from Swertia longifolia Boiss. as one of the main components and quantified by means of a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with acetone 80%. Phenolic and non-phenolic constituents of the extract were separated from each other during several processes. The phenolic fraction was injected into the semi-preparative HPLC system, which consisted of a C 18 column and a gradient methanol: 0.1% formic acid mode. Using this method, we were able to purify six xanthones from the plant, in order to use them as standard materials. The analytical method was validated for Swerchirin as one of the most important components of the plant, with more pharmacological activities according to the validation parameters, such as, selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.9998), precision (≤3.3), and accuracy, which were measured by the determination of recovery (98-107%). The limits of detection and quantization were found to be 2.1 and 6.3 µg/mL, respectively. On account of the speed and accuracy, the UV-HPLC method may be used for quantitative analysis of Swerchirin.
  24 4,956 167
Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from Hypericum species growing in Bulgaria
Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Paraskev Nedialkov, Gerassim Kitanov
April-June 2010, 6(22):74-78
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62889  PMID:20668569
Thirteen Hypericum species growing in Bulgaria were investigated for free radical-scavenging activity, antioxidant activity, total tannins and total flavonoids contents. Methanolic extracts from the Hypericum species were analyzed for radical scavenging and antioxidant activities using DPPH-, ABTS- free radicals, total antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method. Butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid were used as positive controls. Methanolic extracts from H. cerastoides, H. perforatum and H. maculatum demonstrate the highest antioxidant activities and are potential sources of natural antioxidant compounds. The quantification of tannins and flavanoids were determined in Hypericum species using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent and AlCl3, respectively. The amounts of the tannins ranged from 1.30 ± 0.01 mg/100 g dw in H. elegans to 8.67 ± 0.02 g/100 g dw in H. perforatum. The highest concentration of flavonoids was found in H. cerastoides (1.22 ± 0.02 g/100g dw), and the lowest amount was established in H. olympicum (0.20 ± 0.03 g/100g dw).
  24 7,626 684
Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.) accessions
Mustafa Ozgen, Joseph C Scheerens, R Neil Reese, Raymond A Miller
July-September 2010, 6(23):198-203
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66936  PMID:20931079
Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L.) obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%); individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively). TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93), although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70-0.85). Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles.
  24 10,133 420
Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves
Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz, Renato Péres-Roses, Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita, Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo, Jesús Rodríguez-Amado, Irina Licea-Jiménez
July-September 2010, 6(23):242-247
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66944  PMID:20931087
Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.
  24 13,139 269
Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill.
Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
October-December 2011, 7(28):325-333
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.90414  
Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1­ diphenyl­2­picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2Ͳ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high level of radical scavenging activity by ethanol and methanol whole leaf extracts of A. ferox with higher antioxidant activities than acetone and aqueous extracts. The significant differences show that the whole leaf extract could be used as a potent antioxidant in medicine and food industries.
  24 8,611 181
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Antidiabetic Effect and Antioxidant Potential of Rosa canina Fruits
N Orhan, M Aslan, S Hosbas, Orhan D Deliorman
October-December 2009, 5(20):309-315
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58151  
Rosa canina L. fruits (Rosaceae) are used to treat diabetes in Anatolia traditionally. In this study, the ethanol extract of R. canina fruits and its fractions were screened for their antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities. The ethanol extract that was administered for 7 days possessed a remarkable hypoglycemic effect at 250 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Then it was fractionated through successive solvent extractions to yield CHCl 3 Fr., EtOAc Fr., n -BuOH Fr. and R-H 2 O Fr. respectively. These fractions were administrated to normal plus glucose hyperglycemic rats. Additionally the subacute antidiabetic activities of the fractions were studied in diabetic rats for 7 days. The experimental data indicated that R-H 2 O Fr. Possessed significant antidiabetic activity (50-62%) in diabetic rats. Also, a minor hypoglycemic effect was observed in normoglycemic plus glucose-hyperglycemic animals treated with R-H 2 O Fr. (15%). In vitro antioxidant experiments revealed that EtOAc Fr. Showed the highest radical scavenging activity on DPPH (79.5±0.4%), whereas CHCl 3 Fr. exhibited the maximum reducing power. The highest total phenolic content was observed in CHCl 3 Fr. (18.5±0.6% gallic acid equivalent g/g fraction) but no correlation was observed between the antidiabetic activity of fractions and their phenolic contents. Our findings support the traditional usage of R. canina fruits as a folk remedy in the treatment of diabetes in Turkey.
  24 9,447 374
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line
Mahnaz Khanavi, Razieh Gheidarloo, Nargess Sadati, Mohammad Reza Shams Ardekani, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Nabavi, Shohreh Tavajohi, Seyed Nasser Ostad
January-March 2012, 8(29):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.93327  
Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl 3 ), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH-H 2 O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC 50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC 50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml) and MeOH-H 2 O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC 50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC 50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC 50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines.
  23 6,020 141
Curcumin increases rat mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation but inhibits adipocyte differentiation
Qiaoli Gu, Yan Cai, Chen Huang, Qin Shi, Huilin Yang
July-September 2012, 8(31):202-208
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.99285  PMID:23060694
Background: Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and has effects on bone health and fat formation. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Osteoblast differentiation of MSCs can be a result of upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Curcumin can potently induce HO-1 expression. Objective: The present study describes the effects of curcumin on rat MSC (rMSCs) differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Materials and Methods: Rat bone marrow MSCs were isolated and treated with or without curcumin. Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralized nodule formation, the expression of Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) and osteocalcin. Adipocyte differentiation was determined by Oil red O staining and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (PPARγ2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α. Results: Curcumin increased ALP activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin when rMSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium. In contrast, curcumin decreased adipocyte differentiation and inhibited adipocyte-specific mRNA expression of PPARγ2 and C/EBPα when rMSCs were cultured in adipogenic medium. HO-1 expression was increased during osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that curcumin can promote osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs and inhibit adipocyte formation. The effect of curcumin on osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs is correlated with HO-1 expression.
  23 6,699 137
Acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia in mice
KS Sim, AM Sri Nurestri, SK Sinniah, KH Kim, AW Norhanom
January-March 2010, 6(21):67-70
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59969  PMID:20548939
Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, belonging to the botanical family Cactaceae, have been traditionally used by the locals in Malaysia for treatment of various ailments. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia, on ICR mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in ICR mice following acute oral administration at the highest dose of 2500 mg/ kg crude extracts of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia and the findings of this study are in agreement with those of in vitro experiments and thus provide scientific validation on the use of the leaves of Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia.
  22 7,348 208
Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method
Shuge Tian, Yang Shi, Qian Yu, Halmurat Upur
April-June 2010, 6(22):116-119
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62898  PMID:20668577
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C 18 column (150 Χ 4.6 mm, 10 ΅m, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 μl. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4~1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6~1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3%(RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples.
  22 7,945 290
Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract of the leaves of Satureja macrostema
Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez, Yoja Teresa Gallardo Navarro
April-June 2010, 6(22):125-131
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62901  PMID:20668579
Satureja Macrostema is used both as a functional food and as a drug. In this study, the antioxidative potential of the methanol extract of Satureja Macrostema (SM) was evaluated using various antioxidant assays, including DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity. Total phenolic and flavonoid content of SM was also determined by a colorimetric method. The extract exhibited powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity as well as a moderate effect on NO and superoxide anions. The protective effects of methanol extract of SM were studied in carbon tetrachloride-reduced biochemical markers of hepatic injury such as glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum bilirubin, cholesterol alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. The increased level of HDL demonstrated dose dependant reduction in the in vivo peroxidation induced by CCl4. SM could protect from paracetamol-induced lipid peroxidation eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from paracetamol. Degree of protection was measured by using biochemical parameters such as serum transaminase (GOT and GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and bilirubin. Hexane and chloroform extracts did not show any effects. Results obtained in the present study suggest that S. Macrostema elicits hepatoprotectivity through antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats.
  22 6,594 256
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