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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 78  |  Page : 366-372

Molecular effect of betanin on the molecular expression pattern of cell proliferative and inflammatory signalling pathways in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamsters

1 Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University; Department of Anesthesiology, Xi'an Daxing Hospital, Xi'an, China
2 Department of Otolaryngology, Xi'an Daxing Hospital, Xi'an, China
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Xi'an Daxing Hospital, Xi'an, China
4 Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China
5 Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Jian Wang
Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an - 710032
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_281_21

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Background: Cancer development is a sequential process as a result of various cellular adaptation events. Oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) is the most predominant variety of head and neck cancer. Betanin (BTN) is isolated from beetroot extracts and is a highly bioavailable antioxidant. BTN exerts a chemopreventive and cytotoxic activity on numerous cancer cells. However, precise identification of the molecules responsible for this tumor-inhibitory effect is pending. This study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of BTN in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral cancer in experimental hamsters. Materials and Methods: The interactions of BTN with antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and inflammatory markers in the presence of DMBA were investigated in male golden Syrian hamsters. Results: Oral supplementation of BTN treatment (50 mg/kg BW) daily to oral tumor-bearing rats successfully prevented DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, BTN administration significantly prevented weight loss and reduced the tumor occurrence, burden, volume, and biochemical parameters such as TBARS, LOOH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GSH, and vitamins E and C. The histological analysis and expression pattern of molecular markers (increased apoptosis (caspase-3 and 9), proliferative markers (PCNA and Cyclin-D1), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and COX-2) investigated in hamsters' buccal mucosa tissues revealed a significant anti-tumorigenic nature of BTN. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that BTN markedly reduces DMBA-induced oral cancer in hamsters.

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