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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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Apr-Jun 2021
Volume 17 | Issue 74
Page Nos. 209-398

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Characterization of secondary metabolites in different parts of Ocimum gratissimum L. by in vitro antioxidant activity and high-performance liquid chromatography–diode-array detector analysis Highly accessed article p. 209
Sharmistha Ganguly, Jyoti Kumar, Tapan Seal
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_550_20  
Background: Ocimum gratissimum L. (OG) has medicinal importance, especially in the treatment of epilepsy, fever, diarrhea, mental illness, etc., Objectives: The present study focused on evaluation of the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and reducing and antioxidizing activities from methanolic extract of different plant parts, namely leaves, stem, roots, and flowers of OG. Materials and Methods: The quantification of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The results revealed that the root extract showed the highest phenolic content (323.93 ± 2.062 μg/mg) and reducing property (150.57 ± 1.76 μg/mg), whereas the highest flavonoid content was found in leaves 72.09 ± 1.269 μg/mg. The highest radical scavenging activity (68.12% ± 0.527%) was observed for the root extract in 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Similar significant results were observed by 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) method as well for all investigated extracts. HPLC–diode-array detector analysis was done to find the secondary metabolite composition of the methanol extracts which lead to the characterization of different flavonoids and phenolic acids in OG extracts. Conclusion: These results showed that this species can be a source of phenolic compounds and antioxidants, thereby suggesting it for consumption as a source of natural food antioxidant to help hinder against various detrimental effects of reactive species-induced ailments.
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Therapeutic targets and biological mechanisms of curcumol on atherosclerosis: A study based on network pharmacology approach and biological studies p. 216
Baolian Ma, Shilin Yang, Junmao Li, Zhiqi Wen, Hui Ouyang, Wugang Zhang, Yulin Feng, Mingzhen He
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_336_20  
Background: Atherosclerosis is an extremely predominant condition. The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ailments caused by atherosclerosis have augmented significantly in recent years. The discovery and research of new drugs are therefore obligatory and will be cooperative in the clinical treatment and management of atherosclerosis. Objective: Curcumol extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) E-Zhu (Curcumae Rhizoma), is one of the chief bioactive ingredients of Curcuma oil (a marketed drug in China). Materials and Methods: To classify core targets and discover the main biological mechanisms of curcumol against atherosclerosis, a network pharmacology tactic was commenced for data mining, and biological experiments were engaged for validation. Results: Absorption, metabolism and excretion screening using TCM Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform server, target forecast using public databases, protein-protein interaction network analysis using the STRING database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis were engaged to examine the potential mechanisms of curcumol on atherosclerosis. On the basis of data mining, 10 core targets and related pathways were recognized. Furthermore, the key target signaling pathways, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, and JAK2/STAT3, were authenticated using biological studies. Conclusion: Curcumol could improve atherosclerosis by reducing the formation of foam cells; the mechanism of action was ascribed to the downregulation of IL-6 expression, upregulation of IL-10 expression and inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway. Therefore, this study will be a basis for further study of the biological roles of curcumol on atherosclerosis.
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Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile components and quality identification of amomi fructus based on bionic olfactory system p. 223
Huaying Zhou, Zhong Li, Dehan Luo, Hamid Gholamhosseini, Bin Han, Hexian Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_187_20  
Background: Amomi fructus (AF) (a dried fruit of Amomum villosum Lour.) has been used in the treatment of digestive diseases such as abdominal pain and dysentery and in the prevention of abortion. The active ingredient of AF is its volatile oil. The volatile oil contains bornyl acetate and (1R,4R)-(+)-camphor, which are the primary active ingredients of AF that are analyzed for the quality assessment. Therefore, it is important to find an accurate and easy method to analyze the aforementioned volatile components of AF. Materials and Methods: In this study, 8 samples (A1–A4, B5 and B6, and C7 and C8) were collected and divided into Grades A, B, and C, respectively. The characteristics of volatile oils (the aroma) in these samples were analyzed using an electronic nose (E-nose) and a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In this study, we proposed a bionic olfactory system based on E-nose technology combined with a convolutional neural network algorithm for component identification. This system can qualitatively evaluate AF from different quality grades and quantitatively predict the contents of the two aforementioned primary chemical components. Results: The accuracy of qualitative identification was over 95% for Grade A samples and over 90% for Grade B and Grade C samples. Discussion: Based on our identification of the quality, Grade A samples were detected with an accuracy of 86.7%. However, Grade B and C samples were identified with lower accuracies (80% and 73.3%, respectively). Conclusion: The identification of quality of AF was successfully evaluated by two primary volatile components: bornyl acetate and (1R,4R)-(+)-camphor. The bionic olfactory system combined with an appropriate prediction model might be used as a potential quality control tool for Chinese herbal medicines.
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Costunolide attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in mouse brain slice through inhibiting caspase expression p. 231
Huixia Ma, Yafei Zhu, Zhengjun Zhang, Xinhui Zhang, Qipeng Zhao
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_360_20  
Background: Costunolide (Co) has anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, and anti-ulcer effects, it has the budding effect of anti-apoptosis. This study was intended to explicate its inhibitory effect on caspase in a mice brain slices injury model. Materials and Methods: The maestro 11.1 software was employed to envisage the binding sites of Co with Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Caspase-7. Oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) method was employed to persuade mouse brain slice injury in vitro. Purpose of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture medium and 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of brain slices for the assessment of injury degree. The expression of Cytochrome c, Caspase-9, Caspase-7, Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax was studied by Western blot method. Results: The results of docking displayed that Co had binding sites withe Caspase-9, Caspase-7, and Caspase-3. Compared with OGD/R, Co could diminution the LDH levels, upsurge the TTC staining intensity, augment Bcl-2 expression level and inhibit Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Caspase-7, Bax, and Cytochrome c expression levels. Conclusion: These results recommended that Co has latent neuroprotective activities by inhibiting caspase expression.
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Identification of chemical constituents and inhibitory effect of Ficus deltoidea fraction against lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappa B inflammatory pathway in murine macrophage 264.7 cells p. 236
Rameshkumar Santhanam, Gothai Sivapragasam, Thiruventhan Karunakaran, Katyakyini Muniandy, Senthilkumar Palani Kandasamy, Arulselvan Palanisamy
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_433_20  
Background: Ficus deltoidea Jack or locally known as Mas Cotek belongs to the family Moraceae is a conventionally used Malaysian native medicinal plant. Objectives: The aim is to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of various solvent fractions of F. deltoidea methanol extract against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway in murine macrophage 264.7 cells and to identify the chemical constituents present in the active fraction. Materials and Methods: The effect of crude methanolic extract and its fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) on murine macrophages against LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-Iβ, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and IL-6) and biomarkers were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis. The chemical constituents present in the active fraction were identified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The findings indicated that among all the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction of F. deltoidea substantially inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine production including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 β in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of inducible NO synthase, NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 were also effectively downregulated by the treatment of ethyl acetate fraction. Moreover, it also suppressed the expression of LPS-induced NF-κB translocation correlated with the inhibition of NF-κB (inhibitor of kappa B alpha) degradation. The presence of bioactive phenolics, especially flavonoids such as catechin, vitexin, dodecadienyl coumaric acid, (epi)-afzelechin-(epi)-catechin, genistein, and apigenin derivatives were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction of F. deltoidea. Conclusion: Overall, it has been recommended that the ethyl acetate fraction of F. deltoidea could be utilized as a potential natural anti-inflammatory agent.
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Ferruginol-induced apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells (HCT-116) through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway p. 244
Hua-Long Lin, Pei-Rui Chen, Chun-Chun Mao, Wei-E Zheng, Jia-Qi Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_53_20  
Background: Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Despite advances in systemic therapies, colorectal cancer still remains one of the foremost challenges due to high mortality rate. Objectives: In this current investigation, we observed the anticancer and proapoptotic potentials of ferruginol (FGL) in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells. Materials and Methods: We recognized that the potentials of FGL against cell viability in HCT-116 cells were determined by MTT assay. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), status of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), diminished glutathione (GSH), and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were also evaluated. In addition, apoptotic protein expressions such as bax, caspase-9, cytochrome-c, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 were assessed through Western blotting analysis. Results: Our findings showed that FGL induced apoptosis as confirmed through the thrashing of cell viability, improved ROS formation and TBARS, and decreased antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GSH) and MMP in HCT-116 cells. Further, the proapoptotic role of FGL was downregulated the Bcl-2 expression, whereas improved caspase-9, Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome-c expressions in HCT-116 cells. Conclusion: Therefore, FGL stimulates apoptosis in HCT-116 cells through triggering oxidative damage and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.
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Citral promotes the cell proliferation, differentiation, and calcium mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells p. 250
Hong Mu, Ying Pang, Lili Liu, Fengshan Li, Jianqi Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_242_20  
Background: Osteoporosis tends to be the major consequence of fractures in women above the age of 50 years and men are prone above the age of 65 years. The structure of bone is severely deteriorated by the reduction in bone density which eventually causes both nonfatal and fatal fractures in geriatric population. Recent researches were targeted to discover a drug which increases bone resorption and inhibits bone osteoporosis, thereby preventing fracture risk in older population. Methods: Citral is an aliphatic unsaturated aldehyde present in lemongrass and it renders the lemon fragrance to the lemongrass plant. Citral possesses various pharmacological properties such anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-carcinogenic and it also acts as a diuretic agent and stimulates the central nervous system. Therefore, we endeavor to investigate the osteogenic property of citral in vitro condition. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were chosen for the current investigation and treated with various doses of citral for different time durations. Results: Citral cytotoxicity effects on MG-63 cell lines and their proliferation were assessed using MTT assay and optical microscopical analysis. Further to analyze the osteoblastic activity of citral on MG-63 osteoblast-like cells, we estimated the levels and mRNA expression of bone biomarkers alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and collagen in control and citral-treated cells. To confirm the osteoblastic activity of citral, the MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were subjected to staining with Alizarin red S. The results of MTT assay and microscopic analysis of citral-treated cells proved that citral induces osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line proliferation. Osteogenic bone biomarkers such as alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and collagen were significantly increased in citral-treated which corroborate the osteogenic activity of citral. Conclusion: Further, the Alizarin red S staining confirmed the induction of mineral deposition in MG-63 cells by citral. Overall, our results authentically proved that citral induces proliferation, maturation, and mineralization in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.
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The gastroprotective effect of alpinia officinarum extract on indomethacin-induced topical injuries in RGM-1 Cells: Involvement of H+/K+-ATPase- and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis p. 256
Li Li, Jingwen Gong, Hailong Li, Mingyan Zhou, Yinfeng Tan, Junqing Zhang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_65_20  
Background: Topical effects are essential mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced gastric damage. Our previous study showed that the extract of Alpinia officinarum (AOE) may have some protective effects against the topical effects of indomethacin (INDO). The aim of this study was to elucidate the protective effects and mechanisms of A. officinarum against INDO-induced topical injuries to gastric mucosa. Materials and Methods: 0.5 mM INDO was used to cause topical effects to rat gastric epithelial cells (RGM-1). Meanwhile, AOE (2.5 μg/mL) and galangin (GAL) (0.05 mM) were added, respectively, to explore their protective effects. The cell proliferation, mitochondrial viability, and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, inverted fluorescence microscope, or microplate reader. Pro- and cleaved-caspase-3 were detected by Western blot method. Results: AOE and GAL could significantly protect INDO-damaged RGM-1 cells by promoting cell proliferation, upregulating mitochondrial viability, inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release into cytoplasm, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, and suppressing H+/K+-ATPase activity. Conclusion: The gastroprotective effects of AOE and GAL were closely associated with suppressing the gastric acid secretion and restraining mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. These data provided new perceptions into interpreting the underlying mechanisms of gastroprotective effects of A. officinarum and showed a promising clinical use in treating gastric mucosal injury induced by NSAIDs.
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In silico studies on the therapeutic potential of novel marker compounds isolated from chemically modified bioactive fraction from Curcuma longa (Non-carbonyl Curcuma longa) p. 263
Arshi Naqvi, Reem A K. Al-Harbi, Samah Ali, Richa Malasoni, Swati Gupta, Anil Kumar Dwivedi
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_317_20  
Background: Curcuma longa, a perennial herb, is a member of the Zingiberaceae (ginger) family is described to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. Herbal medicament (HM) or curcuma oil is a bioactive standardized hexane-soluble fraction of C. longa and is established for its neuroprotective effect. HM was modified chemically to unfasten compounds containing carbonyl group in it resulting in a bioactive non-carbonyl C. longa (NCCL). Objectives: In the present study, novel marker compounds (A and B) have been successfully isolated from NCCL and their various in silico traits and interactions were studied. Materials and Methods: Marker compounds A and B were characterized utilizing various spectroscopic data (one-dimensional [1D]/2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry, and infrared). Isolated compounds were subjected to in silico computational tools for predicting their drug-likeness, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic properties. Results: Both compounds A and B flaunted drug-like properties by following the standard descriptors along with good in silico absorption. Conclusion: Novel marker compounds A and B were successfully isolated from NCCL and fully characterized utilizing spectroscopic techniques. Both the compounds displayed good drug-like properties.
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Attenuation of kirenol inflammationinduced by ischemic/reperfusion cerebral infarction stroke via TLR4/ NLRP3 signaling pathway: An in vivo approach p. 268
Debo Yun, Yujiao Yang, Bin Shang, Heng Dong, Bo Luo, Tahani Awad Alahmadi, Qing Luo
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_261_20  
Background: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced stroke is a long-lasting disability. Numerous reports have demonstrated that inflammation is the major cause of ischemic cerebral injury. Therefore, it is important to develop an effective anti-inflammatory agent for the attenuation of I/R-induced brain injury. Objective: In this study, we examined the therapeutic role of kirenol against I/R-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting inflammation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Materials and Methods: I/R was induced in SD rats and subsequently were administered with 10 and 20 mg/kg of kirenol. Then, we assessed the neurological score, brain water content, and infarct size. The level of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and acetylcholinesterase, as well as the levels of malondialdehyde, was measured by using standard methods. The level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10; and vascular endothelial growth factor was measured using standard kits. The targeted messenger RNA expression (NLRP3, NLRP4, TLR-4, TNF-α, caspase-1, ASC, and IL-1β) was quantified by polymerase chain reaction technique. Histopathological analysis of the brain tissue was performed. Results: According to our results, kirenol decreased the neurological deficit score, ameliorated the motor function, suppressed oxidative stress, reduced inflammation, and mediated the inhibition of TLR4/NLRP3-mediated inflammatory pathway. Conclusion: In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the protective effects of kirenol against I/R-induced cerebral injury. The mechanism of action is associated with the inhibition of inflammation through halting the TLR4/NLRP3 signaling pathway. In summary, kirenol is a potentially new compound which can be used to improve therapeutic strategies for stroke treatments.
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Resveratrol exerts anti-inflammatory effect in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation via downregulation of antioxidant and inflammatory mediators p. 275
Xinxin Liang, Jian Shen, Xueming Duan, Rongbing Zhou, Peng Liu, Xiaoming CHi
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_41_20  
Background: Acute lung inflammation (ALI) is a serious health condition that causes severe pulmonary distress, tissue loss, and ultimately leads to death of the patient. Previously, theantagonisticrole of flavonoids has been extensively studied with respect to inflammation in cancer. Inflammatory reaction targeted during the lung cancer therapy. Aims and Objectives: In this study, the chemoprotective effect of resveratrol and its of mechanism of action against the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation was investigated. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, we performed experiments using RAW 264.7 cells. LPS was used to induce inflammation in the lungs of Swiss Wistar rats that were randomly divided into different groups. The rats were treated with resveratrol in a dose-dependent manner. The lung tissue and dry/wet weight of lung tissue was estimated. The antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory parameters were also estimated. Results: According to results, resveratrol significantly reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-18, IL-10, and antioxidant parameters viz., glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively. Resveratrol significantly (P<0.001) reduced the weight of lung tissue and dry/wet of lung tissue at dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: In summary, resveratrol plays the role of a chemo-protective agent against the LPS-induced lung inflammation via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism.
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Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on serum brain natriuretic peptide level and caspase-3 protein expression in cardiomyocytes of rats with chronic heart failure p. 282
Yaoyao Wang, Yujiang Chen, Mao Yang, Chunlin Chen
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_561_19  
Context: Ginsenoside Rb1 is a representative ginsenoside, and caspase-3 is implicated in chronic heart failure (CHF). Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on the level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in serum and the expression of caspase-3 protein in the cardiomyocytes of CHF rats. Subjects and Methods: A total of 48 Wistar rats were divided into control, model, positive control (losartan), and ginsenoside Rb1 groups at random (n = 12). Abdominal aortic constriction was adopted for CHF modeling. Four weeks after surgery, ginsenoside Rb1 and losartan groups were intragastrically administered with 50 mg/kg ginsenoside Rb1 and 4.5 mg/kg losartan daily, respectively. Control and model groups were given equal volumes of distilled water. Cardiac function indices, electrocardiographic signals, BNP level, heart weight, body weight, heart-to-body weight ratio, myocardial pathological changes, and caspase-3 protein expression were compared. Results: In contrast to model group, heart rate, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, BNP level, and caspase-3 protein expression of ginsenoside Rb1 and losartan groups notably dropped, whereas left ventricular systolic pressure and maximal rise/fall rate of the left ventricular pressure significantly rose (P < 0.05). The heart weight and heart-to-body weight ratio of ginsenoside Rb1 and losartan groups were evidently lower relative to those in the model group (P < 0.05). The ST segments of losartan and ginsenoside Rb1 groups fell after rise. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibited focal cardiomyocyte necrosis and steatosis and relieved myocardial myofibrillar dissolution. It evidently decreased broken muscle bundles, as well as alleviated fibrosis and myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion: Ginsenoside Rb1 can improve the cardiac function of CHF rats, probably by inhibiting the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.
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Oroxylum indicum Kurz (L.) seed extract exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells p. 288
Nootchanat Mairuae, Poonlarp Cheepsunthorn, Benjaporn Buranrat, Supataechasit Yannasithinon
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_393_20  
Background: Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz is a plant that has been extensively used as the traditional medicine in several Asian countries. However, the role of Oroxylum indicum seeds (OISs) in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of activated microglia have not yet been identified. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role of OIS extract in a neuroinflammatory model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells. Materials and Methods: BV2 microglial cells were treated with OIS extract in the presence or absence of LPS for 24 h. Subsequently, the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Griess reagent, and the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, respectively. In vitro antioxidant capacity was assessed through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were also investigated. Results: OIS extract increased the levels of antioxidants detected by the DPPH and ABTS assays. The total flavonoid and phenolic content of OIS extract was 325.64 ± 4.95 and 50.47 ± 1.53 mg/g of dried extract, respectively. In addition, the levels of IL-6, NO, and ROS significantly decreased in LPS-induced BV2 microglia cells following treatment with OIS compared with the control. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of OIS in activated-BV2 cells. Thus, OIS extract may be used as a potential source of nutraceuticals for the development of health food supplements or as a novel anti-inflammatory herbal medicine.
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Metabolomics study on the therapeutic mechanism of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides on concanavalin A-induced immunological liver injury in mice p. 293
Lihua Chen, Yingying Shan, Chunmei Wang, He Li, Jianguang Chen, Jinghui Sun
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_255_20  
Background: Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine which protects hepatic function. Its primary component is polysaccharides which is used in the treatment of hepatic injury, but the mechanism of action of S. chinensis polysaccharides (SCP) in immunological liver injury induced by concavalin A (Con A) is still not clear. Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective mechanism of SCP in immunological liver injury. Subjects and Methods: In this study, we performed rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based serum metabolomics approach to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of SCP against Con A-induced immunological liver injury in mice. Results: According to our results, SCP significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the liver; decreased the level of serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1 β, and IL-6 in the serum, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in the liver of mice with immunological liver injury induced by Con A. In this study, we identified 17 biomarkers through metabolomic analysis, and after the administration of SCP, 16 of them were found to return to the normal levels. Our analysis suggested that some metabolic pathways are involved in the mechanisms of action of SCP for the treatment of the immunological liver injury, including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, taurine metabolism, amino saccharide and nucleotide metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Conclusion: SCP could alleviate the oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in the immunological liver injury and recover the metabolic dysfunction caused by Con A.
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Antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Croton cajucara benth and its 19-nor-clerodane chromatographic fractions p. 302
Gerson S Lima, Gerzia C Machado, Maria A M. Maciel, Aurea Echevarria
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_345_20  
Context: Croton cajucara Benth has been widely used in folk medicine, especially in the Amazonian region of Brazil, to treat several illnesses. Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the stem bark hydroalcoholic extract (CC-EHA) of C. cajucara and their clerodane-type diterpene fractions (F1-7, F25-27, and F28) on promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and trypomastigotes and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Materials and Methods: The extract was obtained in ethanol: water and the fractions with solvents of increasing polarity. The antiparasitic activities were assessed by 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method against promastigotes and axenic amastigotes from L. amazonensis in 24-h cultures and trypomastigotes and epimastigotes of T. cruzi in 72-h cultures. The experiments in triplicate were made in quadruplicate way in each time. The statistical tests used were t-Students and ANOVA. Results: Among those evaluated samples, the CC-EHA extract showed the higher antileishmanial activity of promastigote cultures (IC50 = 18.00 ± 0.01 μg/mL at 24 h). However, against axenic amastigotes, the polar fraction (F28), rich in diterpene transdehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN), showed the highest effect with an IC50 = 6.18 ± 0.02 μg/mL in culture of 24 h. In the T. cruzi assays, F28 also showed the greatest effect against trypomastigotes and epimastigotes, IC50 = 0.43 ± 0.02 μg/mL and 0.27 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively, at 72 h of culture. The results showed that the diterpene t-DCTN is the most important antiparasitic component in the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from C. cajucara, specifically against L. amazonensis and T. cruzi. Conclusion: Our results contribute to knowledge of these folk medicinal species as a promising antiparasitic phytotherapeutic alternative.
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Carthami flos induces apoptosis by activating caspases and regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways in AGS human gastric cancer cells p. 307
Song Ee Han, Min Ji Kwon, Jeong Nam Kim, Eun Yeong Lim, Yun Tai Kim, Byung Joo Kim
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_127_20  
Background: Carthami flos (CF) is a traditional medicine used to treat various diseases, especially cancer therapy. Objectives: The mechanisms of cell death induction by CF were investigated in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, caspase activity assay, western blotting, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay were used to check the anti-cancer effects of CF on AGS cells. Results: Treatment with CF (100500 μg/mL) inhibited AGS cell proliferation and increased the ratio of the subG1 phase of the cell cycle. CF induced cell death was associated with a reduction in Bcl-2 and an increase in Bax levels. Moreover, expression of the apoptosismediating surface antigen (FAS) was increased. CF activated caspase-3 and -9. In addition, it regulated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and increased intracellular ROS generation. Conclusion: These findings suggest that CF induced apoptosis in AGS cells and could thus, serve as a novel anticancer agent to promote apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.
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Protective effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaves against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in Rat Schwann Cells (RSC-96) through regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway p. 315
Yun Sun, Hui Yao, Xin Zhang, Xiao-Xuan Yuan, Han-Lin Xu
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_275_20  
Background: As a special medicinal plant in Xinjiang province, Elaeagnus angustifolia L. plays an important role in windbreak and sand fixation. Its leaves are widely used in the field of traditional Chinese medicine treatment, mainly including diarrhea, dysentery, coronary heart disease and arrhythmia. Objective: In this study, our primary goal was to understand the mechanism of action of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. leaves (EALs) in protecting Rat Schwann cells (RSC-96) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: The study material, EALs, was collected from Xinjiang Province in China. RSC-96 cells were stimulated by H2O2. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used in the detection of cell viability, and the cellular apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by flow cytometry. The level of nerve growth factor (NGF) was assayed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the expression of p-Akt BAX, PI3K, Bcl-2, and Akt was analyzed by Western blot. In addition, we detected the expression level of NGF. Results: According to our results, its levels were increased after stimulation with H2O2, but the levels of ROS and apoptosis were found to be reduced. Simultaneously, after induction with H2O2, the expression of Bcl-2, PI3K, p-Akt, and Akt was increased due to the presence of EALs extract, but the expression level of BAX was reduced. According to our results, EALs protects RSC-96 cells from hydrogen peroxide stress and its antiapoptotic and antioxidant effects are mainly mediated through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: EALs extracts protected RSC-96 cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by exerting antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects through PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
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Resveratrol attenuates inflammation by regulating macrophage polarization via inhibition of toll-like receptor 4/MyD88 signaling pathway p. 321
Yue Fan, Si-Lin Huang, Hong Li, Yu-Lin Cui, Dong-yan Li
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_312_20  
Background: Resveratrol (RES) can induce macrophage polarization to achieve the immune response. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine whether RES attenuates inflammation by regulating macrophage polarization through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/MyD88 signaling. Materials and Methods: We measured the effects of different concentrations of RES on cellular activity of RAW264.7 and measured it using the methyl thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide method. The immunomodulatory effects of RES on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells were detected by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the markers of M1 and M2 polarization of macrophages. The changes in the expression of both mRNA and proteins related to the TLR4/ myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) receptor pathway detected by Western blot (WB) and RT-qPCR analyses. Results: According to our results, 2, 4, and 8 μmol/L RES decreased the levels of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, thereby reducing inflammation and increasing immunity. IL-1 and inducible NO synthase, which are the markers of M1-type macrophages, were increased by LPS, and arginase-1, CD206, which are the markers of M2-type macrophages, were decreased. However, in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells incubated with RES, we observed the opposite results for both M1-and M2-type macrophage markers. Proteins and mRNA related to the TLR4 pathway were detected by WB and RT-qPCR analysis and TLR4, P65, MyD88, interleukin receptor-associated kinases 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6, activated kinase 1, and IKKβ were significantly increased by LPS. In contrast, when the cells were incubated with RES, the TLR4 pathway-related proteins and mRNA were significantly decreased and showed a volume-response relationship. Conclusion: RES can polarize M1-type macrophages to M2-type macrophages and regulate them through the TLR4/MyD88 receptor pathway. The polarization of macrophages can reduce the level of inflammation and regulate the immune system.
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Paeoniflorin prevents depression like behavior in rats by suppressing mitophagy mediated nod like receptor protein 3 inflammasome signaling p. 327
Meng Wang, Shuguang Yan, Jingyi Kong, Yongxue Zhou, Pei Xie
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_85_20  
Background: The pathogenesis of depression is related to the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and low level of mitophagy. In traditional Chinese medicine, Paeonia lactiflora Pall is a common herb as a possible treatment for depression. As a main and active constituent of P. lactiflora Pall, paeoniflorin (PF)'s mechanisms of antidepression effects are not evidently unstated. Therefore, this study intended to explore whether PF can prevent depression-like behavior by conquering NLRP3 inflammasome activation and whether PF prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation via upregulating mitophagy. Materials and Methods: Ten of a total of 50 rats were selected randomly as the control group. After establishment of the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model, CUMS rats were randomly divided into four groups: CUMS group, fluoxetine hydrochloride group, PF group, and PF + cyclosporine A group. After 3 weeks of drug involvement, behavioral tests were measured. The protein expressions of PINK-1, Parkin, Beclin-1, LC3B, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), caspase-1 p20, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-18 were spotted with Western Blot method. Results: PF upturned stress persuaded behavioral changes and PF treatment augmented sucrose consumption rates (P < 0.01) in sucrose preference test and reduced the immobility time (P < 0.01) in forced swimming test of CUMS rats. PF also improved the levels of mitophagy-related proteins PINK-1, Parkin, Beclin-1, and LC3B (P < 0.01) in the hippocampus. Moreover, PF decreased the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins (NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 p20 antibody, IL-1β, and IL-18 [P < 0.01]) tempted by stress. Conclusion: PF advances depression in CUMS rats, reduced the inflammatory injury in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Hence, based on those facts, NLRP3 inflammasome activation is accomplished by inhibiting its effect on mitophagy.
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Lappaconitine hydrochloride induces apoptosis and S phase cell cycle arrest through MAPK signaling pathway in human liver cancer HepG2 cells p. 334
Na Song, Junyi Ma, Xuemei Zhang, Danni Qu, Ling Hui, Chunyan Sang, Haining Li
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_251_20  
Background: Lappaconitine (LA), isolated from the root of Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai, had definite pharmacological effects, such as anticancer, analgesia, and anti-inflammation. LA and its derivatives had garnered prevalent consideration due to its analgesic and antitumor effects, but its clinical application was constrained by poor solubility. In this study, a novel LA hydrochloride (LH) was synthesized to upsurge the solubility and improve the efficacy. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the antitumor effect and primary mechanisms of LH on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: The cell viability and proliferation were assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8 and 5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. The apoptosis morphological feature of cell was detected with the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method. The effect of protein expression levels was recognized by Western blot assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were estimated using flow cytometer. Results: LH repressed cell viability and proliferation of HepG2 cells and persuaded apoptosis in a dose-dependent way. Flow cytometry analysis results display that LH could arrest cell cycle of HepG2 cells in S phase, thereby preventing cells entering G2/M phase. LH upregulated the expression of cytochrome C, Bax, P53, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and suppressed the expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk inhibited the activation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9. Moreover, LH abridged the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and augmented the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and P38. Conclusion: LH designated antitumor effect against HepG2 cells through suppressing cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by aiming mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
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Content determination of functional composition and antioxidant activity from six purple plants p. 342
Fang-Rong Cheng, Hong-Xin Cui, Ji-Li Fang, Ke Yuan, Song-Heng Jin, Xiang-Tao Zhu, Yong Xu
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_203_20  
Background: Nowadays, many purple vegetables are available in the market. These vegetables have rich content of anthocyanins, which gives them their characteristic purple color. A high intake of anthocyanin-rich vegetables/plant parts imparts potential beneficial effects. Therefore, in this study, we investigated six purple plants (SPPs; purple cauliflower, purple potato, purple lettuce, purple carrot, purple beans, and purple tomato) for their content of functional composition and their antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Anthocyanins from SPPs were extracted and purified by an optimized process. Then, we determined the total anthocyanin (TA) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-G) content in the anthocyanin purified extracts (APEs) from the SPPs through pH difference and high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods were used to test the antioxidant activities of the APEs. In addition, the contents of the total flavonoids, total polyphenol, Vitamin C, and dietary fiber from the SPPs were determined. Results: SPPs are rich in anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and other compounds that show strong antioxidant activity. According to our results, anthocyanin content was the highest in purple cauliflower, which translated into the greatest antioxidant activity of the APEs of purple cauliflower. The content of total flavonoid, polyphenol, and Vitamin C in the purple lettuce was higher than that of the other plants. The highest content of dietary fiber was found in purple potato. Conclusion: According to our results, purple cauliflower is the most potential plants to the pharmaceutical industry. Our results provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of efficacy of the purple plants and exploitation.
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An analytic hierarchy process multi-criteria quantitative evaluation model of cinnamon decoction pieces p. 348
Zi-Ye Yang, Xin-Jie Wang, Yao Zhang, Hui Gao, Hui-Nan Wang, Gui-Mei Zhang, Pei-Hua Wang, Yue-Xin Cui, Meng-Yu Chen, Zhan Chen, Ying-Zi Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_306_20  
Background: The dried bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum is a well-known medicinal constituent owing to its latent health benefits. The establishment of a wide-ranging and objective quality assessment method is a tricky to be solved instantly by cinnamon and other medicinal and edible herbs. Objectives: The objective was to introduce the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to estimate widely and compare the quality of cinnamon decoction pieces. Materials and Methods: The chemical, morphological, and biological indexes of different batches of cinnamon decoction pieces are determined, and then a multi-criteria quantitative assessment model for the quality estimation of cinnamon decoction pieces is documented by adopting AHP. Results: The complete appraisal outcomes of AHP model are dependable with objective evaluation, and the results are unbiased and steady. Conclusion: The AHP multi-criteria quantitative evaluation model can be agreeably adapted to the quality evaluation of multi-component Chinese herbal decoction pieces, providing a new evidence for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.
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Chemical composition, antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoids and triterpene from Psychotria suterella (Rubiaceae) p. 355
Almir Ribeiro De Carvalho Junior, Rafaela Oliveira Ferreira, Michel de Souza Passos, Milena Gonçalves Curcino Vieira, Lorena de Lima Glória das Virgens, Sanderson Dias Calixto, Thatiana Lopes Biá Ventura, Elena Lassounskaia, Mario Geraldo de Carvalho, Raimundo Braz-Filho, Ivo José Curcino Vieira
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_93_20  
Background: Psychotria species are known for their medicinal properties and psychoactive activities. Extracts of Psychotria suterella showed anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity; however, the substances related to this activity are unknown. Objectives: The objective was to study on the chemical constituents of the leaves of plant and evaluate the anti-TB and anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extraction, partition, and column chromatography were used to separate the compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive one dimensional-and two dimensional-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, infrared and mass spectrometry spectroscopic analyses. Some compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Results: This study led to the isolation and characterization of a new iridoid, named epi-geniposidic acid (1), together with nine known compounds: geniposidic acid (2), 3-O-acethyloleanolic acid (3), pomolic acid (4), spinolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), tormentic acid (7), methyl oleanolate (8), lyalosidic acid (9), and strictosidinic acid (10). Triterpene 3-O-acethyloleanolic acid (3) was found to display antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain and hypervirulent strain (minimum inhibitory concentration 6.7 ± 0.1 and 89.1 ± 1.3 μg/mL, respectively). Epi-geniposidic acid (1), geniposidic acid (2), and 3-O-acethyloleanolic acid (3) showed promising inhibitory activities against NO production (IC50 range 4.12–5.12 μg/mL). The iridoid mixture showed no cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophages up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Conclusion: P. suterella presents relevant biological properties and should be considered for further in vivo studies using a pulmonary TB model.
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Chemoprotective effect of crocetin against 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colorectal cancer in albino wistar rats through antioxidant pathway p. 360
Peng Shao, Xiujuan Li, Xin Guan
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_311_20  
Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the chief causes of death and morbidity among all types of cancer worldwide, comprising both sexes. Crocetin (CT) is a major phytoconstituent of Crocus sativus L. which performed a number of pharmacological activities. The current study established CT's anticancer effect against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-persuaded colorectal cancer and discovered likely in vivo mechanisms. Methods: To tempt colorectal cancer in experimental albino Wistar rats, DMH was inserted subcutaneously. The rats were separated into five groups as follows: Group I – normal control rats, Group II – DMH-treated rats, Group III – DMH-treated rats receiving CT (5 mg/kg), Group IV – DMH-treated rats receiving CT (10 mg/kg), and Group V – DMH-treated rats receiving CT (20 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. At consistent intervals, the body weight and tumor weight were assessed. Biochemical, hepatic, antioxidant, Phase II antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory mediators, cytokine parameters, and apoptosis markers were projected at the end of the experimental study. Results: CT treatment suggestively augmented body weight (P < 0.001) and reduced tumor weight. CT administration also changed the level of antioxidant parameters – superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase; Phase I enzymes – cytochrome B5 and cytochrome P450; and Phase II enzymes – glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase, respectively. Attained results also reveal that CT treatment abridged the level of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin-2, and nitric oxide and diminish the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. CT also augmented the expression of apoptosis markers – caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: Thus, the complete outcomes recommended the chemoprotective role of CT against DMH-induced colorectal cancer through the inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis pathways.
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Isolation and anticancer effect of brucine in human colon adenocarcinoma cells HT-29 p. 367
Zhenyu Feng, Shuang Meng, Xiaorong Zhou, Xiaojuan Ma, Zhengbao Zhao, Jianping Zhao
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_95_20  
Context: Brucine is broadly used in the treatment of numerous types of tumors, and the application of brucine to colon cancer is stated. However, HT-29 cells have established comparatively little consideration, and the mechanism underlying the antitumor activity leftovers largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study is to isolate and examine the effect of brucine on human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29. Materials and Methods: Crude brucine was acquired by the extraction of Nux vomica with 80% EtOH. Diatomite chromatography and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography were used to obtain brucine in pure form. HT-29 cells were treated with brucine (125, 250, and 500 μM) for 24–72 h. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to identify the activity of apoptotic. Flow cytometry was used to scrutinize the effect of brucine on cell cycle progression and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Bcl-2, p53, caspase-3, PARP, and caspase-9 were spotted by Western blotting test. Results: Brucine reduced cell viability with an IC50 value of 0.368, 0.226, and 0.168 μmol/L at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The apoptosis of HT-29 was persuaded by 33.06%, 44.47%, and 71.96% at 125, 250, and 1000 μmol/L of brucine, respectively. Brucine at 250 μmol/L led to cell cycle arrest in the G1/S/G2 phase and inhibited the HT-29 cells in the G1 phase. H1-UL/H1-UR was determined to be 1.79, 1.26, and 0.54 at 125, 250, and 1000 μmol/L, respectively. Brucine at 125, 250, and 1000 μmol/L downregulated the expression of Bcl-2 but augmented the expression of p53, caspase-3, PARP, and caspase-9. Conclusion: The outcomes displayed that brucine could prevent cell proliferation, arrest the cell cycle, and increase the loss of MMP in the HT-29 cell line. Furthermore, brucine could also persuade cell apoptosis through the expression of proapoptotic and apoptotic proteins comprising p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. To sum up, our preclinical data designated that brucine was a probable therapeutic agent for colon cancer.
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Efficacy and safety on Moringa oleifera on blood glucose and lipid profile: A meta-analysis Highly accessed article p. 373
Wiraphol Phimarn, Bunleu Sungthong, Kittisak Wichaiyo
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_49_20  
Background: Results from previous clinical trials in which the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) on blood glucose and lipid profile were investigated are controversial. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of MO consumption on blood glucose level and lipid profile in randomized controlled trial (RCTs) and non-RCTs. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was performed by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Thai Library Integrated System databases up to December 2019 without any language restrictions by two independent authors. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model method was used to pool the results. Results: Seven trials with 257 participants and treatment duration of 28–90 days were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS; weighted mean difference [WMD]: −14.81 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −27.99, −1.63; I2 = 97.8%), postprandial glucose (PPG) (WMD − 64.73 mg/dL; 95% CI: −102.87, −26.59; I2 = 93%) and no significant change in HbA1C (WMD: 0.70%; 95% CI: −1.42, 0.69; I2 = 99%), low-density lipoprotein (WMD − 11.20 mg/dL; 95% CI: −34.12, 11.72; I2 = 8.08%), total cholesterol (WMD − 4.73 mg/dL; 95% CI: −24.96, 15.49; I2 = 80%), and triglycerides (WMD − 3.29 mg/dL; 95% CI: −9.95, 3.36; I2 = 29%). Moreover, MO treatment increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level significantly (WMD 2.15 mg/dL; 95% CI: 1.92, 2.39; I2 = 0%). No serious adverse effects of the intervention were reported. Conclusion: The results of our study suggested that MO treatment decreased FBS, PPG levels and increase HDL level. However, the long-term benefits and safety of the treatment remain to be determined.
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Potential effect of astragaloside IV on the lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation via the inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway p. 379
Xuebo Yan, Tong Wang, Lei Fang, Jiong Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_267_20  
Background: The host treats lipopolysaccharides (LPS) as a sign of microbial invasion by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In lungs, LPS activates a cascade of inflammatory reactions leading to inflammation. Previous investigation suggests that astragaloside IV (AG) has an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect, but the potential mechanism of lung inflammation is still unknown. In this experimental study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of AG against LPS-induced lung inflammation. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used Sprague Dawley rats for the experimental protocol. Animals were injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, b. w.) for the induction of lung inflammation and were subsequently administered with AG (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, acute phase response and lipid parameters were estimated. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators were also estimated. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the inflammatory markers and expression of mRNA of apoptosis markers. Results: AG treatment significantly increased the survival rate as compared to LPS control. AG significantly (P < 0.001) altered the renal, hepatic, lipid, and antioxidant parameter at dose dependent manner. AG significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione and increased he activity of superoxide dismutase. AG significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). In addition, AG significantly (P < 0.001) down-regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-1 β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-18 and upregulated the expression of IL-4 and IL-10. Conclusion: In summary, these findings indicate that AG effectively suppressed the LPS-induced inflammation through inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway.
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Colocasia esculenta L. schott corm mucilage: A selective COX-2 inhibitor for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome p. 387
Nesrin M Fayek, Samar M Mouneir, Azza Ramy Abdel Monem, Samia M Abdelwahab, Nebal D Eltanbouly
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_488_20  
Background: Therapeutic strategies used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome having many limitations due to their side effects; this necessitates searching for new substitutes with similar therapeutic results and limited side effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of the mucilage of Colocasia esculenta L. Schott var. typical corm cultivated in Egypt was explored both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated based on histopathological examination, determination of ulcer area and ulcer index, and measurement of inflammatory mediators, namely, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-α, in acetic acid-induced ulcerated rat colon, comparing to Prednisolone as a reference drug. In vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of the tested mucilage was carried out by measuring its cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity comparing to Celecoxib and Zileuton as reference drugs, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with the mucilage improved the histopathological features of the rats ulcerated colon and decreased the ulcer area and the ulcer index in a dose-dependent manner. The mucilage improved all the tested inflammatory mediators. In addition, it has a potent COX-2 inhibitory activity with lower effect on COX-1 and 5-lipooxygenase. Conclusion: The obtained results support the use of C. esculenta corm mucilage as an alternative for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with minimum gastrointestinal side effects.
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Antiarthritic activity of asiaticoside against the Freund's complete adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis in experimental wistar rats p. 391
Xiaohui Zhou, Jiasong Zhao, Zheng Zhang, Chunmei Geng, Jinwei Ying
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_247_19  
Background: Rheumatoid synovial inflammation occurs at the synovial joint, which is activated by the articular system and mediated by the immune cells. In the case of untreated rheumatoid arthritis, the inflammation may affect the extra-articular system including cardiovascular, hepatic, respiratory, circulatory, and neuromuscular systems, which may ultimately interfere with the quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This, in turn, reduces the life expectancy of the patient. Materials and Methods: The effectiveness of asiaticoside was evaluated by the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced rheumatoid arthritis model using experimental Wistar rats. According to our results, asiaticoside exhibited potent anti-arthritic activity in contrast to the control animals in the FCA-induced rheumatoid arthritic model. Results: The parameters of arthritis such as reduced body weight, increased paw volume and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cartilage destruction were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the administration of asiaticoside. It significantly (P < 0.01) increased the body weight, decreased the paw volume and pro-inflammatory cytokines, restored the blood components, increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, and protected the cartilage. Conclusion: Asiaticoside exhibited potential anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced rheumatoid arthritis in experimental rats.
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