|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 71 | Page : 574-579
Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis through caspases and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways in human bladder cancer cells
Minwoo Hwang1, Min Ji Kwon2, Byung Joo Kim2
1 Department of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
2 Division of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine, Healthy Aging Korean Medical Research Center, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea
|Date of Submission||28-Jan-2020|
|Date of Decision||04-Mar-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Mar-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Oct-2020|
Byung Joo Kim
Division of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine,
Healthy Aging Korean Medical Research Center, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid isolated from the roots of various species of licorice plants. Objectives: Mechanisms underlying ISL-induced cell death were investigated in 5637 human bladder cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Cell viabilities were measured with 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell counting kit-8 assay. Cell cycle analysis, caspase activity assay, western blotting, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay were also used to investigate the anticancer effects of ISL on 5637 cells. Results: ISL (100–500 μg/ml) inhibited cancer cell proliferation and increased sub-G1 cell cycle phase ratios. ISL-induced cell death resulted in reduced Bcl-2 and increased Bax. ISL also activated caspase-3 and -9 and increased the levels of intracellular ROS generated. In addition, TG100-115 (transient receptor potential [TRP] melastatin 7 inhibitor) and tranilast (TRP vanilloid 2 inhibitor) each exerted a synergistic effect with ISL on ISL-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that ISL causes apoptosis in 5637 cancer cell line. Therefore, ISL may be a potential anticancer drug for treating bladder cancer and a good anticancer supplement.
Keywords: 5637, anticancer, apoptosis, bladder cancer, isoliquiritigenin
|How to cite this article:|
Hwang M, Kwon MJ, Kim BJ. Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis through caspases and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways in human bladder cancer cells. Phcog Mag 2020;16:574-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Hwang M, Kwon MJ, Kim BJ. Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis through caspases and reactive oxygen species signaling pathways in human bladder cancer cells. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Apr 13];16:574-9. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2020/16/71/574/298642
- Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) (100, 300, and 500 μM) inhibited 5637 cells [Figure 1]a and reduced cell viability [Figure 1]b. Sub-G1 phase ratios were increased by ISL [Figure 2] Bcl-2 was reduced by ISL, whereas Bax was increased [Figure 3]a, [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c
- ISL dose dependently increased caspase-3 and -9 activities, and zVAD-fmk (a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor) pretatment suppressed these activities [Figure 4a]. ISL upregulated the active forms of caspase-3 and -9, downregulated pro-caspase -3 and -9, and upregulated PARP protein levels [Figure 4]b
- ISL increased reactive oxygen species levels in 5637 cells [Figure 5]
- TG100-115, a transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 7 blocker, combined with ISL has a synergistic effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]a. Similarly, TRP vanilloid 2 blocker, tranilast, had the same effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]b.
Abbreviations used: ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; TRP: Transient receptor potential.
| Introduction|| |
Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid isolated from the roots of various species of licorice plants., It is available in common foods, beverages, and alternative medicines., It reportedly has many biological properties, such as antioxidation and antiplatelet aggregation and antiviral, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects.,, ISL has also been considered to induce apoptotic effects in numerous cancers, including prostate, colon, lung, stomach, and breast cancer; melanoma; and osteosarcoma.,,,,,,
Bladder cancer is a disease that, if not properly treated, indicates a high prevalence and mortality rate. Men are generally more susceptible to the disease than women and more likely to develop it as they get older. Most common symptoms are blood in the urine, and the most common form of bladder cancer is urothelial carcinomas. Many new treatments for bladder cancer are being developed; however, it is still considered one of the most difficult cancers to treat. However, research on anticancer properties of ISL and related mechanisms of action in bladder cancer is lacking. In this study, we studied the efficacy of ISL and related mechanisms of action in 5637 bladder cancer cell lines.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Cell culture and 3- [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay
Human 5637 bladder carcinoma cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium (Gibco-BRL, St. Louis, MO, USA) supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic mixture (penicillin and streptomycin) at 37°C, cell viabilities were determined using an 3- [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and absorbances were measured at 570 nm. This cell line was established at the Cancer Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea, and the cell passage number was 7. ISL (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA; Lot number: 78825) was used at concentrations of 100, 300, and 500 μM.
Cell counting kit-8 assay
Cells from the 5637 cell line were seeded at 1 × 104 cells/well, and 10 μl of cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8; Abbkine Co., Ltd., Hubei, China) was added. After incubation for 2 h, absorbances were measured at 450 nm.
Measurement of cell cycle
The 5637 cells were treated with ethyl alcohol and treated at 4°C overnight before incubating them. Cells were stained with propidium iodine staining solution (5 mg/ml; 2 μl) containing RNase A, centrifuged at 20,000 ×g for 10 s, and incubated for 40 min. After that, they were measured with a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) at λ = 488 nm.
Western blot analysis
Proteins isolated from 5637 cells were separated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and incubated with several antibodies. Antibodies against Bcl-2 (#sc-783), Bax (#sc-493), caspase-3 (#sc-7148), caspase-9 (#sc-7885), PARP (#sc-7150), β-actin (#sc-47778), and GAPDH (#sc-32233) were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Goat antirabbit immunoglobulin (Ig) G and goat antimouse IgG (cat. no. SC-2004 and SC-2005, respectively; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA) were used as secondary antibodies. All procedures followed standard methods.
Assays were performed using caspase-3 and -9 assay kits. Cells were suspended with lysis buffer and cell pellet was incubated with caspase substrate (400lM AcDEVDpNA; 50 μl) at 37°C. Absorbances were measured at 405 nm.
Measurement of reactive oxygen species levels
Using 20 μ DCF-DA: 2',7' dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA) at 37°C, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured with a FACS at 488 nm excitation/525 nm emission wavelengths.
Using Origin 8.0 (OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, MA, USA) software, the analysis was performed. Results are suggested as mean ± standard error of the mean, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
Apoptotic effects of isoliquiritigenin in 5637 cells
MTT assays were used to check if 5637 cell growth was inhibited by ISL with 24 h. ISL (100, 300, or 500 μM) inhibited 5637 survival by 71.1% ± 4.4% (P < 0.01), 27.8% ± 1.1% (P < 0.01), or 20.8% ± 1.2% (P < 0.01), respectively [Figure 1]a. Furthermore, the survival of 5637 cells was investigated using CCK-8 assay method. ISL induced the reduction of cellular viability by 76.4% ± 4.7% (P < 0.01), 66.3% ± 5.4% (P < 0.01), or 53.1% ± 4.4% (P < 0.01), respectively [Figure 1]b. In addition, to determine whether ISL induces apoptosis, cell cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Sub-G1 phase ratios were increased by ISL by 15.7% ± 2.8% (P < 0.01) at 100 μM, 20.0% ± 2.4% (P < 0.01) at 300 μM, and 27.5% ± 3.5% (P < 0.01) at 500 μM as compared to untreated cells by flow cytometry [Figure 2]. These results indicate that ISL inhibits 5637 proliferation and that these effects are related to the induction of apoptosis.
|Figure 1: Effect of isoliquiritigenin on 5637 cell viability. Cell viabilities were investigated using (a) an 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and (b) a cell counting kit-8 assay. Isoliquiritigenin dose dependently reduced cell viabilities for 24 h. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL: Control. **P < 0.01 versus untreated cells|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Effect of isoliquiritigenin on 5637 cell apoptosis. (a) Cell cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. (b) Sub G1 fractions with isoliquiritigenin are expressed as percentages. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL: Control. **P < 0.01 versus untreated cells|
Click here to view
Effect of isoliquiritigenin on the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway in 5637 cells
To check whether ISL-induced apoptosis is regulated by Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and Bax (pro-apoptotic), we performed western blotting on the proteins isolated from 5637 cells. Bcl-2 was reduced by ISL, whereas Bax was increased [Figure 3]a, [Figure 3]b, [Figure 3]c. These results indicate that ISL-induced apoptosis is related to activation of mitochondria in 5637 cells.
|Figure 3: Effects of isoliquiritigenin on Bcl-2 and Bax in 5637 cells. (a) Bcl-2 expression was reduced gradually by isoliquiritigenin, whereas Bax expression was increased gradually using western blot. (b) Bcl-2 and (c) Bax protein expressions were normalized versus β-actin. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean β-Actin was used as the loading control. ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL, control. *P < 0.05. **P < 0.01 versus untreated controls|
Click here to view
Caspase activation by isoliquiritigenin in 5637 cells
Caspases are important mediators of apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. ISL dose-dependently increased caspase-3 and -9 activity, and zVAD-fmk (a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor) pretreatment suppressed their activity [Figure 4]a. Western blotting also indicated that ISL treatment upregulated the active forms of caspase-3 and -9 and downregulated pro-caspase-3 and -9. In addition, ISL upregulated PARP protein levels [Figure 4]b. These results indicate that ISL-induced apoptosis is related to activation of caspase in 5637 cells.
|Figure 4: Caspases activation by isoliquiritigenin in 5637 cells. (a) 5637 cells were lysed and lysates were assayed for caspase-3 and -9 activities. (b) The changes of caspase-3, -9, and PARP cleavage activity were investigated by western blot. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean GAPDH was the loading control. ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL: Control; PARP: Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 versus untreated controls|
Click here to view
Effect of isoliquiritigenin on intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in 5637 cells
As ROS is one of the key factors in cell apoptosis, we investigated whether ISL generates ROS in 5637 cells. To determine whether ROS generation was related to apoptosis by ISL, we used DCF-DA (a fluorescent dye) in the cells to measure ROS levels with flow cytometry. As indicated in [Figure 5], flow cytometry showed that ISL increased ROS levels in 5637 cells.
|Figure 5: Isoliquiritigenin increased reactive oxygen species levels in 5637 cells. (a and b) Intracellular reactive oxygen species was detected with isoliquiritigenin. Reactive oxygen species levels are expressed as percentages of untreated controls. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL: Control. **P < 0.001 versus untreated cells|
Click here to view
Synergistic effects of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 channel or transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 channel blockers on isoliquiritigenin-induced apoptosis in 5637 cells
Regulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 7 channel is known to be important for apoptosis of bladder cancer cells., To check the role of TRP melastatin 7 channel in ISL-induced apoptosis in 5637 cells, we used the TRP melastatin 7 blocker, TG100-115. TG100-115 and ISL exerted a synergistic effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]a. Similarly, for TRP vanilloid 2 channels, TRP vanilloid 2 blocker, tranilast, combined with ISL exerted a synergistic effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]b.
|Figure 6: Effect of transient receptor potential channel inhibitor on the effects of isoliquiritigenin in 5637 cells. Cell viability was checked after co-treating 5637 cells with isoliquiritigenin plus (a) TG100-115 (transient receptor potential melastatin 7 inhibitor) or (b) tranilast (transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 inhibitor) for 24 h. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. ISL: Isoliquiritigenin; CTRL: Control. **P < 0.01 versus untreated controls.#P < 0.05 for comparisons between treatments|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Common cancer treatments, such as surgery and chemotherapy, do not always produce good clinical results., These treatments also have serious side effects. Therefore, herbal medicine, which is known to have fewer side effects, has been widely used to treat cancer in recent times. Herbal drugs, made from a single plant or a combination of several plants, were used to treat diseases long before modern medicines were developed and are still in use. ISL is a flavonoid extracted from licorice root and is known to possess anticancer properties effective on many types of cancer cells.,,,,,, Apoptosis is a controlled mechanism for removing old or damaged cells, and inducing apoptosis is the most important role of anticancer drugs. It is well known that several natural substances, including plants, are used as anticancer drugs, which can induce apoptosis and kill cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of ISL and the mechanisms underlying ISL-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. ISL (100–500 μg/ml) inhibited 5637 cell proliferation [Figure 1] and increased sub-G1 cell cycle phase ratios [Figure 2]. ISLinduced cell death was related to reduce Bcl-2 and increase Bax [Figure 3]. In addition, ISL activated caspase-3 and -9 [Figure 4] and increased intracellular ROS generation [Figure 5]. These findings suggest that ISL causes apoptosis in 5637 cells, and therefore, ISL may be a novel anticancer drug for treating bladder cancer and an effective anticancer supplement.
Several ion channels are involved in the apoptosis of cancer cells, especially TRP channels. The TRP channel family is a cell membrane protein and serves to control various physiological and pathological processes by controlling the transmission of signals inside/outside the cell. TRP melastatin 7 channels are common in bladder cancer and promote the growth and migration of bladder cancer cells. Therefore, TRP melastatin 7 plays a role in controlling the prognosis of bladder cancer. In addition, a decrease in the expression of TRP melastatin 7 channel is associated with an increase in ROS and eventually with increased apoptosis of the bladder cancer cells. Temperature-sensitive TRP vanilloid channels are important for sensing pain and temperature. Among them, the TRP vanilloid 2 channel increases the migration of bladder cancer cells but does not affect cell proliferation in 5637 cells. Moreover, activation of TRP vanilloid 2 by matrix metalloproteinase 2 regulation is important for the development of bladder cancer. However, in T24 bladder cancer cells, intracellular calcium influx through the TRP vanilloid 2 channel causes apoptosis. In the present study, TG100-115, a TRP melastatin 7 blocker, combined with ILS had a synergistic effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]a. Similarly, tranilast, a TRP vanilloid 2 blocker, had the same effect on ISL-induced apoptosis [Figure 6]b. Therefore, it is thought that the TRP melastatin 7 or TRP vanilloid 2 channel has a significant effect on activating the apoptotic reaction by ISL. It is necessary to further investigate the effects of ISL on the TRP melastatin 7 and TRP vanilloid 2 channels themselves and to understand their respective mechanisms of action.
ISL inhibits proliferation and metastasis of MKN28 gastric cancer cells, osteosarcoma, and A549 lung cancer cells.,, ISL induces apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells through CDK2 activities and mitochondrial signaling pathways and of human prostate cancer cells via cell cycle arrest. In addition, ISL induces apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and in breast and colon HT29 cancer cells., In addition to showing the efficacy of ISL on the various cancer cells described above, this study shows that ISL causes apoptosis in bladder cancer cells in vitro, mediated by caspase and ROS activities. Moreover, apoptosis is controlled by the regulation of TRP melastatin 7 and TRP vanilloid 2 channels.
| Conclusion|| |
The present study showed that ISL inhibited cell proliferation and increased the sub-G1 phase in 5637 cells. In addition, ISL-induced apoptosis was associated with the downregulation of Bcl-2 and the upregulation of Bax. ISL increased caspase-3 and -9 activities and intracellular ROS levels. Furthermore, ISL-induced apoptosis was controlled by the activation of TRP melastatin 7 and TRP vanilloid 2 channels. We hope these results contribute to increasing the efficiency of treatment of bladder cancer.
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was supported by a Korean National Research Foundation (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (grant No. 2014R1A5A2009936).
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Zhang XR, Wang SY, Sun W, Wei C. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits proliferation and metastasis of MKN28 gastric cancer cells by suppressing the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep 2018;18:3429-36.
Si L, Yang X, Yan X, Wang Y, Zheng Q. Isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells via a cyclin-dependent kinase-independent mechanism. Oncol Lett 2017;14:241-9.
Peng F, Du Q, Peng C, Wang N, Tang H, Xie X, et al
. A review: The pharmacology of isoliquiritigenin. Phytother Res 2015;29:969-77.
Zhao Z, Park SM, Guan L, Wu Y, Lee JR, Kim SC, et al
. Isoliquiritigenin attenuates oxidative hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride with or without buthionine sulfoximine. Chem Biol Interact 2015;225:13-20.
Asl MN, Hosseinzadeh H. Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza
sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res 2008;22:709-24.
Zhang B, Lai Y, Li Y, Shu N, Wang Z, Wang Y, et al
. Antineoplastic activity of isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, in androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells linked to G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Eur J Pharmacol 2018;821:57-67.
Chen XY, Ren HH, Wang D, Chen Y, Qu CJ, Pan ZH, et al
. Isoliquiritigenin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by inhibiting mitoNEET in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner in A375 human melanoma cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019;2019:9817576.
Li C, Zhou X, Sun C, Liu X, Shi X, Wu S. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of osteosarcoma cells. Oncol Rep 2019;41:2502-10.
Tian T, Sun J, Wang J, Liu Y, Liu H. Isoliquiritigenin inhibits cell proliferation and migration through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in A549 lung cancer cells. Oncol Lett 2018;16:6133-9.
Wang Z, Wang N, Liu P, Chen Q, Situ H, Xie T, et al
. MicroRNA-25 regulates chemoresistance-associated autophagy in breast cancer cells, a process modulated by the natural autophagy inducer isoliquiritigenin. Oncotarget 2014;5:7013-26.
Yoshida T, Horinaka M, Takara M, Tsuchihashi M, Mukai N, Wakada M, et al
. Combination of isoliquiritigenin and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand induces apoptosis in colon cancer HT29 cells. Environ Health Prev Med 2008;13:281-7.
Kamat AM, Hahn NM, Efstathiou JA, Lerner SP, Malmström PU, Choi W, et al
. Bladder cancer. Lancet 2016;388:2796-810.
Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al
. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136:E359-86.
Ramirez D, Gupta A, Canter D, Harrow B, Dobbs RW, Kucherov V, et al
. Microscopic haematuria at time of diagnosis is associated with lower disease stage in patients with newly diagnosed bladder cancer. BJU Int 2016;117:783-6.
Sanli O, Dobruch J, Knowles MA, Burger M, Alemozaffar M, Nielsen ME, et al
. Bladder cancer. Nat Rev Dis Primers 2017;3:17022.
Li D, Xu Y. Buforin IIb induced cell cycle arrest in liver cancer. Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2019;23:176-83.
Gan D, He W, Yin H, Gou X. β-elemene enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells through the ROS-AMPK signaling pathway. Oncol Lett 2020;19:291-300.
Hänze J, Kessel F, Di Fazio P, Hofmann R, Hegele A. Effects of multi and selective targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on function and signaling of different bladder cancer cells. Biomed Pharmacother 2018;106:316-25.
Choi EO, Park C, Hwang HJ, Hong SH, Kim GY, Cho EJ, et al
. Baicalein induces apoptosis via ROS-dependent activation of caspases in human bladder cancer 5637 cells. Int J Oncol 2016;49:1009-18.
Boulares AH, Zoltoski AJ, Contreras FJ, Yakovlev AG, Yoshihara K, Smulson ME. Regulation of DNAS1L3 endonuclease activity by poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation during etoposide-induced apoptosis. Role of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage in endonuclease activation. J Biol Chem 2022;277:372-8.
Gao SL, Kong CZ, Zhang Z, Li ZL, Bi JB, Liu XK. TRPM7 is overexpressed in bladder cancer and promotes proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth. Oncol Rep 2017;38:1967-76.
Cao R, Meng Z, Liu T, Wang G, Qian G, Cao T, et al
. Decreased TRPM7 inhibits activities and induces apoptosis of bladder cancer cells via ERK1/2 pathway. Oncotarget 2016;7:72941-60.
Song C, Bae Y, Jun J, Lee H, Kim ND, Lee KB, et al
. Identification of TG100-115 as a new and potent TRPM7 kinase inhibitor, which suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2017;1861:947-57.
Liu Q, Wang X. Effect of TRPV2 cation channels on the proliferation, migration and invasion of 5637 bladder cancer cells. Exp Ther Med 2013;6:1277-82.
Hisanaga E, Nagasawa M, Ueki K, Kulkarni RN, Mori M, Kojima I. Regulation of calcium-permeable TRPV2 channel by insulin in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 2009;58:174-84.
Yang G, Li X, Li X, Wang L, Li J, Song X, et al
. Traditional Chinese medicine in cancer care: A review of case series published in the Chinese literature. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:751046.
Safarzadeh E, Sandoghchian Shotorbani S, Baradaran B. Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment. Adv Pharm Bull 2014;4:421-7.
Qi F, Li A, Inagaki Y, Gao J, Li J, Kokudo N, et al
. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer. Biosci Trends 2010;4:297-307.
Pal SK, Shukla Y. Herbal medicine: Current status and the future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2003;4:281-8.
Yang HL, Chen CS, Chang WH, Lu FJ, Lai YC, Chen CC, et al
. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by Antrodia camphorata
. Cancer Lett 2006;231:215-27.
de Araújo Júnior RF, de Souza TP, Pires JG, Soares LA, de Araújo AA, Petrovick PR, et al
. A dry extract of Phyllanthus niruri
protects normal cells and induces apoptosis in human liver carcinoma cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2012;237:1281-8.
Shapovalov G, Ritaine A, Skryma R, Prevarskaya N. Role of TRP ion channels in cancer and tumorigenesis. Semin Immunopathol 2016;38:357-69.
Clapham DE. TRP channels as cellular sensors. Nat 2003;426:517-24.
Baylie RL, Brayden JE. TRPV channels and vascular function. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2011;203:99-116.
Yamada T, Ueda T, Shibata Y, Ikegami Y, Saito M, Ishida Y, et al
. TRPV2 activation induces apoptotic cell death in human T24 bladder cancer cells: A potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. Urol 2010;76:509.e1-7.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]