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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 51  |  Page : 430-436

Biological effect of Cynara cardunculus on kidney status of hypercholesterolemic rats

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Abdullah Glil Alkushi
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah 21955
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_14_17

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Context: Cynara cardunculus or artichoke thistle belongs to the sunflower family and has a variety of cultivable forms. Historically, it was cultivated as a vegetable, but more recently, it is being used in cheese and biofuel preparation. Artichoke leaf extracts are also known for its medicinal purposes, particularly in reducing the elevated cholesterol levels in blood. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is also associated with other complications such as impaired renal function and diabetes mellitus. A remedy without major side effects for HC and its associated complications is highly desirable. Aims: We explored the effect of artichoke on the kidneys of hypercholesterolemic adult male Sprague–Dawley albino rats. Subjects and Methods: Oral administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) of C. cardunculus leaf extract (CCL) and C. cardunculus pulp extract (CCP) was made to male Sprague–Dawley albino hypercholesterolemic rats and investigated the levels of glucose, creatinine, uric acid, and urea in their blood. Results: We observed that both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the creatinine and uric acid levels in the blood in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Both CCL and CCP significantly reduced the blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). Further, the histopathological investigation of the kidney sections showed that CCL treatment resolved HC-associated kidney damage. Conclusion: CCL not only has cholesterol-reducing capacity but also reduces the blood glucose levels and repairs the impaired kidney functions and damages. These findings are significant particularly because HC results in further complications such as diabetes and kidney damage, both of which can be treated effectively with artichoke. Abbreviations used: HC: Hypercholesterolemia, WHO: World Health Organization, BAS: Bile acid sequestrant, PCSK9: Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9, ALE: Artichoke leaf extract, CCL: Cynara cardunculus leaf extract, CCP: Cynara cardunculus pulp extract, BWG%: Body weight gain%, FER: Food-efficiency ratio.

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