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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 71  |  Page : 499-509

Anticancer activity of Juniperus procera grown in southwestern region of Saudi Arabia on human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

1 Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Diagnostic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Jagadish Hosmani
Department of Diagnostics Dental Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha 61471
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_28_20

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Background: One of the popular ancient plants used to treat various diseases such as hyperglycemia, hepatitis, jaundice, bronchitis, and pneumonia has been Juniperus procera (JP). JP is abundantly seen in the region of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia, and is being used as a medicinal plant traditionally by local healers. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the anticancer properties of JP from Al-Baha region on SCC-9 cells. Materials and Methods: Colorimetric assays such as 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, sulforhodamine B assay, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were performed to check the cytotoxicity induced and cell viability. Assays evaluating cellular events such as apoptosis and cell cycle were also performed. Results: MTT assay revealed IC50value of 201.6 μg/ml. The cancer cells primed with increasing concentrations of JP displayed an enhanced emission of LDH at elevated concentrations contrasted to cells which were not treated. The samples of JP pooled fraction (PF) (6–9) treated at 160 μg/ml and 320 μg/ml concentration showed 8.39% and 23.37% and 17.35% and 20.89% in early and late phases of apoptosis, respectively. Sample P (PF 6-9) at 160 μg/ml and 320 μg/ml has induced a G2M phase arrest of up to 21.06% and 26.94%. Deoxyribose nucleic acid damage was compared in tested concentrations of sample JP with untreated control cells in SCC9 cells. SCC9 cells that were treated with sample JP PF 6–9 showed the olive moments 23.22 and 37.30 at concentrations 160 μg/ml and 320 μg/ml, respectively. Studies of gene expression showed that increased concentrations of JP triggered the development of caspases and p53. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds found in JP were effective and potent against the SCC-9 cancer cells.

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