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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 51  |  Page : 715-722

Molecular simulation-based combinatorial modeling and antioxidant activities of zingiberaceae family rhizomes


1 DBT-BIF Facility, Biotechnology Finishing School, Science Research Centre; Department of Biochemistry, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Sikkim State Council of Science and Technology, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
3 Centre for Bamboo Studies, Department of Biotechnology, Bodoland University, Kokrajhar, Assam, India
4 DBT-BIF Facility, Biotechnology Finishing School, Science Research Centre, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Biotechnology, Sapthagiri College of Engineering, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Biotechnology, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India
7 Department of Biochemistry, Bangalore University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
8 Centre for Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
9 DBT-BIF Facility, Biotechnology Finishing School, Science Research Centre; Department of Biotechnology, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Sushil Kumar Middha
Department of Biotechnology, Biotechnology Finishing School, Science Research Centre, DBT-BIF Facility, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women, Bengaluru - 560 012, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_82_17

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Objective: The main aim of this scientific report was to investigate a series of phytochemicals in silico and the pharmacology of four plants found at higher altitude in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae (incl. Costaceae) from North-East India, particularly Sikkim. First, the goal was to determine the biological activities of the four herbs (used under Zingiberaceae family) using antioxidant assays to identify the best species. Second, previously reported compounds in litero were subsequently screened for their anticancerous activities using in silico methods. Materials and Methods: Using the methanolic extracts of herbs, quantitative detection of phytochemicals such as total phenols and total flavonoids was detected, and the free radical scavenging activity was also studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Docking process was studied, using Discovery Studio version 3.5, to identify suitable molecules at the protein-binding sites through annealing and genetic simulation algorithms. Grids centered on active sites were obtained with spacing of 54 × 55 × 56, and 0.503 grid spacing was calculated. The methods adopted and used in this study were comparisons of Global and Local Search Methods to determine the parameters such as maximum number of 250,000 energy evaluations as well as generations of 27,000, followed by mutation and crossover rates of 0.02 and 0.80. The number of docking runs was set to 10. Molecular dynamics study was done to check the stability of the complex. Results: Among all the genus of Zingiberaceae family investigated in this study, Curcuma angustifolia and Hedychium sp. exhibited the highest 537 ± 12.45; 292 ± 9.16 mg gallic acid equivalent/g total polyphenols and 38 ± 1.54; 75 ± 6.75 mg quercetin equivalent/g flavonoids, respectively. Depending on the concentration, the Hedychium sp. extract exerted the highest scavenging activity on DPPH radical (IC50 36.4 μ g/mL). In silico result demonstrated that the synergetic effects of β -phellandrene with other compounds might be responsible for its anticancerous activity. β -phellandrene and farnesene epoxide showed bonding with Leu298, Ala302, Met336, Leu339, Leu343, Phe356, Ala302, Glu 305, Met340, Leu343, Arg346, Phe356, Ile373, Ile376, Leu380, His475, Leu476, and Leu491. Conclusion: Based on the current available literature, this is the first study to understand the interaction of compounds found in the rhizomes of Zingiberaceae family. Abbreviations used: CADD: Computer-aided drug designing; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; ADMET: Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion-toxicity; FeCl3: Ferric chloride; DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl; NaNO2: Sodium nitrite; TCA: Trichloroacetic acid; K2HPO4: Di-potassium hydrogen phosphate; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide; KH2PO4: Potassium di-hydrogen phosphate, K2Fe (CN)6: Potassium ferricyanide; KOH: Potassium hydroxide; NaOH: Sodium hydroxide; Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate; CH3COONa: Sodium acetate; AlCl3: Aluminum chloride.


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