Simultaneous determination of four compounds, campesterol, emodin8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin in Reynoutria sachalinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector
Min Rye Eom1, Jin Bae Weon1, Youn Sik Jung1, Ga Hee Ryu1, Woo Seung Yang1, Choong Je Ma2
1 Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science; Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
|Date of Submission||15-Jun-2016|
|Date of Acceptance||01-Sep-2016|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Jul-2017|
Choong Je Ma
Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Hyoja-2 Dong, Chuncheon 200-701
Republic of Korea
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Reynoutria sachalinensis is a well-known and used herbal medicine to treatment of arthralgia, jaundice, amenorrhea, coughs, carbuncles, and sores. Objective: We have developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis method for simultaneous determination of isolated four compounds, campesterol, emodin8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin from R. sachalinensis is. Materials and Methods: The four compounds were separated on Shiseido C18column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) at a column temperature of 25°C. The mobile phase composed of water and methanol with gradient elution system, and flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 205 nm. Results: Validation of this analytical method was evaluated by linearity, precision, and accuracy test. This established method had good linearity (R2 > 0.997). The relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day testing were indicated that <2%, and accuracy is 91.66%–103.31% at intraday and 91.69%–103.31% at intraday. The results of recovery test were 92.60%–108.99%. Conclusion: In these results, developed method was accurate and reliable to the quality evaluation of campesterol, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin isolated from R. sachalinensis.
Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, DAD: Diode array detector, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantitation, ICH: International Conference on Harmonisation.
Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography, quality control, Reynoutria sachalinensis, simultaneous determination, validation
|How to cite this article:|
Eom MR, Weon JB, Jung YS, Ryu GH, Yang WS, Ma CJ. Simultaneous determination of four compounds, campesterol, emodin8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin in Reynoutria sachalinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Phcog Mag 2017;13, Suppl S2:258-61
|How to cite this URL:|
Eom MR, Weon JB, Jung YS, Ryu GH, Yang WS, Ma CJ. Simultaneous determination of four compounds, campesterol, emodin8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin in Reynoutria sachalinensis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Oct 27];13, Suppl S2:258-61. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2017/13/50/258/210167
- We have developed high-performance liquid analysis method for simultaneous determination of 4 compounds of Reynoutria sachalinensis.
| Introduction|| |
Reynoutria sachalinensis belongs to Polygonaceae family, is a well-known and used herbal medicine from Northeastern Asia and Russia. R. sachalinensis is has been traditionally used to treatment of arthralgia, jaundice, amenorrhea, coughs, scalds, burns, traumatic injuries, carbuncles, and sores. The previous study showed that anthraquinones and flavonoids in flower of R. sachalinensis are extracts have antioxidant activity and vanicoside A and B of rhizomes of R. sachalinensis are exhibited β-glucosidase inhibitory activity.,, In addition, resveratrol in stem and root of R. sachalinensis is has the anti-cancer effects, and R. sachalinensis leaves extracts can be used as a plant fungicide against powdery mildew.,
Phytochemical studies revealed that R. sachalinensis contain phenolic compounds, anthraquinones, stilbenes, and flavonoids.,,,,,,,
Recently, the use of herbal medicines has increased as food and medicines. Several compounds in natural products increase the therapeutic effect due to the synergistic effect. However, mixed with a lot of compound materials have difficulty in quality control. In addition, the content of the bioactive compound is affected by the area, temperature, and other factors. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method for the quantitative analysis of compounds in natural products and many researchers developed a quality control analysis of natural products. The simple and reliable analysis method has been used for quality control of a wide range of medicinal herbs.,
In general, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is one of the chromatography and relative techniques and is used for analysis of compounds in herbal medicine. HPLC is a simple and accurate analysis method for herbal medicine and can separate complex compounds mixture. Thus, HPLC was applied for quality control of herbal medicine over the past decades.
In this study, we established to simultaneous determination method for effective qualitative and quantitative analysis of four compounds, campesterol, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Plants and analysis regents
The stem and flower of R. sachalinensis were collected from medicinal herb field in Kangwon National University in Chuncheon, Korea. The voucher specimen (No. CJ152M) has been deposited in the natural products laboratory, the Kangwon National University in Chuncheon, Korea. HPLC grade solvents, water, and acetonitrile were purchased from J. T. Baker (USA). Trifluoroacetic acid was purchased from Dae Jung in Korea.
High-performance liquid chromatography equipment and conditions
Four compounds were analyzed using the HPLC (Dionex Ultimate 3000 System, Germany). The HPLC was coupled with a pump (LPG 3X00), an auto sampler (ACC-3000), a column oven (TCC-3000SD), and diode array ultraviolet (UV)/visible detector (DAD-3000RS). Separation of R. sachalinensis was performed with Shiseido C18 column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm), and the column temperature was maintained at room temperature. The mobile phase was composed of water (A) and methanol (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and the sample injection volume was 20 μl. The gradient flow was as follows: 0–5 min 0% B, 5–30 min 0%–50% B, 30–35 min 50% B, 35–40 min 95% B, 40–50 min 95% B, 50–60 min 95%–100% B, and 60–65 min 100%–0% B. The diode array detector (DAD) was set at 205, 254, 280, and 330 nm.
Preparation of standard and sample solutions
Compounds were dissolved in methanol to prepare the stock solution of campesterol (4) (2000 μg/ml), emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) (50 μg/ml), quercetin (8) (100 μg/ml), and isoquercitrin (9) (500 μg/ml), respectively. Chemical structures of compounds were presented in [Figure 1]. The stock solution was diluted appropriately with methanol for use as a working standard solution. The working solutions were used for calibration curve and method validation. Stock solution and working solutions were stored 4°C before HPLC analysis. The dried stem and flower of R. sachalinensis were extracted by ultrasonication extraction in 80% methanol. The solvents were removed at 40°C using vacuum evaporator and obtained the residues were freeze-dried. All solutions were filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter before HPLC analysis.
|Figure 1: Chemical structures of standard compounds. 1: Campesterol, 2: Emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3: Quercetin, 4: Isoquercitrin|
Click here to view
Validation of the high-performance liquid chromatography method
The reproducibility and accuracy of the HPLC established method were confirmed by performing the linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, and accuracy test in accordance with the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation. The stock solution was diluted to the appropriate concentration with methanol for the construction of the calibration curve. The correlation of coefficient (R2) was used as measure of linearity. The LOD and LOQ data were obtained based on signal-to-noise ratios of about 3.3 and 10, respectively. The precision of the HPLC method was carried out though intra- and inter-day test and expressed and assessed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) (%). Accuracy was expressed using a spike recovery test. The spike recoveries were calculated by following equation: Spike recovery (%) = (total amount detected − amount original)/amount spiked × 100%.
| Results and Discussion|| |
Optimization of high-performance liquid chromatography chromatographic conditions
To obtain optimal analysis conditions, different wavelength and solvent composition were tested repeatedly. Mobile phase consisted with water and methanol and the maximum absorption wavelength of four compounds set at 205 nm. The peaks were identified by comparing the retention time of each compound in HPLC chromatogram and UV spectrum [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: The high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram of standard mixture.(a) stem n-hexane fraction of Reynoutria sachalinensis.(b) and flower effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Reynoutria sachalinensis.(c). 1: campesterol, 2: emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3: quercetin, 4: isoquercitrin|
Click here to view
Linearity, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation
Calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area (Y) and each concentration of four compounds (x, μg/ml). The correlation coefficient (R2) value showed a very good linearity (R2 > 0.997) in the linear range. The LOD and LOQ values were in the range 1.13 μg/ml and 3.44 μg/ml, respectively [Table 1]. These results showed high sensitivity of this established HPLC-DAD method.
|Table 1: The regression data, limit of detection, and limit of quantitations four isolated compounds analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector|
Click here to view
Precision and accuracy
The precision of developed HPLC analysis method was investigated by intra- and inter-day test, and then, precision was evaluated by the RSD values. As results, RSD values were showed that 0.06%–0.74% at intraday, 0.07%–0.52% at interday, respectively. In addition, accuracy of intra- and inter-day was ranged with 91.66–103.31 and 91.69–103.31%, respectively. These results are shown in [Table 2]. In addition, the recovery test was carried out to verify the accuracy of the method. Recovery of compounds was ranged with 92.60%–108.99% [Table 3].
Analysis of Reynoutria sachalinensis sample
The content of the four compounds analyzed in stem and flower of R. sachalinensis extract using the established HPLC method. The peaks of each compound were separated successfully without interference of other compounds within 60 min. The amount of compound contained in each fraction was calculated by the calibration curves of standard. The result is shown in [Table 4].
| Conclusion|| |
In this study, we have developed a HPLC analysis method for simultaneous determination of four compounds campesterol, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin in R. sachalinensis. The developed method showed good linearity, precision, and recovery. In addition, this method was demonstrated sensitive, reliable, and reproducible for simultaneous determination of R. sachalinensis. Therefore, the present study provided an example for quality evaluation and identification of medicinal effect of R. sachalinensis using the HPLC.
This study was supported by 2016 Research Grant from Kangwon National University (No. 520150316).
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Pharmacopoeia Commission of PRC. Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Beijing: China Medical Science and Technology Press; 1997. p. 1-202.
Kawai Y, Kumagai H, Kurihara H, Yamazaki K, Sawano R, Inoue N. Beta-glucosidase inhibitory activities of phenylpropanoid glycosides, vanicoside A and B from Polygonum sachalinense
rhizome. Fitoterapia 2006;77:456-9.
Zhang X, Thuong PT, Jin W, Su ND, Sok DE, Bae K, et al.
Antioxidant activity of anthraquinones and flavonoids from flower of Reynoutria sachalinensis
. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:22-7.
Bailey JP, Conolly AP. Prize-winners to pariahs – A history of Japanese knotweed s. l. (Polygonaceae)
in the British Isles. Watsonia 2000;23:93-110.
Ignatowicz E, Baer-Dubowska W. Resveratrol, a natural chemopreventive agent against degenerative diseases. Pol J Pharmacol 2001;53:557-69.
Daayf F, Schmitt A, Belanger RR. Evidence of phytoalexins in cucumber leaves infected with powdery mildew following treatment with leaf extracts of Reynoutria sachalinensis
. Plant Physiol 1997;113:719-27.
Fan P, Hay AE, Marston A, Lou H, Hostettmann K. Chemical variability of the invasive neophytes Polygonum cuspidatum
Sieb. and Zucc. and Polygonum sachalinensis
F. Schmidt ex Maxim. Biochem Syst Ecol 2009;37:24-34.
Kang SS, Woo WS. Anthraquinones from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense
. Korean J Pharmacogn 1982;13:7-9.
Xiao K, Xuan L, Xu Y, Bai D, Zhong D. Constituents from Polygonum cuspidatum
. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50:605-8.
Vastano BC, Chen Y, Zhu N, Ho CT, Zhou Z, Rosen RT. Isolation and identification of stilbenes in two varieties of Polygonum cuspidatum.
J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:253-6.
Hua Y, Zhou JY, Ni W, Chen CX. Studies on the constituents of Reynoutria japonica
Houtt. Natural Product R & D 2001;13:16-8.
Xiao K, Xuan L, Xu Y, Bai D. Stilbene glycoside sulfates from Polygonum cuspidatum.
J Nat Prod 2000;63:1373-6.
Kang SS, Woo WS. Flavonoids from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense
Fr. Schm. (I). Korean J Pharmacogn 1981;12:208-10.
Kang SS, Woo WS. A flavonoid glycoside from the leaves of Polygonum sachalinense
(II). Arch Pharmacal Res 1982;5:13-5.
Drasar P, Moravcova J. Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines. J Chromatogr B 2004;812:3-21.
Fan XH, Cheng YY, Ye ZL, Lin RC, Qian ZZ. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines. Anal Chim Acta 2006;555:217-24.
Wei H, Sun L, Tai Z, Gao S, Xu W, Chen W. A simple and sensitive HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of eight bioactive components and fingerprint analysis of Schisandra sphenanthera
. Anal Chim Acta 2010;662:97-104.
Steinmann D, Ganzera M. Recent advances on HPLC/MS in medicinal plant analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2011;55:744-57.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]