Protective effect of Pluchea lanceolata against aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice
Ravi Mundugaru1, Senthilkumar Sivanesan2, Padmaja Udaykumar3, Niranjan Rao4, Naveen Chandra5
1 Department of Pharmacology, S.D.M. Centre for Research in Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Research and Development, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Pharmacology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of PG Studies in Panchakarma, S.D.M. College of Ayurveda, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Biochemistry, S.D.M. Centre for Research in Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India
Department of Research and Development, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is a known potent environmental neurotoxin causing progressive neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The herb Pluchea lanceolata is commonly known as “Rasana” and used as a nerve tonic in neuroinflammatory conditions in Indian system of medicine. Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata in chronic AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Albino mice were categorized into four different groups; Group 1served as vehicle control, Group 2 mice were administered with AlCl3, 40 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route for 45 consecutive days. Groups 3 and 4 mice were administered with AlCl3, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal for 45 consecutive days along with hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Results: Chronic administration of AlCl3resulted in behavioral deficits, triggered lipid peroxidation, increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and histological alterations. Co-administration of hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata attenuated many of the AlCl3-induced alterations such as behavioral, lipid peroxidation, AChE, and histological changes of brain tissue. Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata against AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. The neuroprotective efficacy of P. lanceolata can help reduce the symptoms caused by toxic protein aggregates in several degenerative diseases.
Abbreviations used: HAPL: Hydro alcoholic extract of Pluchea lanceolata; CAT: Catalase; GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; TBARS: Thio-barbituric acid reactive substances; MDA: Malondialdehyde; AChE: Acetylcholine esterase; AOT: Acute oral toxicity; CNS: Central nervous system; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide; ML: molecular layer; GL: granular layer; MC: microcytic changes; BV: blood vessels; DG: dentate gyrus; PC: pyramidal cells; LD: Lethal dose; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; SEM: Standard error of mean; PCL: Pyramidal cell layer; OCL: Outer granular layer; BV: blood vessels; PM: Pia mater.