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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 54  |  Page : 242-247

Protective effect of water extracted Spirulina maxima on glutamate-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cell

1 Department of Teaics, Seowon University, Musimseo-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Gangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea
3 Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science; Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Gangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea

Correspondence Address:
Choong Je Ma
Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341
Republic of Korea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_191_17

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Introduction: Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. Materials and Methods: S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. Results: The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. Conclusion: The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman's reagent; GSSG-R: Glutathione disulfide reductase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography.

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