Year : 2010 | Volume
: 6 | Issue : 22 | Page : 106--110
Rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft extract by spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Minxia Zheng1, Jie Shen1, Kai Yang2, Songxiang Qian1, Sujuan Feng1,
1 Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Zhejiang Province, No. 54 Youdian Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province - 310 006, P.R, China
2 The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University, No. 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province - 310 003, P.R, China
Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Zhejiang Province, No. 54 Youdian Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province - 310 006, P.R
A simple approach for the rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract using spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed. The mixed standard solution composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, galactose and D-xylose in different proportions (1.00: 1.01: 0.12: 0.05) was prepared according to the monosaccharide composition analysis of the polysaccharides by GC-MS. The determination of polysaccharides by UV-Vis spectrophotometer was performed after 35-min color reaction, in which 1 ml 5% phenol and 4 ml sulfate was used. The assay of the method validation has shown that the method was stable, reliable and feasible. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied in the preparation procedure of BianTi Soft Extract, selecting out optimal decoction conditions and suitable decoction container. It suggests that the convenient method could be useful for the quality control of BianTi Soft Extract. Meanwhile, it may be an alternative for polysaccharides determination of other formulations.
|How to cite this article:|
Zheng M, Shen J, Yang K, Qian S, Feng S. Rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft extract by spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Phcog Mag 2010;6:106-110
|How to cite this URL:|
Zheng M, Shen J, Yang K, Qian S, Feng S. Rapid determination of polysaccharides in BianTi Soft extract by spectrophotometry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Aug 11 ];6:106-110
Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2010/6/22/106/62895
Soft Extract is a well-known traditional medicinal formulation available in most areas of China. Various types of Soft Extract have been used in different prescriptions for different purposes. They can effectively cure sub-health state, resist sickness and keep physical fitness. BianTi Soft Extract is a representative of traditional Chinese prescriptions for the regulation and improvement of immune function. It is composed of classical herbal medicines, including Ginkgo biloba, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Semen Coicis, Fructus Crataegi, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and Fructus Jujubae; polysaccharides have emerged as an important class of bioactive components in this formulation. Recently, polysaccharides have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities, , such as anti-tumor, , immunostimulation,  anti-inflammation, , anti-complement,  anti-oxidation, , anti-coagulation,  anti-fatigue,  and enhancement of probiotic bacteria growth. 
Polysaccharides are the main bioactive components in BianTi Soft Extract, and the constituents are various and mostly unknown. It is necessary to investigate the content of polysaccharides for the evaluation of quality control of BianTi Soft Extract. Various methods have been developed for the chemical analysis of polysaccharides, including GC-MS, HPLC-MS, CE-DAD, NMR and so on. ,,, However, most researches are focused on seperation, detection and identification of these compositions, and the methodologies are complicated, abstruse and time-consuming. Also, they are not suitable and convenient for the determination of total polysaccharides.
In view of the above drawbacks, this research was performed with the objective of developing a simple method for polysaccharides determination and applying it into the preparation procedure of BianTi Soft Extract. Moreover, monosaccharide composition of total polysaccharides from this formulation is also studied so that an accurate content of polysaccharides could be obtained.
Materials and Methods
Reagents and Chemicals
Standard monosaccharides (with a purity of 99%), including D-glucose, galactose, D-xylose and D-mannose, were purchased from Aladdin Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products (Beijing, China),. Sulfate and phenol were of analytical grade and obtained from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China). Trifluoroacetic acid (CP) and heptane (AR) were also from Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. Isopropanol and methanol were of HPLC grade and were from Tianjin Shield Company (Tianjin, China). Derivatization reagents (MSTFA and TMCS) and pyridine were of analytical grade and obtained from Sigma Aldrich Fluka (Fluka, U.S.A.). Samples of BianTi Soft Extract were produced by the Pharmacy of Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Zhejiang Province.
Analysis of monosaccharide composition was performed on the Agilent Technologies 6890N Network gas chromatograph equipped with an Agilent Technologies 5973 Network quadrupole mass selective spectrometer and ZB-5MS (Phenomenex) capillary columns (30 m Χ 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness). Determination of total polysaccharides was performed on the TU-1901 Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Beijing purkinje general instrument Co., Ltd.).
Preparation of sample solution for GC-MS analysis
Total polysaccharides of BianTi Soft Extract were obtained by dialysis with semi-permeable membrane (MW 3500). The supernatant obtained after total hydrolysis of polysaccharides was incubated with 2 M Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) at 120°C for 2 h.  Then, the supernatant (0.4 ml) was spiked with isopropanol (50 μl) and methanol (50 μl), centrifuged by Thermo Savant SPD121P to dryness. Residues were spiked with pyridine (150 μl) and derivatization reagents (MSTFA: TMCS = 100: 1, v/v, 100 μl). Then derivatization was performed at 70°C for 2 h. Derivatives were diluted with 100 μl heptane and filtrated through the 0.45 μm filter before GC-MS analysis.
Preparation of sample solution for spectrophotometry analysis
A total of 0.1 ml sample was diluted to 1.5 ml with H 2 O, and then this mixture was spiked with 1 ml phenol (5%) and 4 ml H 2 SO 4 . Color reaction was performed at 30°C for 35 min. 5% Phenol was freshly prepared in our laboratory.
Preparation of standard solution for polysaccharides determination
Standard stock solution was prepared in the mixed monosaccharide formation according to the GC-MS data of monosaccharide composition. The standard solution was also spiked with 5% phenol (1 ml) and H 2 SO 4 (4 ml) for color reaction at 30 °C for 35 min before spectrophotometer analysis. The blank control was prepared in the same way.
GC-MS conditions in this assay are described as follows: Helium was used as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.0 ml•min -1 . The temperature of the injector was 270 °C, and the sample (0.2 μl) was injected in the splitless mode. The column temperature was set at 75 °C, and ramped at 8 °C•min-1 to 125 °C, hold for 5 min. Then the temperature was ramped at 7 °C•min -1 to 220 °C, hold for 2 min. Finally, the temperature was ramped to 280 °C at a rate of 10 °C•min -1 , hold for 3 min. The tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in electron impact (EI) mode and full scan monitoring mode (m/z 50-800). The quadrupole temperature was set at 75 °C, the source temperature at 230 °C, and the electron energy at 70 eV.
Spectrophotometry conditions in the assay were 200-600 nm as its full-scan wavelength, with the slow scanning speed 2 nm as the broadband spectrum and 488 nm as the detection wavelength.
The linearity and range of the analytical procedure were determined by serial dilution of standard stock solution. The calibration curves were constructed by the ratios between the absorbance of serial standard solutions and their concentrations. The precision was evaluated both intra-day and inter-day by the analysis of the standard solution of middle concentration and the data was compared after six consecutive runs (intra-day) and over a six-day period (inter-day). To validate the accuracy of this method, the recovery experiments were performed by adding accurate amounts of standard solution to the samples at low, middle and high concentrations, respectively. Repeatability of the method was examined by six duplicate samples, treated in the same preparation and analyzed under the same condition. The stability experiments of the color reaction were performed on both the standard solution and the sample solution, and then evaluated by the absorbance at six time points during 35 min to 90 min after the reaction.
Results and Discussion
Analysis of monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract
The information regarding monosaccharide composition was acquired by GC-MS analysis, with the NIST v188.8.131.52 mass spectra library for the identification of compounds. The total polysaccharides in BianTi Soft Extract were mainly composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, galactose, D-xylose, heptulose, D-ribose and D-galactofuranose [Figure 1]A and B. The relative mass ratios of the monosaccharides were obtained by calculating the ratios between the peak area of each monosaccharide and the peak area of D-glucose. The results are listed in [Table 1]. Thus, the standard stock solution could be prepared according to the data gained. They were composed of D-glucose, D-mannose, galactose and D-xylose in different proportions (1.00: 1.01: 0.12: 0.05), thereby making the determination of polysaccharides more accurate.
Investigation on the conditions of polysaccharides determination by spectrophotometer
Color reaction was the most important procedure in the polysaccharides determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Sulfate and phenol were the reagents for color development in the assay. The dosage of 5% phenol was 1.0 ml and sulfate dosage (2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 ml) should be selected for the optimal use of the color reaction. As a result, 4 ml sulfate made the standard solution to exhibit the maximal absorbance in the experiments [Figure 2]A. The time of color reaction (15, 25, 35, 45 min) was also selected and the absorbance after 35 and 45 min were almost the same; moreover, the values were larger than that after 15 and 25 min [Figure 2]B. Therefore, the determination of polysaccharides should be performed after 35 min of the color reaction.
The mean correlation coefficients (R2) of the calibration curves, which were higher than 0.9968, showed good linearity of the method in the range of 13.35 - 46.73 μg•ml-1 (calculation of D-glucose). The precisions were evaluated as RSD values 0.07% for intra-day assay and 4.81% for inter-day assay, confirming that the method had good precisions. The results of the accuracy test showed that the recovery of low, middle and high concentrations were in the range of 91.1 - 106.2%, within 100 ± 10% to validate this method. The RSD value of reproducibility was below 3.98%, which indicated the good repeatability of the method. The stability test of the color reaction, which included standard solution and sample solution, gave a good result. The RSD values were 0.31% and 1.53% for the standard solution and the sample solution respectively, showing that it was stable for the polysaccharides determination during 35 to 90 min after the reaction [Figure 3]. Therefore, it can be concluded that the method was stable, reliable and feasible.
Analysis of decoction engineering of BianTi Soft Extract
Addition of general water, decocting time and frequency of decoction were the major factors in herbal decoction procedure. These three factors and three-level orthogonal experiment were analyzed by determining the content of polysaccharides in this assay. The data acquired were used in the ANOVA so that the optimal decoction conditions of BianTi Soft Extract could be obtained. The results are shown in [Table 2]. The frequency of decoction had a greater impact on the content of polysaccharides than the other two, with the R values 5.78>4.53>2.89. Moreover, all the three factors affected the content of polysaccharides if PPSelection of appropriate decoction container of BianTi Soft Extract
Porcelain pot, purple casserole and stainless steel pot were often used as decoction containers for Soft Extract in most areas of China. Containers were considered to affect the content of active ingredients in soft extract. In this assay, three kinds of containers including porcelain pot, purple casserole and stainless steel pot were compared with each other to find out the most suitable pot for BianTi Soft Extract. The results indicated that the highest content of polysaccharides was detected with the purple casserole, whose value was 27.43 μg•ml-1. However, it was only 10.02 μg•ml-1 and 13.15 μg•ml-1 with the porcelain pot and the stainless steel pot, respectively. Therefore, it was suggested to use the purple casserole as the decoction container of BianTi Soft Extract.
In this study, an optimized method was established and validated for polysaccharides determination in BianTi Soft Extract. GC-MS-based method was useful and reliable for identifying compounds such as monosaccharides, providing a powerful tool for the analysis of monosaccharide composition. Therefore, the standard monosaccharides solution prepared in different proportions make an accurate determination of polysaccharides. The proposed method was applied in the preparation of BianTi Soft Extract, selecting out the optimal decoction conditions and the suitable decoction container. It suggested that the developed method could be sucessfully applied to the quality control of BianTi Soft Extract. Furthermore, it may be an alternative for polysaccharides determination of other formulations and is of great importance for the rapid determination of unknown compounds using GC-MS coupled with spectrophotometry.
|1||Richards MR, Lowary TL. Chemistry and biology of galactofuranose-containing polysaccharides. Chembiochem 2009;10:1920-38.|
|2||Luo A, He X, Zhou S, Fan Y, He T, Chun Z. In vitro antioxidant activities of a water-soluble polysaccharide derived from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. extracts. Int J Biol Macromol 2009;45:359-63. |
|3||Wang L, Huang H, Wei Y, Li X, Chen Z. Characterization and anti-tumor activities of sulfated polysaccharide SRBPS2a obtained from defatted rice bran. Int J Biol Macromol 2009;45:427-31.|
|4||Li J, Bao Y, Lam W, Li W, Lu F, Zhu X, et al. Immunoregulatory and anti-tumor effects of polysaccharopeptide and Astragalus polysaccharides on tumor-bearing mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2008;30:771-82.|
|5||Tzianabos A, Wang JY, Kasper DL. Biological chemistry of immunomodulation by Zwitterionic polysaccharides. Carbohydr Res 2003;338:2531-8.|
|6||Koetzner L, Grover G, Boulet J, Jacoby HI. Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat. Dig Dis Sci 2009 in press. |
|7||Padilha MM, Avila AA, Sousa PJ, Cardoso LG, Perazzo FF, Carvalho JC. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill). J Med Food 2009;12:359-64.|
|8||Tomoda M, Hirabayashi K, Shimizu N, Gonda R, Ohara N, Takada K. Characterization of two novel polysaccharides having immunological activities from the root of Panax ginseng. Biol Pharm Bull 1993;16:1087-90.|
|9||Li SP, Zhang GH, Zeng Q, Huang ZG, Wang YT, Dong TT, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide, with antioxidation, isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Phytomedicine 2006;13:428-33. |
|10||Li SP, Zhao KJ, Ji ZN, Song ZH, Dong TT, Lo CK, et al. A polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury. Life Sci 2003;73:2503-13.|
|11||Sen AK Sr, Das AK, Banerji N, Siddhanta AK, Mody KH, Ramavat BK, et al. A new sulfated polysaccharide with potent blood anti-coagulant activity from the red seaweed Grateloupia indica. Int J Biol Macromol 1994;16:279-80.|
|12||Li X, Zhang H, Xu H. Analysis of chemical components of shiitake Polysaccharides and its anti-fatigue effect under vibration. Int J Biol Macromol 2009;45:377-80.|
|13||Courtois J. Oligosaccharides from land plants and algae: Production and applications in therapeutics and biotechnology. Curr Opin Microbiol 2009;12:261-73.|
|14||Lee HH, Lee JS, Cho JY, Kim YE, Hong EK. Structural characteristics of immunostimulating polysaccharides from lentinus edodes. J Microbiol Biotechnol 2009;19:455-61.|
|15||Hilz H, de Jong LE, Kabel MA, Schols HA, Voragen AG. A comparison of liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry methods to determine xyloglucan structures in black currants. J Chromatogr A 2006;1133:275-86.|
|16||Ritchie MA, Gill AC, Deery MJ, Lilley K. Precursor ion scanning for detection and structural characterization of heterogeneous glycopeptide mixtures. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2002;13:1065-77.|
|17||Evsenko MS, Shashkov AS, Avtonomova AV, Krasnopolskaya LM, Usov AI. Polysaccharides of basidiomycetes. alkali-soluble polysaccharides from the mycelium of white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2009;74:533-42.|
|18||Zhao G, Kan J, Li Z, Chen Z. Structural features and immunological activity of a polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb roots. Carbohydr Polym 2005;61:125-31.|