Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 

  Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 50  |  Page : 222-225  

Flavonoids isolated from the flowers of Limonium bicolor and their in vitro antitumor evaluation

1 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing; The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing, China
2 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China

Date of Submission25-Nov-2015
Date of Acceptance21-Jan-2016
Date of Web Publication18-Apr-2017

Correspondence Address:
Weilin Li
Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.204566

Rights and Permissions

Background: Limonium bicolor, a halophytic species, can grow in saline or saline-alkali soil, is well known as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recently it attracted much attention for its treatment for cancer. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate this species from the phytochemical standpoint and the possible relationship between the antitumor activity and its natural products. Materials and methods: The chemical constituents from the flowers of L. bicolor were investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. All the individual compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analysis and their potential antitumor activity was tested against three different human tumor cell lines by MTT assays. Results: The EtOAc extract was proven as the most potent fraction and further fractionation led to the isolation of 15 natural flavonoids, which were characterized as luteolin (1), acacetin (2), quercetin (3), isorhamnetin (4), kaempferol (5), eriodictyol (6), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (8), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (9), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (10), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside (11), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (12), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (13), hesperidin (14) and rutin (15). The biotesting results demonstrated that both compounds 1 and 3 showed good cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells (LOVO). Compound 5 exhibited relative greater growth inhibition against both human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and osteosarcoma cell lines (U2-OS) at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. Conclusion: On the basis of these findings, the flavonoids were deduced to be potentially responsible for the antitumor activity of L. bicolor. The preliminary structure–activity relationship analysis suggests that the 3-O-glycosylation moiety in natural flavonoids was not essential for the antiproliferative activity on LOVO and U2-OS cells.
Abbreviation used: MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; LOVO: human colon cancer; MCF-7: human breast, cancer; U2-OS: human osteosarcoma; 5-FU: 5-Fluorouracil; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide, NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance; HR-ESI-MS: high resolution electrospray ionization mass chromatography, HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography, EtOH: ethanol; n-BuOH: n-butanol; CC: column chromatography, TLC: thin layer chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline.

Keywords: Limonium bicolor, flavonoids, antitumor activity

How to cite this article:
Chen J, Teng J, Ma L, Tong H, Ren B, Wang L, Li W. Flavonoids isolated from the flowers of Limonium bicolor and their in vitro antitumor evaluation. Phcog Mag 2017;13:222-5

How to cite this URL:
Chen J, Teng J, Ma L, Tong H, Ren B, Wang L, Li W. Flavonoids isolated from the flowers of Limonium bicolor and their in vitro antitumor evaluation. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Nov 28];13:222-5. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2017/13/50/222/204566


  • The phytochemical investigation of Limonium bicolor led to the isolation of 15 flavonoids.
  • The biotesting of the isolates against three different human tumor cell lines was evaluated.
  • The structure-antitumor activity relationship between the isolated flavonoids was discussed.

   Introduction Top

Among the hundreds of salt-tolerant halophytes, many Limonium species of the family Plumbaginaceae have been used to treat a wide variety of therapeutic purposes. Limonium bicolor (Bunge) O. Kuntze, a halophytic species can grow in saline or saline-alkali soil, is well known as a traditional Chinese medicine to be used for the treatment of anemia, hemostasis, emmeniopathy and carcinoma uteri.[1] In literatures, the presence of polysaccharides,[2] flavonoids,[3],[4],[5],[6] steroids,[7] and sulfated phenolics[8] in Limonium species have been reported. However, a comprehensive evaluation of L. bicolor from the phytochemical standpoint was scarcely performed, let alone the possible relationship between the antitumor activity and the natural products from this species. The present research focuses on the isolation and identification of the active chemical constituents from L. bicolor. Furthermore, the evaluation of the isolated compounds on potential antitumor activity, is also the purpose of this paper.

   Materials and Methods Top

Plant material

The aerial parts of L. bicolor (Bunge.) O. Kuntz were collected in June 2011 in the south of Taibai Mountain, Shaanxi (China). The plant was identified by Professor Liu Qi-Xin at the Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). A voucher specimen (No. 11808-1) was deposited in the herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Chemicals and instrumentations

Silica gel 60 (0.015–0.040 mm; Merck) was used as normal phase, whereas LiChroprep RP-18 (40-63 μm; Merck) was used as reversed phase column material. MCI gel CHP20P (75-150 μm; Mitsubishi Chemical Corp.) and Sephadex LH-20 (GE healthcare) were used for column chromatography as well. MCF-7, a breast cancer line in women, and LOVO, a human colon carcinoma cell line, together with U2-OS, an osteosarcoma cell were all obtained from Chinese Academy of Sciences Center for Type Culture Collection (Shanghai). 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was used as a positive control. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) were purchased from BioSHARP and Solarbio Company, respectively. All the other cell-culture reagents were purchased from Gibco Company and all the other chemicals were of the highest-grade available.

TLC analyses were carried out on silica gel plates (KG60-F254, Merck). The melting point was measured with an X-6 micromelting point apparatus (Beijing Tech). 1H and 13C NMR spectra were obtained on a Bruker Avance III 400 spectrometer in DMSO-d6 (Sigma-Aldrich). HR–ESI–MS spectrum was measured on an Agilent 6530 UPLC-Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Preparative HPLC was performed on Shimadzu model LC-6AD pump equipped with a SPD-20A detector. The absorbance of 96-well microtiter plate in inhibitory assay was measured with a microplate spectrophotometer Molecular Devices Plus 384.

Extraction of the flavonoids

The flower parts of L. bicolor (7.5 kg) were dried and cut into small pieces and extracted with 80% aqueous EtOH at room temperature for 30 days twice to afford crude extract (450 g) after evaporation in vacuo of the solvent. The crude extract was suspended in water and partitioned successively with n-hexane, EtOAc, and n-BuOH. The fractionations were filtered and concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure with a rotavapor at 40°C to afford a dark green n-hexane residue, a dark brown EtOAc residue (120 g, 1.6% yield), and a dark-brown n-BuOH residue, respectively.

Purification and isolation of the flavonoids

All the aforementioned residues were applied to evaluate their cytotoxicity against three different human tumor cell lines. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL, the EtOAc extract showed the highest inhibitory activity of 87.89%, 99.04%, and 80.78% against LOVO, U2-OS, and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively.

The EtOAc extract (120 g) was further subjected to macroporous resin D101 column chromatography (CC) eluting with a gradient solvent system (H2O/EtOH). Fractions E1~5 were obtained after being pooled according to their TLC profiles. Fraction E2 (12 g) was further subjected to repeated CC over Polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 to furnish fractions. The combined fractions were finally purified by prep-HPLC to afford compounds 1 and 2. Fractions E3 (25 g) and E4 (10 g) were purified through repeated CC followed by prep-HPLC method to yield compounds 3-11 and 12-15, respectively.

Cytotoxic assay against LOVO, U2-OS, MCF-7 cell lines

According to the documented method with some modification,[9],[10],[11] the antitumor activities of the isolated fifteen compounds were evaluated against human tumor cell lines using the MTT assay, which is based on the ability of glycolytic pathway enzymes to cleave MTT to the blue compound formazan. Briefly, cells were seeded in 96-well microplates (1 × 104 cells/well in 200 μL of medium). After 12 h, the cells were treated with serial concentrations (4, 20, and 100 μg/mL) of individual flavonoid for 48 h, and 5-FU was used as a positive control. The final concentration of DMSO in culture medium was maintained at 0.5%. After the exposure period, 10 μL of MTT (5 mg/mL) in PBS solution was added to each well and the plate was further incubated for 4 h. The supernatant was removed carefully by pipetting from wells without disturbing the attached cells and formazan crystals were solubilized by adding 150 μL of DMSO to each well. The absorbance at 570 nm was measured with a microplate reader using wells without cells as control. The cytotoxicity (%) of samples against the proliferation of cancer cell lines was calculated from the following formula: (A570 of control cells-A570 of treated cells)/A570 of control cells × 100%. All the experiments were performed in triplicate.

   Results and Discussion Top

Identification of the isolated compounds

Fifteen flavonoids [Figure 1] including types of flavone, dihydroflavone, flavonol, and their glycosides were isolated from the flowers of L. bicolor. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized by analysis of their spectral data (ESI-MS, 1H and 13C NMR) and by comparison with literature data. They were identified as luteolin 1,[12] acacetin 2,[13] quercetin 3,[14] isorhamnetin 4,[12] kaempferol 5,[14] eriodictyol 6,[14] kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside 7,[13] kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside 8,[15] quercetin-3- O-α-L-rhamnoside 9,[14] quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 10,[15] quercetin-3-O-β-D- galactoside 11,[14] myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside 12,[14] kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside 13,[15] hesperidin 14,[16] and rutin 15.[15] Among them, the compounds 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, and 15 were isolated for the first time from this plant, whereas the compounds 2, 8, 13, and 14 have not been obtained from the genus Limonium.
Figure 1: Structures of natural flavonoids isolated from the flowers of L. bicolor

Click here to view

Inhibitory activities of isolates against LOVO cells

The potential anticancer activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in terms of LOVO proliferation. As shown in [Table 1], luteolin,[1] quercetin,[3] and acacetin[2] exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against LOVO cells when 100 μg/mL were used, with values higher than that of positive 5-FU (72.30%). At same concentration, isorhamnetin[4] and kaempferol[5] both displayed a moderate cytotoxicity against LOVO cells. In particular, the inhibition effect was reduced with the decreased concentration and a dose-dependent effect was observed on cell viability and proliferation in the tested range. It is noteworthy that both kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside[7] and quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside[9] exhibited a reduced effect to the same concentration of their aglycones, suggesting that 3-O-glycosylation moiety in these flavonoids was not essential for the inhibitory activity. This conclusion could be proved by the fact that no clear inhibition of cell proliferation was found when quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside,[10] hesperidin[14] and rutin[15] were used.
Table 1: Inhibitory effect of isolates from L. bicolor on proliferation in LOVO cells

Click here to view

Inhibitory activities of isolates against U2-OS cells

As shown in [Table 2], luteolin[1] and acacetin[2] all showed a remarkable cytotoxicity on U2-OS cells with serial concentrations. The dose-dependent effects were observed in U2-OS cells as well. Interestingly, eriodictyol[6] resulted in a considerable inhibition of proliferation against U2-OS cells, which was relative slight in response to cytotoxicity against LOVO cells. On the contrary, kaempferol[5] displayed almost no inhibition activity against U2-OS cells at serial concentrations. In addition, only kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside[8] and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside[12] showed very limited cytotoxicity (inhibition >10%) against U2-OS cells, suggesting that glycosylation of flavonoid aglycones will decrease their abilities on antiproliferative property.
Table 2: Inhibitory effect of isolates from L. bicolor on proliferation in U2-OS cells

Click here to view

Inhibitory activities of isolates against MCF-7 cells

As shown in [Table 3], only acacetin[2] resulted in a considerable inhibition of proliferation against MCF-7 cells, suggesting a particular effect regarding the cytotoxicity of this compound. On the contrary to the effect of flavonoids against LOVO and U2-OS cells, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside[7] and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside[8] displayed relative higher inhibition activity against MCF-7 cells at serial concentrations. The rest of isolated flavonoids showed very limited cytotoxicity even with highest concentration, whereas both hesperidin[14] and rutin[15] with two sugars moiety in their structures displayed no clear inhibition of cell proliferation, suggesting that glycosylation by only one single sugar on aglycones could slightly increase their abilities on antiproliferative property.
Table 3: Inhibitory effect of isolates from L. bicolor on proliferation in MCF-7 cells

Click here to view

   Conclusion Top

Although dozens of natural products were reported in genus Limonium, it is still important to point out that it is rare for such abundant flavonoids isolated from one single species. Natural flavonoids, triterpenoids, and alkaloids were reported to be related with cytotoxicity against cancer cells.[17],[18],[19],[20] However, the potential anticancer activity of the isolates from L. bicolor was far less explored. In the present study, many of the flavonoids isolated from the flowers of L. bicolor seem active for the inhibition of the cancer cell lines studied. The influence of the type of flavonoid itself, the glycosylation, and the number of sugar moieties in their structure were evaluated. By comparison of the inhibitory activity of proliferation in LOVO cell lines, luteolin,[1] acacetin[2] and quercetin[3] showed relative higher cytotoxicity, suggesting that one unsubstituted allylic hydrogen on C3-position and two adjacent hydroxyl groups in B-ring seem much more important for the inhibitory potency. These results were in agreement with the previous report on unglycosylated flavonoids.[21] In addition, the present study demonstrated that the flavonoid glycosides with sugar moiety in their structure displayed less significant effect on the inhibition of LOVO cells, indicating that 3-O-glycosylation in flavonoid was not essential for the antiproliferative activity. Regarding the inhibition of U2-OS cell lines by the isolated flavonoids, both acacetin[2] as an O-methylated flavone and eriodictyol[6] as a flavanone have proven to show strong cytotoxicity, implying that they could play important roles of action with specific mechanism. Among the rest compounds tested, such as quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside,[9] quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside,[10] quercetin-3-O-β-D- galactoside,[11] and rutin,[15] bearing different types of sugar core, were inactive against the U2-OS cell lines, indicating that addition of sugar moiety at position C3 was meaningless for the increase of the inhibitory activity in vitro. The present study also demonstrated that acacetin[2] displayed the most significant effect on the inhibition of proliferation in MCF-7 cell lines, suggesting that the methyl ester of the isolates influence their activities a lot.

As a conclusion, the firstly anticancer screening of fractionations characterized the EtOAc extract as the most potent fraction. Following a bioassay-guided chemical investigation on its antitumor constituents of the flowers of L. bicolor, led to the trace of 15 natural flavonoids. The result from the present study would be a complementary evidence for the use of L. species in the treatment of cancer. The biological screening suggested that the flavonoids in L. bicolor are among the major constituents responsible for its anticancer activity.

Financial support and sponsorship

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Fund of China (No. 31400287), and the Key Laboratory Fund of Jiangsu Center forResearch Development of Medicinal Plants (No. Yaoyan 201102).

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Su Jiang. Encyclopedia of Chinese material medica. Shanghai: New Medicine College 1977. p. 2212.  Back to cited text no. 1
Zhang LR, Yan XF, Zheng ZH, Zou GL. Interaction of water-soluble polysaccharides of Limonium bicolor with BSA. Chem Nat Compd 2006;42:389-90.  Back to cited text no. 2
Wang JX, Wei YX. Studies on the chemical constituents of hypogeal part from Limonium bicolor. J Chin Med Mater 2006;29:1182-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
Asen S, Plimmer JR. 4,6,4'-Trihydroxyaurone and other flavonoids from Limonium. Phytochemistry 1972;11:2601-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
Zhang LR, Zou GL. Flavanol of Limonium bicolor. Chem Nat Compd 2004;40:602-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
Barron D, Varin L, Ibrahim RK, Harborne JB, Williams CA. Sulphated flavonoids an update. Phytochemistry 1988;27:2375-95.  Back to cited text no. 6
Whitinga P, Savchenkoa T, Sarkera SD, Rees HH, Dinan L. Phytoecdysteroids in the genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 1998;26:695-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
Gadetskaya AV, Tarawneh AH, Zhusupova GE, Gemejiyeva NG, Cantrell CL, Cutler SJ, et al. Sulfated phenolic compounds from Limonium caspium: Isolation, structural elucidation, and biological evaluation. Fitoterapia 2015;104:80-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
Meng DL, Li X, Han LF, Zhang LL, An WW, Li X. Four new quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Fitoterapia 2014;92:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
Yu LM, Zhao MM, Yang B, Bai WD. Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of phenolics from Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp. Food Chem 2009;116:969-73.  Back to cited text no. 10
Liu XK, Ye BJ, Wu Y, Lin ZH, Zhao YQ, Piao HR. Synthesis and anti-tumor evaluation of panaxadiol derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 2011;46:1997-2002.  Back to cited text no. 11
Xi ZX, Chen WS, Wu ZJ, Wang Y, Zeng PY, Zhao GJ, et al. Anti-complementary activity of flavonoids from Gnaphalium affine D. Don. Food Chem 2012;130:165-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
Shen J, Liang J, Peng SL, Ding LS. Chemical constituents from Saussurea stella. Nat Prod Res Dev 2004;16:391-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
Ye G, Huang CG. Flavonoids of Limonium aureum. Chem Nat Compd 2006;42:232-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
Peng ZF, Strack D, Baumert A, Subramaniam R, Goh NK, Chia TF. Antioxidant flavonoids from leaves of Polygonum hydropiper L. Phytochemistry 2003;62:219-28.  Back to cited text no. 15
Zhang XT, Yin ZQ, Ye WC, Ni L, Zhao SX. Chemical Constituents from Lithospermum zollingeri. Chin J Nat Med 2005;3:357-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Yu LM, Zhao MM, Yang B, Bai WD. Immunomodulatory and anticancer activities of phenolics from Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp. Food Chem 2009;116:969-73.  Back to cited text no. 17
Chen XB, Chen GY, Liu JH, Lei M, Meng YH, Guo DA, et al. Cytotoxic cucurbitane triterpenoids isolated from the rhizomes of Hemsleya amabilis. Fitoterapia 2014;94:88-93.  Back to cited text no. 18
Kurimoto S, Takaishi Y, Ahmed FA, Kashiwada Y. Triterpenoids from the fruits of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). Fitoterapia 2014;92:200-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
Nair JJ, Van Staden J. Cytotoxicity studies of lycorine alkaloids of the Amaryllidaceae. Nat Prod Commun 2014;9:1193-210.  Back to cited text no. 20
Chang H, Mi MT, Ling WH, Zhu JD, Zhang QY, Wei N, et al. Structurally related cytotoxic effects of flavonoids on human cancer cells in vitro. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31:1137-44.  Back to cited text no. 21


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Flowers: precious food and medicine resources
Xuqiang Liu, Senye Wang, Lili Cui, Huihui Zhou, Yuhang Liu, Lijun Meng, Sitan Chen, Xuefeng Xi, Yan Zhang, Wenyi Kang
Food Science and Human Wellness. 2023; 12(4): 1020
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Recent Insights into Therapeutic Potential of Plant-Derived Flavonoids against Cancer
Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Reyaz Hassan Mir, Saba Sabreen, Rafia Jan, Faheem Hyder Pottoo, Inder Pal Singh
Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2022; 22(20): 3343
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Research Progress of Natural Small-Molecule Compounds Related to Tumor Differentiation
Xiaoli He, Yongkang Liao, Jing Liu, Shuming Sun
Molecules. 2022; 27(7): 2128
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Pre-colonoscopy special guidance and education on intestinal cleaning and examination in older adult patients with constipation
Hui Wang, Ying Wang, Jun-Hua Yuan, Xiao-Yin Wang, Wei-Xia Ren
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2022; 14(8): 778
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Acacetin ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by activating Sirt1/AMPK/PGC-1a pathway
Yu-Kai Cui, Yi-Xiang Hong, Wei-Yin Wu, Wei-Min Han, Yao Wu, Chan Wu, Gui-Rong Li, Yan Wang
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2022; : 174858
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Pharmacological evaluation of newly synthesized organotin IV complex for antiulcer potential
Syed Azmatullah, Arif-ullah Khan, Neelam Gul Qazi, Humaira Nadeem, Nadeem Irshad
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2022; 23(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 PTP1B Inhibitory and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Constituents from Eclipta prostrata L.
Duc Dat Le, Duc Hung Nguyen, Eun Sook Ma, Jeong Hyung Lee, Byung Sun Min, Jae Sue Choi, Mi Hee Woo
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2021; 44(3): 298
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Chemical and biological investigations of Limonium axillare reveal mechanistic evidence for its antidiabetic activity
Essam Abdel-Sattar, Manal M. Shams, Marwa M. Abd-Rabo, Nehad Mahmoud, Engy A. Mahrous, Umakanta Sarker
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(8): e0255904
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Phenolics from Physalis peruviana fruits ameliorate streptozotocin-induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in rats via induction of autophagy and apoptosis regression
Shahira M. Ezzat, Heba M.I. Abdallah, Noha N. Yassen, Rasha A. Radwan, Eman S. Mostafa, Maha M. Salama, Mohamed A. Salem
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2021; 142: 111948
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Study on antitumor activities of the chrysin-chromene-spirooxindole on Lewis lung carcinoma C57BL/6 mice in vivo
Wen-Hui Zhang, Shuang Chen, Xiong-Li Liu, Bing-Lin, Xiong-Wei Liu, Ying Zhou
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2020; 30(17): 127410
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Acacetin, a flavone with diverse therapeutic potential in cancer, inflammation, infections and other metabolic disorders
Shilpi Singh, Pratima Gupta, Abha Meena, Suaib Luqman
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2020; 145: 111708
[Pubmed] | [DOI]

Acacetin Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells by Modulation of ROS/JNK Activation

Shubin Wang, Binhui Lin, Wei Liu, Guojun Wei, Zongguang Li, Naichun Yu, Xiang Xue, Guangrong Ji
Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 2020; Volume 14: 5077
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 7-Methoxy-1-Tetralone Induces Apoptosis, Suppresses Cell Proliferation and Migration in Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Regulating c-Met, p-AKT, NF-?B, MMP2, and MMP9 Expression
Ying Wen, Xiaoyan Cai, Shaolian Chen, Wei Fu, Dong Chai, Huainian Zhang, Yongli Zhang
Frontiers in Oncology. 2020; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Growth performance, in vitro antioxidant properties and chemical composition of the halophyte Limonium algarvense Erben are strongly influenced by the irrigation salinity
Maria João Rodrigues, Ivo Monteiro, Viana Castañeda-Loaiza, Chloé Placines, M. Conceição Oliveira, Catarina Reis, Ana D. Caperta, Florbela Soares, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Catarina Pereira, Luísa Custódio
Industrial Crops and Products. 2020; 143: 111930
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 In vivo bioactivity assessment on Epilobium species: A particular focus on Epilobium angustifolium and its components on enzymes connected with the healing process
Songul Karakaya, Ipek Süntar, Omer Faruk Yakinci, Oksana Sytar, Songul Ceribasi, Benan Dursunoglu, Hilal Ozbek, Zuhal Guvenalp
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020; 262: 113207
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Results and Disc...
    Materials and Me...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded348    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 15    

Recommend this journal