Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil
Cinara Oliveira D'Sousa' Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro, Marta Bruno Loureiro, Rafael Conceição Simões, Renato Delmondez de Castro, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioproducts (LBBB), Department of Biofunction, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Brazil
|Date of Submission||16-Aug-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||26-Sep-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||10-Jul-2015|
Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioproducts (LBBB), Department of Biofunction, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Paulo Roberto Ribeiro
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioproducts (LBBB), Department of Biofunction, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)
Source of Support: Financial support was given by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Northeast Biotechnology Network (CNPq/RENORBIO, Project No. 554839/2006-7) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/REUNI), Brazil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.
| Abstract|| |
Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs.
Keywords: Aroeira vermelha, bioactive compounds, Brazilian species, medicinal properties, quilombola communities
|How to cite this article:|
D'Sousa' Costa CO, Ribeiro PR, Loureiro MB, Simões RC, de Castro RD, Fernandez LG. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Phcog Mag 2015;11:607-14
|How to cite this URL:|
D'Sousa' Costa CO, Ribeiro PR, Loureiro MB, Simões RC, de Castro RD, Fernandez LG. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Oct 26];11:607-14. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2015/11/43/607/160459
†These authors contributed equally to this work
| Introduction|| |
The World Health Organization has recommended scientific certification and popular use of medicinal plants in the treatment of several diseases and as starting material for the discovery of new drugs. This includes the development of synthetic and semi synthetic drugs based on metabolites form plants, animals and microorganisms that exhibit some biological activity. A successful approach towards the identification and utilization of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases is the project named “Farmácia Viva” (Living Pharmacy) developed by the Federal University of Ceará in Brazil. In this project, several plant based drugs were produced from species which had their efficacy scientifically verified. Some examples include vaginal creams produced from Schinus terebinthifolius extracts to be used in the treatment of cervicitis and cervicovaginitis and Maytenus ilicifolia used to treat gastritis and gastric ulcer.
Africans and indigenous communities were responsible for the cultural and biological knowledge base of useful plants in Brazil. Quilombola transplanted an African botanical classification system and introduced native Brazilian medicinal plants into their own culture. S. terebinthifolius is endemic to South America and it is particularly found in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. Its pioneer characteristics and ability to adapt to various environmental conditions has allowed this to occur in various habitats. Essential oil extracted from the seeds is rich in mono and sesquiterpenes which confers several biological activities to the oil. The resin produced by S. terebinthifolius is used in the treatment of rheumatism and buboes. Stem bark and leaves are also used against many diseases of the urinary tract system, in the treatment of menstrual disorders and inflammations in general., In rural areas of Brazil, including quilombola and indigenous communities, medicinal plants are often the only source of treatment available and S. terebinthifolius is widely used.,
Recently we have observed an increasing interest to identify extracts can be used to treat infections by species of the genus Enterococcus, due to its great clinical importance. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common species of this genus to cause infection which has acquired over the years natural resistance to several known antimicrobial agents. Species form this genus are commonly found in mammal’s intestines and in the female genital tract. E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the main cause of infections from this genus in humans. Therefore, based on the traditional use of this species and the importance of discovering and characterizing plant based bio products that could help to improve the quality of life, especially of poor communities, we set out an experiment to assess the antibacterial activity of S. terebinthifolius extracts against E. faecalis.
Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the generation free radicals and the endogenous action of antioxidant defense systems, which is divided into enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems. Nonenzymatic antioxidant defense system is composed by a range of compounds such as a tocopherol (Vitamin E), β-carotene, sodium ascorbate (Vitamin C) and phenolic compounds which are widely found in medicinal plants. The main function of the antioxidant defense system is to inhibit or reduce damages caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. These damages are related to a number of chronic diseases, including cancer and some cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Phenolic compounds are derived from secondary plant metabolism and are essential for plant growth and reproduction. Flavonoids, xanthones, phenolic acids, tannins and tocopherols are the most common natural source of phenolic antioxidants.
Although several studies describe the antioxidant activity of S. terebinthifolius, the vast majority is limited to the study of essential oils, and extracts obtained from the leaves. Considering the importance of phenolic compounds demonstrated by several studies and in order to identify new sources of compounds with high phenolic content and thus high antioxidant activity, we performed a phytochemical screening, including determination of total phenolic compounds, as well as measured the antioxidant activity of S. terebinthifolius extracts obtained from fruits, stem bark, stem and leaves by different extraction methods.
| Materials and methods|| |
Schinus terebinthifolius fruits, stem, stem bark and leaves were collected in Mata de São João (12.57°S 38.00°W), Bahia, Brazil. This region presents a tropical climate with annual average temperatures of 24°C. The rainy season happens between April and June with annual average rainfall of 1800 mm. We decided to work with S. terebinthifolius because this species is used by quilombola and poor communities of that region to treat various diseases. Samples of 14 different specimens were collected on the 16th of February 2010, which correspond to the end of the summer season. Samples were stored at 4°C prior to the analysis. Later, samples were dried in an oven at 105°C for 24 h until constant weight was reached. In this work, the sample called stem corresponds to the branches and petioles of the leaves. Fruits presented a globular shape and red color. Only mature fruits with no visible signals of damage were collected.
Preparation of extracts
Extracts were obtained from two different methods: Continuous extraction using a soxhlet apparatus and maceration as described previously,, with some minor modifications. For the extraction in soxhlet, approximately 15 g of dried and ground plant material was used. Samples were subjected to continuous extraction using 300 mL of ethanol, and the system remained under heating for 8 h which corresponded to 15 cycles. For the extraction by maceration, approximately 15 g of dried and ground plant material was extracted for 72 h using 300 mL of ethanol, at room temperature. Then, extracts were collected, and the solvent removed under reduced pressure at 40°C using a rotary evaporator (4000 Laborota echo). Samples remained in the exhaust hood at room temperature until all residual solvent evaporate, and the extracts dried completely.
Phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed as described by in the literature with minor modifications.,
(a) Saponins: Approximately 1 mg of each extract was diluted in 1 mL of distilled water and vortexed. Presence of saponins in the extracts is shown by the formation of abundant and persistent foam. (b) Phenols and tannins: Three drops of ferric chloride (10%, in ethanol) were added to 2 mL of each extract (1 mg/mL, in ethanol). Color of the extracts varying between blue and red was considered indicative of the presence of phenols. The formation of a dark blue precipitate indicates the presence of hydrolysable tannins and the formation of a green precipitate the presence of condensed tannins. (c) Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, (d) flavones, flavonols and xanthones and (e) chalcones aurones and flavonols: For each extract, the pH of a 2 mL aliquot (1 mg/mL, in ethanol) was adjusted to 3, 8.5 and 11. For aliquots which the pH was adjusted to 3 the appearance of red color was an indication for the presence of anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, chalcones and aurones (c and e). For aliquots which the pH was adjusted to 8.5 the appearance of purple color confirmed the presence of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins (c) in the aliquots that have previously showed red color at pH 3. Aliquots at pH 11 were considered positive for the presence of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins present when showed a purple blue color or were considered positive for the presence of flavones, flavonols and xanthones (d) when showed a yellow color. Chalcones and aurones (e) were positive when red purple color was formed and the presence of only flavonols assigned when an orange red color was observed. (f) Free steroids and free tetracyclic triterpenes: About 1 mg of each extract was dissolved using 1 mL of chloroform. Then, 1 mL of acetic anhydride was added and then 3 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid was slowly added. The emergence of evanescent blue color then permanent green was indicative of the presence of free steroids and a brownish red for free pentacyclic triterpenes.
Quantification of total phenols
Quantification of total phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin Ciocalteu method, with some modifications. Briefly, 100 μL aliquot of each extract (1 mg/mL in ethanol) was mixed with 500 μL of Folin Ciocalteu reagent and 6 mL of distilled water. After 60 s, 2 mL of 15% Na2CO3 were added to the mixture and vortexed for 30 s. Finally, the volume was adjusted to 10 mL with distilled water. Samples were kept in the dark for 2 h. After this period the absorbance was measured using a ultraviolet (UV) Vis spectrophotometer (850M Analyser) at 750 nm, using as blank a solution containing methanol and all reagents except the extracts. The total phenolic content was determined by interpolating the absorbance of the samples against a linear calibration curve constructed with standard gallic acid (0–600 μg/mL). Analyses were performed in triplicate.
Antioxidant properties of the extracts were assessed by the 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay as described previously,, with some modifications. The consumption of the DPPH free radical was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the tested solutions of the extracts in different concentrations using a UV Vis spectrophotometer in 515 nm wavelength, using gallic acid as the standard.
Reaction mixtures were prepared by adding 1 mL of 120 mM DPPH solution to 1 mL of extracts at concentration of 20 μg/mL, which result in a solution, content concentration of extract of 10 μg/mL, and concentration the DPPH equal to 60 mM. Similarly, 1 mL of the DPPH solution (120 mM) was added to 1 mL of the solution of gallic acid. Gallic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 2.4 mg/mL. The reaction mixtures were incubated for 30 min at 25°C in the dark. Then, the absorbance was read at 515 nm, using ethanol as blank.
The percentage of antioxidant activity was obtained by the following equation:
where AbsDPPH is the initial absorbance (60 mM) solution of DPPH and Abssample is the absorbance of the reaction mixture. Analyses were performed in triplicate.
Antibacterial activity of S. terebinthifolius extracts against gram positive E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay in 96 wells plates as described by Ribeiro, with some modifications. Extracts tested concentrations ranged between 3.9 and 500 μg/mL. Dimethylsulfoxide in water (20% v/v) was used as a negative control and 1% chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on bacteria growth was assessed after 24 h of incubation by visual analysis of the growth in each well. All analysis was performed in triplicate.
Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Statistics® (International Business Machines - IBM) and Microsoft® Excel 2010 programs (Microsoft). Analysis of variance was used to identify statistically significant differences between the samples (P < 0.05) followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. The analysis results are presented as the mean of replicates ± standard deviations.
| Results|| |
Initially, we evaluated the effect of two extraction methods on the yield of the extracts. Extracts obtained with soxhlet showed lower yields than those obtained by maceration [Table 1]. The largest differences were found in samples of stem and stem bark, which were 3.8 and 3.4 fold higher, respectively, when the samples were extracted by maceration. Differences in yield of extracts obtained from fruits and leaves were less accentuated. Fruits and leaf extracts were only 1.13 and 1.43 fold higher, respectively, when samples were extracted by maceration in ethanol [Table 1].
|Table 1: Yield of the extracts* obtained from fruits, stem, stem bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius|
Click here to view
In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed to identify potential sources of substances possibly useful against the deleterious effects of free radicals. All tested samples showed antioxidant activity, presented as percentage of consumption of the radical DPPH, which ranged between 60.37% and 85.76% for extracts obtained by soxhlet and between 21.92% and 82.60% for those prepared by maceration [[Figure 1]a]. Comparison between extracts obtained from the same tissues, but by different extraction methods, suggests that the antioxidant activity is enhanced for samples obtained by soxhlet. Remarkable differences in antioxidant activity attributed to the extraction methods were observed for leaf samples: Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by soxhlet was nearly three times higher than it was found for extracts obtained by maceration. Extracts prepared from the stem bark showed the highest consumption of the radical DPPH: Antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained with soxhlet and maceration was 85.76 and 82.60%, respectively. For the stem samples, antioxidant activity was 80.30 and 60.37% for extract obtained by soxhlet and maceration, respectively [[Figure 1]a].
|Figure 1: (a) Antioxidant activity (%) and (b) total phenolic content (mg EAG/g of extract) of the extracts obtained from fruits, stem, stem bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius by soxhlet (S) and maceration (M). Different letters on the bars indicate significant differences (P < 0.05)|
Click here to view
Total phenolic content
Total phenolic content of the extracts obtained by soxhlet ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract, while for extracts obtained by maceration varied between 73.90 and 228.51 mg EAG/g of extract [[Figure 1]b]. Soxhlet extraction was more effective in extracting phenolic compounds than maceration for all tissues, except for fruits. Remarkable differences in total phenolic content attributed to the extraction methods were observed for fruits, stem and stem samples. For the fruits, total phenolic content of the extract obtained by maceration was nearly 20 times higher than it was found for extracts obtained by soxhlet. However, for the stem and stem bark samples total phenolic content of the extract obtained by soxhlet was nearly two times higher than it was found for extracts obtained by maceration. Extracts prepared from the stem bark showed the highest total phenolic content 309.03 and 228.51 mg EAG/g of extract for the samples obtained by soxhlet and maceration, respectively. Nearly no difference was found for leaves extracts: Total phenolic content 87.70 and 73.90 mg EAG/g for the extracts obtained by soxhlet and maceration, respectively. Samples of stem and stem bark showed the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant potential, while the leaves and fruits extracts showed relatively high values of antioxidant activity, but the content of total phenolic content did not show the same pattern [[Figure 1]b].
Free steroids were only detected in the samples obtained by maceration while pentacyclic triterpenes were mostly found in the extracts obtained by soxhlet. This already suggests that the extraction method plays an important role in the metabolite profile of the extracts. Saponins were detected in all fruits and stem bark samples, but they were not detected in extracts obtained from the leaves. Among stem samples, saponins were only found in the extracts obtained by soxhlet. Flavonols were detected in the stem bark extract obtained by maceration while chalcones and aurones were only identified in the stem bark extract obtained by soxhlet. Anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, flavones, and xanthones were detected in extracts from fruits, leaves and stem, but were not found in extracts of the stem bark. Curiously, these extracts contained rather anthocyanins, anthocyanidins or flavones and xanthones, but never both group of compounds. Phenolic compounds were detected in all extracts. None of the methods effectively extracted condensed tannins [Table 2].
|Table 2: Phytochemical profile of the extracts obtained from fruits, stem, stem bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius|
Click here to view
Leaf extract obtained by soxhlet showed the highest inhibitory activity on the growth of E. faecalis. This extract showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) equal to 15.62 μg/mL. The stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of bacteria E. faecalis, but at higher concentration (62.5 μg/mL). Interestingly, leaf extract obtained by maceration and stem extract obtained by soxhlet showed no activity (MIC > 500 μg/mL). Stem bark extracts showed a MIC value equal to 500 μg/mL for both methods of extraction, while no inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed for the extracts obtained from the fruits [Table 3].
|Table 3: Antibacterial activity of the extracts obtained from fruits, stem, stem bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212)|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Brazil possesses an extremely rich plant biodiversity, which encompasses potentially useful species in a wide range of applications, including agriculture, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, textiles and food industries. This has led to a growing interest of research groups seeking to scientifically validate the therapeutic potential of native species.,, Brazil has more than 3.000 quilombolas communities and only a few ethnobotanical studies have been conducted with these groups to provide information about their use of medicinal plants.
Medicinal plants display large amounts of antioxidants compounds such as Vitamins C and E, and carotenoids. However, the antioxidant properties of a given extract are mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Antioxidant activity of extracts prepared in ethanol, dichloromethane, as well as of the essential oils obtained from leaves of S. terebinthifolius have been reported.,,,, It has been reported that extracts prepared with ethanol show higher antioxidant potential, therefore justifying the use of ethanol as the extraction solvent in this study. Essential oils and the dichloromethane extracts showed antioxidant activity of 75.2 and 72.7%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 μg/mL. Considering that the concentration of the extracts used in this study for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity was 10 μg/mL, results described in this work demonstrate greater antioxidant potential than those reported in the literature.
In a qualitative assay, Ceruks et al. reports the evaluation of antiradical potential of phenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of S. terebinthifolius, suggesting that the isolated compounds (three flavonoids and two gallic acid esters) are likely to be responsible for the antiradical potential determined in the extracts. Natural compounds are responsible for the protective effect against oxidative damages that plants are subjected to. These oxidative damages can be generated by many factors, but phenolic compounds are often associated with the protective effect of plant. Therefore, to determine the content of phenolic compounds in plant is an important step in the identification of possible sources of bioactive compounds. All extracts evaluated in this study showed high levels of phenolic compounds compared to data available in the literature for other species., Higher levels of phenolic compounds were observed in samples obtained by soxhlet, therefore justifying their higher antioxidant activity. Continuous extraction via soxhlet seems to provide more promising extracts for studies aimed at identifying new sources of bioactive compounds.
Despite the fact that phenolic compounds contribute immensely to the antioxidant potential of the extracts, other compounds rather than phenols show high antioxidant activity such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and fat soluble vitamins. Triterpenes and biflavonoids are the most abundant compounds present in the Anacardiaceae family, but some other compounds such as phenols and cinnamic acid derivatives have been identified. It has been reported that ethanolic extracts obtained from the barks of S. terebinthifolius contained of phenols, triterpenes and anthraquinones. However, flavones, xanthones, flavonoids, free steroids, triterpenes and anthraquinones were found when extracts were prepared in hexane. On the other hand, ethanolic extracts of the leaves showed positive results for phenols, flavones, flavonoids, xanthones, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and free steroids.
High incidence of drug resistant pathogens has increased the attention on several medicinal plants and their metabolites for antimicrobial properties. A recent paper has reviewed the state of the art of the research on antibacterial agents from native Brazilian plant species related to E. faecalis infections. In addition, seven plant extracts obtained from Brazilian Amazon rain forest and Atlantic forest were found to be effective against E. faecalis. Extracts of Salvadora persica prepared with ethanol and chloroform showed antimicrobial activity against E faecalis and Candida albicans with concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 μg/mL, while in our study extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E faecalis with concentrations ranging from 15.62 to 500 μg/mL. This highlights the potential of S. terebinthifolius as an important source of new antimicrobial compounds.
In this study, we reported the antimicrobial activity of several extracts of S. terebinthifolius against E faecalis. Extracts obtained from leaves of S. terebinthifolius had great antimicrobial activity when prepared by soxhlet. This is in agreement with the results presented by Gundidza et al., which examined the antimicrobial activity extracts from the leaves of this species, demonstrating that the biological activity is related to compounds present in the obtained extracts. Our results show that S. terebinthifolius has a great potential as source of bioactive compounds, not only in the leaves, but also in different tissues. Further studies are recommended for evaluation of these extract as an effective antibacterial agents.
| Conclusion|| |
We have demonstrated that extracts obtained from fruits, stem bark, stems and leaves of S. terebinthifolius display a variety of secondary metabolites, including high content of phenolic compounds, which may be responsible for the detected antioxidant activity. We also showed that the extraction method influences the metabolite profile of the samples, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additionally, we demonstrated that maceration is more efficiently extracting free steroids, while soxhlet would be the choice for studies aiming at obtaining increased levels free pentacyclic triterpenes. However, based on our antioxidant and antibacterial results we suggest that extraction via soxhlet provides more promising results for studies aimed at identifying new sources of bioactive compounds.
The mechanism underlying bacterial growth inhibition is a complex trait, which may involve synergistic effects of the metabolites present in plant extracts. Due to the importance of finding new sources of antibacterial compounds, along with the increasing antibiotic resistance, our results stimulate further studies to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius, particularly of the extract obtained from the leaves by continuous extraction in soxhlet.
Most importantly, our results add important information regarding the validation of the traditional use of S. terebinthifolius, which has been used in the form of lotions, gels and soaps by rural, indigenous and quilombola communities due to its antimicrobial properties.
| Acknowledgments|| |
We would like to thanks Prof. Frederico Guaré Cruz (UFBA Brazil) for allowing us to conduct the antibacterial assays in his laboratory. Financial support was given by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Northeast Biotechnology Network (CNPq/RENORBIO, Project No. 554839/2006 7) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/REUNI)—Brazil.
| References|| |
Lusti Narasimhan M, Pessoa Silva CL, Temmerman M. Moving forward in tackling antimicrobial resistance: WHO actions. Sex Transm Infect 2013;89 Suppl 4:iv57 9.
Geris R, Ribeiro PR, Da Silva Brandão M, Da Silva HH, Da Silva IG. Bioactive natural products as potential candidates to control Aedes aegypti
, the vector of dengue. In: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry
. Vol. 37. Elsevier; 2012. p. 277 376.
Oliveira RF, Ribeiro PR, Santos GK, Oliveira CS, Silva PR, Oliveira HA, et al
. Evaluation of the hepatotoxicity of Abarema cochliacarpos
extracts in mice Mus musculus
. Braz J Pharmacogn 2013;23:674 9.
Barata G. Medicina popular obtém reconhecimento científico. Ciênc Cult 2003;55:12.
Crepaldi MO, Peixoto AL. Use and knowledge of plants by “Quilombolas” as subsidies for conservation efforts in an area of Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Biodivers Conserv 2009;19:37 60.
Carvalho MG, Melo AG, Aragão CF, Raffin FN, Moura TF. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi: Chemical composition, biological properties and toxicity. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2013;15:158 69.
Nascimento AF, Da Camara CA, De Moraes MM, Ramos CS. Essential oil composition and acaricidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius
from Atlantic forest of Pernambuco, Brazil against Tetranychus urticae. Nat Prod Commun 2012;7:129 32.
Carlini EA, Duarte Almeida JM, Rodrigues E, Tabach R. Antiulcer effect of the pepper trees Schinus terebinthifolius
Raddi (aroeira da praia) and Myracrodruon urundeuva
(aroeira do sertão). Braz J Pharmacogn 2010;20:140 6.
Bendaoud H, Romdhane M, Souchard JP, Cazaux S, Bouajila J. Chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activities of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries essential oils. J Food Sci 2010;75:C466 72.
Gundidza M, Gweru N, Magwa ML, Mmbengwa V, Samie A. The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius from Zimbabwe. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:7164 9.
Cavalher Machado SC, Rosas EC, Brito Fde A, Heringe AP, de Oliveira RR, Kaplan MA, et al
. The anti allergic activity of the acetate fraction of Schinus terebinthifolius
leaves in IgE induced mice paw edema and pleurisy. Int Immunopharmacol 2008;8:1552 60.
Castelo Branco Rangel de Almeida Cde F, de Vasconcelos Cabral DL, Rangel de Almeida CC, Cavalcanti de Amorim EL, de Araújo JM, de Albuquerque UP. Comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of native and exotic plants from the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest selected through an ethnobotanical survey. Pharm Biol 2012;50:201 7.
de Medeiros PM, Ladio AH, Albuquerque UP. Patterns of medicinal plant use by inhabitants of Brazilian urban and rural areas: A macroscale investigation based on available literature. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:729 46.
Gomes TB, de Ferreira Bandeira FP. The use and diversity of medicinal plants in a quilombola community in Raso da Catarina, Bahia. Acta Bot Bras 2012;26:796 809.
Almeida MZ, Léda PH, da Silva MQ, Pinto A, Lisboa M, Guedes ML, et al
. Species with medicinal and mystical religious uses in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Brazil: A contribution to the selection of species for introduction into the local Unified Health System. Braz J Pharmacogn 2014;24:171 84.
da Silva NC, Regis AC, Esquibel MA, do Espírito SS, de Almeida MZ. Medicinal plants use in Barra II quilombola community Bahia, Brazil. Bol Latinoam Caribe Plantas Med Aromat 2012;11:435 53.
Castilho AL, Saraceni CH, Díaz IE, Paciencia ML, Suffredini IB. New trends in dentistry: Plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis
. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine. Braz Oral Res 2013;27:109 15.
Brito Costa EM, Barbosa AS, De Arruda TA, De Oliveira PT, Dametto FR, De Carvalho RA, et al
. In vitro
antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. J Bras Patol Med Lab 2010;46:175 80.
Bender EA, de Freitas AL, Reiter KC, Lutz L, Barth AL. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus
spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 2009;40:693 700.
Takeuchi K, Tomita H, Fujimoto S, Kudo M, Kuwano H, Ike Y. Drug resistance of Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates and the conjugative transfer of gentamicin and erythromycin resistance traits. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2005;243:347 54.
Barbosa KB, Costa NM, De Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas R, De Paula SO, Minim VP, Bressan J. Oxidative stress: Concept, implications and modulating factors. Rev Nutr 2010;23:629 43.
Kodama DH, Gonçalves AE, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: Comparison between commercial green tea preparations. Cienc Tecnol Aliment 2010;30:1077 82.
Pereira EP, Ribeiro PR, Loureiro MB, de Castro RD, Fernandez LG. Effect of water restriction on total phenolics and antioxidant properties of Amburana cearensis
(Fr. Allem) A.C. Smith cotyledons during seed imbibition. Acta Physiol Plant 2014;36:1293 7.
Mandel S, Youdim MB. Catechin polyphenols: Neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;37:304 17.
López Laredo AR, Gómez Aguirre YA, Medina Pérez V, Salcedo Morales G, Sepúlveda Jiménez G, Trejo Tapia G. Variation in antioxidant properties and phenolics concentration in different organs of wild growing and greenhouse cultivated Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. Acta Physiol Plant 2012;34:2435 42.
Luo CT, Mao SS, Liu FL, Yang MX, Chen H, Kurihara H, et al
. Antioxidant xanthones from Swertia mussotii
, a high altitude plant. Fitoterapia 2013;91:140 7.
Cheel J, Tůmová L, Areche C, van Antwerpen P, Nève J, Zouaoui Boudjeltia K, et al
. Variations in the chemical profile and biological activities of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra
L.), as influenced by harvest times. Acta Physiol Plant 2013;35:1337 49.
Martorana M, Arcoraci T, Rizza L, Cristani M, Bonina FP, Saija A, et al
. In vitro
antioxidant and in vivo
photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera
L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts. Fitoterapia 2013;85:41 8.
Ninfali P, Angelino D. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris
cicla and rubra. Fitoterapia 2013;89:188 99.
El Massry KF, El Ghorab AH, Shaaban HA, Shibamoto T. Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius
leaves cultivated in Egypt. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:5265 70.
Ceruks M, Romoff P, Fávero OA, Lago JH. Polar phenolic constituents from Schinus terebinthifolius
). Quim Nova 2007;30:597 9.
Degaspari CH, Waszczynskyj N, Santos RJ. Atividade antioxidante de extrato de fruto de aroeira (Schinus terebenthifolius
Raddi). Visão Acad 2004;5:83 90.
Costa CO, Ribeiro PR, Castro RD, Fernandez LG. Evaluation of antioxidant activity in commercial samples of Schinus terebinthifolius
(aroeira vermelha). Rev Ciênc Méd Biol 2013;12:312 7.
Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. New Delhi, India: Vallabh Prakashan; 1994.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London, England: Chapman Hall; 1998.
Ribeiro PR, Ferraz CG, Guedes ML, Martins D, Cruz FG. A new biphenyl and antimicrobial activity of extracts and compounds from Clusia burlemarxii
. Fitoterapia 2011;82:1237 40.
Pinto AC, Silva DH, Bolzani VD, Lopes NP, Epifanio RD. Current status, challenges and trends on natural products in Brazil. Quim Nova 2002;25 Suppl 1:45 61.
Del Ré PV, Jorge N. Spices as natural antioxidants: Their application in food and implication for health. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2012;14:389 99.
Silva MI, de Melo CT, Vasconcelos LF, de Carvalho AM, Sousa FC. Bioactivity and potential therapeutic benefits of some medicinal plants from the Caatinga (semi arid) vegetation of Northeast Brazil: A review of the literature. Braz J Pharmacogn 2011;22:193 207.
Pietta P, Simonetti P, Mauri P. Antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol 1998;46:4487 90.
Marques TH, de Melo CH, de Freitas RM. In vitro
evaluation of antioxidant, anxiolytic and antidepressant like effects of the Bellis perennis
extract. Braz J Pharmacogn 2012;22:1044 52.
Moresco HH, Queiroz GS, Pizzolatti MG, Brighente IM. Chemical constituents and evaluation of the toxic and antioxidant activities of Averrhoa carambola
leaves. Braz J Pharmacogn 2012;22:319 24.
Da Silva EC, Muniz MP, De Cássia SN, Nunomura SM, Zilse GA. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of geopropolis from two species of amazonian stingless bees. Quim Nova 2013;36:628 33.
Rolim TL, De Sousa Wanderley FT, Da Cunha EV, Tavares JF, De Oliveira AM, De Assis TS. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Byrsonima gardneriana
). Quim Nova 2013;36:524 7.
Gong Y, Liu X, He WH, Xu HG, Yuan F, Gao YX. Investigation into the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of alcoholic extracts from defatted marigold (Tagetes erecta
L.) residue. Fitoterapia 2012;83:481 9.
Sousa CM, Silva HR, Vieira GM Jr, Ayres MC, Da Costa CL, Araújo DS, et al
. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plants. Quim Nova 2007;30:351 5.
Marques MR, Paz DD, Batista LP, Barbosa CO, Araújo MA, dos Reis MA. An in vitro
analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of terminalia catappa linn fruits. Cienc Tecnol Aliment 2012;32:209 13.
Severo J, Lima CS, Coelho MT, Rufatto AR, Rombaldi CV, Silva JA. Atividade antioxidante e fitoquímicos em frutos de physalis (Physalis peruviana
) durante o amadurecimento e o armazenamento. Rev Bras Agrociência 2010;16:77 82.
Paiva SA, Russell RM. Beta carotene and other carotenoids as antioxidants. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:426 33.
Correia SD, David JP, David JM. Secundary metabolites from species of anacardiaceae. Quim Nova 2006;29:1287 300.
de Lima MR, de Souza Luna J, dos Santos AF, de Andrade MC, Sant’Ana AE, Genet JP, et al
. Anti bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;105:137 47.
H Moreno PR, da Costa Issa FI, Rajca Ferreira AK, Pereira MA, Kaneko TM. Native Brazilian plants against nosocomial infections: A critical review on their potential and the antimicrobial methodology. Curr Top Med Chem 2013;13:3040 78.
Balto H, Al Howiriny T, Al Somily A, Siddiqui YM, Al Sowygh Z, Halawany H, et al
. Screening for the antimicrobial activity of Salvadora persica
extracts against Enterococcus faecalis
and Candida albicans
. Int J Phytomed 2013;5:486 92.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]