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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 16  |  Issue : 70  |  Page : 350-359

Comparison of antioxidant levels and anti-inflammatory activities of kelulut honey harvested at different month of intervals and its chemical compositions

1 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Cluster of Integrative Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
3 Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Yoke Keong Yong
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_451_19

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Background: Harvesting time might influence the biological activities of honey, which is crucial for honey quality. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the optimum time for harvesting kelulut honey (KH) by determining its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and chemical composition at different harvesting times. Materials and Methods: KH harvested at three different intervals (1, 2, and 3 months) was supplied by Rimbunan Hijau Bee Farm, located in Sarawak, Malaysia. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant level of KH were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and ferric-reducing ability of plasma assays, respectively. The cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of KH were evaluated on murine macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. The chemical composition of KH was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: TPC and antioxidant levels of KH collected at different intervals showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). KH at 1% concentration showed no cytotoxic activity toward RAW 264.7 cells after 24 h incubation. However, 1% KH showed no inhibition on NO production in LPS-induced RAW cells compared to the control. GC-MS revealed that hydroxymethylfurfural was present with the highest concentration in all samples. Conclusion: This study suggests that harvesting time does not influence the biological activities of KH.

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