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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 70  |  Page : 385-390

Anti-inflammatory activity of Zanthoxylum rhetsa bark fractions via suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

1 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terenganu, Malaysia
2 Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
4 Department of Microbiology, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Research Institute of Inflammatory Diseases, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea
6 Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Affiliated to Periyar University, Rasipuram; Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Palanisamy Arulselvan
Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Affiliated to Periyar University, Rasipuram - 637 408, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_486_19

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Background: Zanthoxylum rhetsa is a plant used in traditional medicine and is known to possess health benefits such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, and anti-diarrheal activities. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore and demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various solvent fractions of Z. rhetsa bark. Materials and Methods: The effect of crude methanolic extract and its fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) on the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) and inflammatory factors was tested via targeting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Results: Treatment with all the solvent fractions at various concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions, the chloroform fractions exhibited a significant inhibition of LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, these fractions effectively suppressed the expression of various NF-κB signaling targets, including NF-κB, nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 as well as inhibited the degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cell inhibitor, alpha (inhibitor of kappa B alpha [IκBα]). This anti-inflammatory effect was mediated by the prevention of IκBα degradation, as this protein prevents the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, initiating the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Conclusion: Thus, the Z. rhetsa chloroform fraction may be an effective natural anti-inflammatory agent against inflammation-associated diseases.

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