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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 52  |  Page : 652-658

Superoxide scavenging and antiglycation activity of rhinacanthins-rich extract obtained from the leaves of Rhinacanthus nasutus


1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
2 Department of Chemistry, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Main Campus, Karachi-75300, Pakistan
3 Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
4 Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
5 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany; Phytomedicine and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Excellence Center, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_196_17

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Background: Oxidative stress and nonenzymatic protein glycation lead to serious diabetic complications that increase the risk of mortality. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf crude extracts are previously reported for their antidiabetic, antiglycation, and antioxidant potential. Objective: The present study was performed to prepare a standardized rhinacanthins-rich extract (RRE) and evaluate its superoxide scavenging and antiglycation effects as compared to its marker compounds, namely, rhinacanthin-C (RC), rhinacanthin-D (RD), and rhinacanthin-N (RN). Materials and Methods: RRE was obtained by microwave-assisted green extraction along with a simple step of fractionation using Amberlite® column. RC, RD, and RN were isolated from the RRE using silica gel column chromatography. Superoxide scavenging activity was performed by cyclic voltammetry, and fructose-mediated human serum albumin glycation model was used for antiglycation activity. In silico studies were conducted to identify the structure-activity relationships of rhinacanthins. Results: On the basis of kinetic measurements, RRE exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity via ErCi mechanism, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 8.0 μg/mL, antioxidant capacity of 39439 M−1, and binding constant of 45709 M−1. Antiglycation assay showed that RRE exhibited almost equivalent glycation inhibitory effect to that of RC, with IC50values of 39.7 and 37.3 μg/mL, respectively, but higher than that of RD (IC50 of 50.4 μg/mL), RN (IC50 of 89.5 μg/mL), as well as the positive control, rutin (IC50of 41.5 μg/mL). Conclusions: The potent superoxide scavenging and albumin glycation inhibitory effect of RRE rationalized its therapeutic application in various chronic diseases, especially in the complications of diabetes. Abbreviations used: RRE: Rhinacanthins-rich extract; RC: Rhinacanthin-C; RD: Rhinacanthin-D; RN: Rhinacanthin-N; IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration; Kao: Antioxidant activity coefficient; Kb: Binding constant; ErCi: Reversible electron transfer followed by an irreversible chemical reaction; DM: Diabetes mellitus; AGEPs: Advanced glycation end products; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; CV: Cyclic voltammetry; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; Ipa: Anodic peak current; Ipc: Cathodic peak current; HSA: Human serum albumin; MOE: Molecular operating environment; PASSonline: Online prediction of activity spectra for substances.


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