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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 51  |  Page : 613-622

Chemotaxonomic diversity of three Ficus species: Their discrimination using chemometric analysis and their role in combating oxidative stress


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed Lotfy Ashour
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, African Unity Organization Street, Abbassia, Cairo 11566
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_579_16

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Background: Genus Ficus (Moraceae) constitutes more than 850 species and about 2000 varieties and it acts as a golden mine that could afford effective and safe remedies combating many health disorders. Objectives: Discrimination of Ficus cordata, Ficus ingens, and Ficus palmata using chemometric analysis and assessment of their role in combating oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical profiling of the methanol extracts of the three Ficus species and their successive fractions was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Their discrimination was carried out using the obtained spectral data applying chemometric unsupervised pattern-recognition techniques, namely, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. In vitro hepatoprotective and antioxidant evaluation of the samples was performed using human hepatocellular carcinoma cells challenged by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Results: Altogether, 22 compounds belonging to polyphenolics, flavonoids, and furanocoumarins were identified in the three Ficus species. Aviprin is the most abundant compound in F. cordata while chlorogenic acid and psoralen were present in high percentages in F. ingens and F. palmata, respectively. Chemometric analyses showed that F. palmata and F. cordata are more closely related chemically to each other rather than F. ingens. The ethyl acetate fractions of all the examined species showed a marked hepatoprotective efficacy accounting for 54.78%, 55.46%, and 56.42% reduction in serum level of alanine transaminase and 56.82%, 54.16%, and 57.06% suppression in serum level of aspartate transaminase, respectively, at 100 μ g/mL comparable to CCl4-treated cells. Conclusion: Ficus species exhibited a notable antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity owing to their richness in polyphenolics and furanocoumarins. Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine transaminase, AST: Aspartate transaminase, CCl4:Carbon tetrachloride, DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, FCA: Ficus cordata remaining aqueous fraction, FCB: Ficus cordata n-butanol fraction, FCE: Ficus cordata ethyl acetate fraction, FCP: Ficus cordata petroleum ether fraction, FCT: Ficus cordata total methanol extract, FIA: Ficus ingens remaining aqueous fraction, FIB: Ficus ingens n-butanol fraction, FIE: Ficus ingens ethyl acetate fraction, FIP: Ficus ingens petroleum ether fraction, FIT: Ficus ingens total methanol extract, FPA: Ficus palmata remaining aqueous fraction, FPB: Ficus palmata n-butanol fraction, FPE: Ficus palmata ethyl acetate fraction, FPP: Ficus palmata petroleum ether fraction, FPT: Ficus palmata total methanol extract, GSH: Reduced glutathione,HepG2 cells: Human hepatocellular carcinoma, HPLC-ESI-MS: High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and SOD: Superoxide dismutase.


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