The influences of inorganic elements in soil on the development of famous - region Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC
Weiwanqi Zhang1, Zhen Ouyang1, Ming Zhao1, Yuan Wei1, Huasheng Peng2, Qiang Wang1, Ling Guo1
1 School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, China
2 Anhui Key Laboratory of Modernized Chinese Material Medical, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230031, China
|Date of Submission||01-Jul-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||10-Aug-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||12-Mar-2015|
School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., is an important medicinal plant in China. Recently, researches of A. Lancea were focused on chemical composition and genetics, only a few were concerned with soil factors. Objective: The aim was to discuss the relationship between geo-herbalism of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and inorganic elements in soil. Materials and Methods: The contents of 15 kinds of inorganic elements in the rhizoma of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and soils from various regions were determined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 software. Results: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea and in soil with different geological background were different. The soils in the famous region contained high aluminum, iron, sodium and low sulfur content. The rhizoma of A. Lancea contained high aluminum, lithium, manganese and low iron, sulfur content. The famous-region crude drugs had a strong tendency to accumulate selenium, manganese. Ten characteristic elements of A. Lancea were K, Ca, S, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Pb, Ni, SE. Conclusion: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea showed a significant positive interrelationship with those in soil. It was identified that inorganic elements play an important role in forming authenticity A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC.
Keywords: Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC, geo-herbalism, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, inorganic elements, soil
|How to cite this article:|
Zhang W, Ouyang Z, Zhao M, Wei Y, Peng H, Wang Q, Guo L. The influences of inorganic elements in soil on the development of famous - region Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. Phcog Mag 2015;11:337-44
|How to cite this URL:|
Zhang W, Ouyang Z, Zhao M, Wei Y, Peng H, Wang Q, Guo L. The influences of inorganic elements in soil on the development of famous - region Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 May 14];11:337-44. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2015/11/42/337/153087
| Introduction|| |
The plant of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., Asteraceae, named CangZhu in China belongs to the Asteraceae family. Its rhizome, commonly called Rhizoma atractylodis is used as an important crude drug against rheumatic diseases, digestive disorders, night blindness and influenza in China.  This medicine has been well-documented in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing which is the first Chinese pharmacopoeia written in the Han dynasty about 200-100 BC.  The rhizomes of two species, A. lancea (Thunb.) DC. and A. Chinensis (DC.) Koidz., named MaoCangZhu and BeiCangZhu in China separately, have been used as R. atractylodis that embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China 2010. The R. atractylodis produced with A. lancea from Maoshan region of Jiangsu province have been considered to be the "famous region drugs" with highest-quality and has been evidenced by long-term clinical practice.  Nowadays, due to the scarcity of famous-region herbs from Maoshan, R. atractylodis have been produced with A. lancea other areas. Thus, in order to determine clinical efficacy, the quality control of R. atractylodis materials from different geographical origins is extremely important.
In recent years, many scholars have studied the geo-herbalism of A. Lancea,  but only focusing on research of chemical composition and genetics. ,, Zhao et al.  analyzed the relationship between essential oil variation and genetic variation of A. lancea. The findings showed that the environmental factors also play an important role in the forming of the geoherbs of A. lancea during the long-term adaptation, except for genetic factors. Guo et al.  studied the influence of inorganic elements in soil on the geolism of A. lancea.
In our research, the contents of inorganic elements in 16 plants and soils samples of A. lancea from five provinces have been analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) in order to find out the characteristic elements of A. lancea, discuss the relationship between geo-herb alism of A. lancea (Thunb.) DC. and inorganic elements and provide the basis for causes, planting and management of famous-region A. Lancea.
| Materials and methods|| |
Equipment, reagents, and working conditions
The devices used here included an ICP-OES (Varian, USA), dual array solid-state charge coupled device detector projection optical system, RYTON material atomizer, 40 MHz solid-state high-frequency self-excited generator, polyscience circulating water cooling system. ICP-OES operating parameters were as follows: Radio frequency power (1150 W), auxiliary gas flow rate (0.5 L/min), nebulizer gas flow rate (26 L/min), and carrier gas flow (1.2 mL/min). Reagents included HCl, H 2 O 2 and HNO 3 , which were analytical pure.
Atractylodes lancea plants and soils were obtained from various geographical regions of China [Table 1]. All materials were identified to be the rhizomes of authentic A. lancea (Thunb.) DC., Asteraceae, by Professor Huangsheng Peng (School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China). Samples were dried below 40°C and then crushed into a fine powder.
Plant samples (200 mg) were digested with a mixture of concentrated HNO 3 ( 10 mL) and H 2 O 2 ( 2 mL) at 180°C. Soil samples (200 mg) were digested with a mixture of concentrated HNO 3 ( 15 mL), HCl (5 mL) and H 2 O 2 ( 5 mL) at 150°C. After digestion, the solution was evaporated to dryness on an electric heating board at 170°C. After cooling (20 min), digests were diluted and transferred into a volumetric flask and made up to 50 mL with ultrapure water. Concentrations of inorganic elements in plants and soils samples were determined with ICP-OES.
The correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 20.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Our research selected the Ward's method. , In other words, during the clustering process, two subclasses that make the minimum increase of the total sum of squares of Euclidean distance among all samples of all subclass were combined into a single subclass. The Squared Euclidean Distance was selected as a measurement.
| Results and discussion|| |
Contents of inorganic elements in soils
There were differences among contents of inorganic elements in soils from different regions. Results showed that the soils in the famous region contained more Na, Cr, Fe, Ni, B and less S than unfamous regions. Comparing mean values, we found that contents of Al in famous-region soils were higher than unfamous-region that may be associated with the formation of traditional famous region. The contents of Al, Fe, Na may be used as the identification characteristics of the famous-region soil [Table 2].
Contents of inorganic elements in plants
There were differences among contents of inorganic elements in plants from different regions. Results showed that famous-region herbs contained more Al, Li, P, Mn and less S, K, Fe than unfamous-region. Comparing mean values, we found that contents of Ti, Se, Pb in famous-region herbs were higher than unfamous-region. The famous-region A. lancea contained high Al, K, Ca [Table 3].
Rhizoma atractylodis belongs to the warm medicine. The substantial inorganic elements base of heat nature of Chinese herbs is decided by high Mn and low Fe.  Comparing Fe/Mn among famous-region and unfamous-region plants, we found that the Fe/Mn values of famous-region herbs were significantly lower than unfamous-region which manifested the inorganic elements characteristics of high Mn and low Fe.
Principal component analysis
We used SPSS (version 20.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA) for the PCA, and three principal components were obtained. Among them, the contribution rate of the first and second principal components was 47.87% and 22.48%, respectively, and a cumulative contribution rate of 94.53%. The first principal component were K, Li, S, Al, Mn, Se and the second principal component Ca, and the third principal component Ti, Pb, Ni [Table 4]. We can conclude that 10 kinds of characteristic elements of A. lancea were K, Ca, S, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Pb, Ni, Se.
By using the percentage of variance of each principal component, we calculated the comprehensive scoring formula: F =0.47872 F 1 + 0.22486 F 2 + 0.24175 F 3. The comprehensive factor score and sorting of A. lancea from different regions were shown in [Table 5]. The score of Maoshan Jiangsu, Huoshan Anhui, Wawushan Jiangsu, Mageng Jiangsu, Fangshan Jiangsu ranked 1-5, proving that the famous-region A. lancea conformed to the above characteristics of inorganic element. Four famous-region herbs contained high K, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Se, Pb and low S, Ca. The A. lancea from Huoshan Anhui contained high K, S, Ti, Pb, Ca. However, the score of Tongcheng Anhui was lowest, and the A. lancea from Tongcheng contained low Li, Ti, Pb.
The first two principal components were used to build the scatter diagram [Figure 1]. The samples were divided into two groups: Group 1 contained four samples as famous-region A. lancea; group 2 included 12 samples of unfamous-region A. lancea.
|Figure 1: Principal component analysis results of the 16 Atractylodes lancea samples. We used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for the normalization data processing, and the extraction standard was the characteristic value of >1. The first two principal components were used to build the scatter diagram|
Click here to view
The correlation analysis among 15 kinds of inorganic elements was conducted [Table 6]. Results showed that Al with Mn, S with K and Ni with Pb etc., (P < 0.01) were significantly correlated. Mn with P etc., (P < 0.05) were correlated. It might indicate that the absorption of these elements was accumulated (namely certain homogeneity). On the contrary, K with Al and S with Se (P < 0.01), etc., were significantly negatively correlated. Fe with Se ( P < 0.05) was negatively correlated.
The results were processed by SPSS cluster analysis [Figure 2]. The 16 samples could be gathered into two groups: Famous-region A. lancea were clustered into a group; unfamous-region A. lancea were clustered into a group. The cluster analysis outcomes were consistent with those of the PCA.
|Figure 2: Cluster analysis results of the 16 Atractylodes lancea samples using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Ward's method was applied and the squared Euclidean distance was chosen as the measurement|
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Correlation analysis between plants and soils
The inorganic elements of A. Lancea from Luanchuan Henan, Lushi Henan, Huoshan Anhui, Tongcheng Anhui, Qianshan Anhui were not correlated with corresponding soil. On the contrary, the inorganic elements from 11 other regions were obviously related [Table 7]. The results of our study were not the same with Guo et al.  which may be related to the quantities of samples. Thus, we speculated that A. lancea absorbed inorganic elements from the soil in two ways: Selective absorption (active absorption) and passive absorption.
Enrichment coefficient (EC) is the EC for plant/soil system. It was calculated to assess the accumulations of elements from soils to plants, and it is described as the following formula: 
[M] plant is the concentration of an element in the tissue of the plant (root or leaf), mg/kg, in dry matter;
[M] soil is the total concentrations of an element in soils where this plant is grown, mg/kg, in dry matter.
Famous-region A. lancea had a strong tendency to accumulate Se (average value 18.6) and good tendency to S, P, K, and Ca. However, the EC of other elements was low (<1). The EC of Fe of famous-region herbs was 8.3 times lower than unfamous-region herbs. But the EC of Se, Mn was 3.4 times and 2.5 times higher, respectively. This was probably due to the selective absorption and enrichment of some trace elements with medicinal plants regulating the body metabolism.  Therefore, EC characteristics can be used as a chemical feature of identifying famous-region A. lancea.
| Conclusion|| |
The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. lancea and in soil with different geological background were different. Content analysis, correlation analysis, and enrichment analysis proved that famous-region herbs had a good tendency to accumulate Mn and bad to Fe which played an important role in the formation of the traditional famous-region R. atractylodis. The inorganic elements are one of the important causes of formation of famous-region R. atractylodis. Inorganic elements in R. atractylodis are closely related to those in soil.
By the results of the correlation analysis among 15 kinds of inorganic elements that toxic element Pb with essential element Ni etc., were significantly correlated and the absorption of these elements was accumulated, we may speculate that the influence of inorganic elements on the formation of famous-region herbs was not just about how much the content of them, but also about the contribution to growth, formation and effective components. These aspects need further research.
The results of PCA and clustering analysis showed that the inorganic element may be used as a standard to identify famous-region plants. Therefore, in addition to the traditional chemical method, the characteristics of inorganic elements may also be the basis of geo-authentic and effective characteristics research of traditional Chinese medicine.
| Acknowledgment|| |
This work was ﬁnancially supported by a National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.81072985/H2801), the seventh batch of "The six major talent summit grants" of Jiangsu Province, and a R and D innovation fund of Jiangsu Province (NO.BY2012171), the 12 th scientific research projects of Jiangsu University (NO.12A480).
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7]