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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 50  |  Page : 201-208

Characterization, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extracts of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Capsicum frutescens

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa

Correspondence Address:
Gloria Aderonke Otunola
Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700
South Africa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_430_16

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Background: Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices. Materials and Methods: AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results: The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375–480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3–6 nm, 3–22 nm, and 3–18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] <25 μg/mL) > garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Conclusion: Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials. Abbreviations used: AgNPs: Silver nanoparticles; UV-Vis: ultraviolet-visible; SEM: Scanning electron microscopy; TEM: Transmission electron microscopy; EDX: Energy dispersive X-ray; XRD: X-ray diffraction; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; GaNPs: Garlic nanoparticles; GiNPs: Ginger nanoparticles; C.PeNPs: Cayenne pepper nanoparticles; FCC: Face centred cubic; SPR: Surface Plasmon resonance; ABTS-2: 2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); DPPH-1: 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.

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