Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 

 
  Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 26  |  Page : 161-164  

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars


1 Department of Horticulture, Akdeniz University Agricultural Faculty, 07058 Antalya, Turkey
2 Department of Horticulture, Gaziosmanpasa University Agricultural Faculty, 60240 Tokat, Turkey

Date of Submission08-Jul-2010
Date of Decision19-Aug-2010
Date of Web Publication9-May-2011

Correspondence Address:
Sadiye Gözlekçi
Department of Horticulture, Akdeniz University, Antalya - 070 58
Turkey
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.80681

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Keywords: Bioactive compounds, fruit, phenolics, Punica granatum L


How to cite this article:
Gözlekçi S, Saraçoglu O, Onursal E, Özgen M. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars. Phcog Mag 2011;7:161-4

How to cite this URL:
Gözlekçi S, Saraçoglu O, Onursal E, Özgen M. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2011 [cited 2021 Sep 16];7:161-4. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2011/7/26/161/80681


   Introduction Top


Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit with exceptionally rich ethnomedical applications. The peel (pericarp) is well regarded for its astringent properties; the seeds for conferring invulnerability in combat and stimulating beauty and fertility. [1] Pomegranates have been used extensively in the folk medicine of many cultures. [2]

It is an ancient fruit with an illustrious medical history and has been the subject of classical reviews for over 100 years. [3] Several researchers reported that modern uses of pomegranate-derived products now include prevention and treatment of some of the cancer types such as lung cancer [4] and prostate cancer. [5]

According to Lansky and Newman, [6] over the past few decades scientific investigations have laid a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedical uses of the pomegranate. These studies, most completed in the past 5 years, may be divided into several general areas. For instance, the pomegranate-mediated antioxidant activity can be considered a means of lowering the threshold for inflammation. The antioxidant activity as well as suppression of inflammation may contribute to chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive utility against cancer. The potent antioxidant activities of pomegranates are attributed to its polyphenols. [7] Phenolic compounds are important components of many fruits. [8] As Robards et al.[9] reported, there are approximately 5000 known plant phenolics and model studies have demonstrated that many of them have antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity of phenolics is mainly due to their redox properties, which allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, singlet oxygen quenchers, and metal chelators. [10]

Pomegranate is one of the oldest cultivated species with a high genetic diversity. [11] This fruit is cultivated extensively in Iran, Afghanistan, India, Mediterranean countries, and Turkey. Due to the long historic cultivation and suitable climatic conditions of Turkey, there are numerous different pomegranate cultivars available with different peel and aril color, aroma, taste etc., for fresh and processing market. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the total phenolic compounds of peel, aril juice, and seeds of four popular pomegranate cultivars grown in Turkey.


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant material and extraction

In this study, "Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar" pomegranate cultivars, some of the most popular cultivars grown in Turkey, were harvested at commercial maturity at the Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Arils of fruits were hand separated (about 100 g lots) and frozen at ?20°C. Three replicates were maintained for each analysis, each replicate indicating four pomegranate fruits. Pomegranate juice was obtained from pomegranate arils by a hand press. The peels and seeds were manually removed, sun-dried, and homogenized for phenolic extractions.

The rind color of pomegranates was determined using a Minolta portable chromameter (model CR-400; Minolta, Kyoto, Japan) which provided CIE L*, a*, and b* values. The chromameter describes color in three coordinates: L*, lightness, from 0 (black) to 100 (white); a*, from ?60 (green) to 60 (red); and b*, from ?60 (blue) to 60 (yellow). Chroma values was calculated as chroma (a2 + b2 ) 1/2.

Also, three subsamples of 10 fruits were used for measurements of horticultural attributes such as fruit weight (g), fruit length (mm), fruit diameter (mm), shape index, aril weight (g), seed weight, fruit juice yield (%), and rind thickness (mm). Total soluble solid (TSS) content was determined with a digital refractometer (Atago, model ATC-1E, Kyoto, Japan). The total acidity (TA) was measured by titration with 0.1 N NaOH.

Determination of total phenolics

Five gram of each sample was homogenized in 25 mL of the 50% (v/v) ethanol/water solution. The extract was filtered through the Whatman no. 41 filter paper for the removal of peel and seed particles. Only the peel extracts were diluted 10 times using distilled water. After filtration, the concentrations of total phenolics (TP) in extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. [12] Samples (100 ΅L) were mixed with 5 mL of the 0.2 N Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and 4 mL of 7.5% sodium carbonate. The mixture was allowed to stand for 2 h at room temperature in the dark before the absorbance was measured at 765 nm spectrophotometrically. Gallic acid standards at eight different concentrations ranging from 100 to 2000 mg/L were prepared. By using these standards, the GA calibration curve was obtained and the total phenolic content was calculated from this curve and expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (mg GAE/L).

Statistical analysis

The estimation of the total phenolic content in the extracts was carried out in triplicates and differences among the means were determined for significance at P<0.05 using Duncan's multiple range test and the system program SAS software package. [13]


   Results and Discussion Top


The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars for the variables tested. [Table 1] presents the mean values obtained for fruit quality characteristic of the analyzed pomegranate cultivars. The aril color ranged from pink to dark red. "Katirbasi" with a 378 g fruit size had the largest fruits among the others. Other than shape index, all the other horticultural characteristics were statistically significant between the four cultivars.
Table 1: Some of the horticultural characteristics of pomegranate cultivars


Click here to view


The soluble solid content of analyzed cultivars varied from 13.90% to 14.97%. "Cekirdeksiz-IV" and "Katirbasi" displayed the highest TSS (14.97% and 14.82%, respectively). In other studies, the TSS content varied from 14.4% to 16.2%, [14] 14.3% to 16.4%, [15] 14.1% to 16.5%, [16] and 14.7% to 17.9%. [17] On the other hand, titratable acidity of our cultivars ranged from 0.97% to 1.39%. However, there was no statistical difference among the cultivars regarding titratable acidity.

The peel colors were measured using a colorimeter and the "L*," "a*," "b*," and "C" values were recorded [Table 2]. The highest value of the peel lightness (L value) was obtained from "Cekirdeksiz-IV" (94.26) and "Lefan" (91.76) cultivars. The fruit color of all the cultivars ranged from greenish yellow to pinkish red. Especially the color of "Lefan" cultivar was darker red than all the other cultivars. That's why redness indication of a* values was the highest in "Lefan" (40.06), followed by "Katirbasi" (30.39). "Lefan" had the lowest (22.37) b* values indicating the color change from yellow to blue. "Asinar" had the lowest chroma values among the other cultivars.
Table 2: Pomological characteristics of pomegranate cultivars


Click here to view


The total phenolic contents of the peel, juice, and seed from pomegranate cultivars are presented in [Table 3]. The results indicated that pomegranate peel displayed the highest amount of fruit total phenolic content, (2747 mg/L) 67% of the total amount. Fruit juice and seed contained 29.7% and 3.3% of the total fruit phenolic content, respectively. These results are in agreement with the literature; Li et al.[18] found that pomegranate peel had the highest antioxidant activity among the peel, Pulp, and seed fractions of 28 kinds of fruits. They also identified that the total phenolic content of the peel extract was nearly 10-fold as high as that of the Pulp extract in pomegranate. A similar result was reported by Tomas-Barberan et al.[19] who found that peel tissues usually contained larger amount of phenolics than did flesh tissues. Also, Singh et al.[20] identified that pomegranate peel extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity in various in vitro models compared to seed extracts. It is known that these activities related to phenolic compounds. Most of the phenolic materials that are present in the pomegranate peel are passed onto the juice during pressing. [21]
Table 3: Total phenolic distribution of peel, juice, and seed in four pomegranate cultivars


Click here to view


The highest total phenolic content 3547 mg/L was found in the peel of "Lefan" followed by the peels of "Katirbasi" (3127 mg/L), "Cekirdeksiz-IV" (2537 mg/L), and "Asinar" (1775 mg/L) cultivars. The highest total phenolic content value for fruit juices (1551.5 mg/L) was found in "Lefan" followed by "Asinar" (1307.3 mg/L) and "Katirbasi" (1229.5 mg/L). There were significant statistical differences between the cultivars. Ozgen et al.[17] reported that the total phenolic content of six cultivars varied between 1245 and 2076 mg GAE/L of fruit juice. Karadeniz et al.[22] also found the total phenolic content in pomegranate juice to be 2408 mg/kg. Similar results for the juice were reported by Maiman and Ahmad. [23] It is observed that pomegranate seed extracts had the lowest total phenolic content in comparison with other fruit parts. The total phenolic content of the seeds from cultivars "Asinar," "Lefan," "Katirbasi," and "Cekirdeksiz-IV" was 177.4 mg/L, 125.3 mg/L, 121.2 mg/L, and 117.0 mg/L, respectively. A similar result was obtained by Rosenblat and Aviram (2006), as a whole fruit total phenolic content. "Lefan" showed the highest total phenolic content (5224.6 mg/L), followed by "Katirbasi" (4477.8 mg/L), "Cekirdeksiz-IV" (3438.5 mg/L), and "Asinar" (3260.1 mg/L) cultivars.


   Conclusion Top


The results indicated that the total phenolic contents of pomegranate vary considerably from one cultivar to another. In addition, the concentration of phenolics varied depending on different parts of the fruit. Aril color and peel of fruits were responsible for the majority of the total phenolic content of pomegranate. Cultivars with a dark red color peel and aril displayed a higher phenolic content.

 
   References Top

1.Aslam MN, Lansky EP, Varani J. Pomegranate as a cosmeceutical source: Pomegranate fractions promote proliferation and procollagen synthesis and inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-1 production in human skin cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;103:311-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Longtin R. The pomegranate: nature's power fruit? J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:346-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Li HX, Wang Z, Liu YZ. Progress in studies on chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Punicaceae. Chin Traditi Herb Drugs 2002;33:765-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Khan N, Mukhtar H. Pomegranate fruit as a lung cancer chemopreventive agent. Drugs Future 2007;32:549-54.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Malik A, Mukhtar H. Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit. Cell Cycle 2006;5:371-3.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Lansky EP, Newmana RA. Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:177-206.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Seeram NP, Adams LS, Henning SM, Niu Y, Zhang Y, Nair MG, et al. In vitro antiproliferative apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16:360-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Miguel G, Fontes C, Antunes D, Neves A, Martins D. Anthocyanin concentration of "Assaria" pomegranate fruits during different cold storage conditions. J Biomed Biotech 2004;5:338-42.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Robards K, Prenzler PD, Tucker G, Swatsitang P, Glover W. Phenolic compounds and their role in oxidative processes in fruits. Food Chem 1999;66:401-36.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolweel PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radical Res 1995;22:375-83.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Durgaç C, Özgen M, Þimþek Ö, Kaçar YA, Kýyga Y, Çelebi S, et al . Molecular and pomological diversity among pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars in Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Afr J Biotech 2008;7:1294-301.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticult 1965;16:144-58.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.SAS Institute. SAS Online Doc. Version 8. SAS Inst., Cary. NC: 2005.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Ak BE, Ikinci A, Ozguven AI, Yýlmaz C. Some pomological traits of different pomegranate varieties grown in Sanliurfa-Turkey. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Pomegranate and Minor Mediterranean Fruits. Acta Hort 2009;818:115-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.La Malfa S, Gentile F, Domina F, Tribulato E. Primosole: A new selection from Sicilian pomegranate germplasm. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Pomegranate and Minor Mediterranean Fruits. Acta Hort 2009;818:125-34.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ozguven AI, Yýlmaz M, Yýlmaz C, Rehber Y. The adaptation of different pomegranate cultivars to the ecological conditions of Northern Cyprus. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Pomegranate and Minor Mediterranean Fruits. Acta Hort 2009;818:161-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Özgen M, Durgac C, Serce S, Kaya C. Chemical and antioxidant properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Food Chem 2008;111:703-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Li Y, Guo C, Yang J, Wei J, Xu J, Cheng S. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of pomegranate peel extract in comparison with pomegranate pulp extract. Food Chem 2006;96:254-60.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Tomas-Barberan FA, Espin JC. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. J Sci Food Agric 2001;81:853-76.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Singh RP, Murthy KN, Jayaprakasha GK. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:81-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Alper N, Bahçeci KS, Acar J. Influence of processing and pasteurization on color values and total phenolic compounds of pomegranate juice. J Food Process Pres 2005;29:357-68.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Karadeniz F, Burdurlu HS, Koca N, Soyer Y. Antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turk J Agric Forest 2005;29:297-303.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Al-Maiman SA, Ahmad D. Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation. Food Chem 2002;76:437-41.  Back to cited text no. 23
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Soft-Seeded Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Varieties: Preliminary Characterization and Quality Changes of Minimally Processed Arils During Storage
Giuseppina Adiletta,Loredana Liguori,Donatella Albanese,Paola Russo,Marisa Di Matteo,Alessio Crescitelli
Food and Bioprocess Technology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Nutritional, Chemical and Organoleptical Characteristics of Low-Calorie Fruit Nectars Incorporating Stevioside as a Natural Sweetener
Hassan Barakat,Abdulaziz Al-Furaydi,Abdulelah Al-Harbi,Ali Al-Shedookhi
Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2017; 08(01): 126
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Physicochemical composition and antioxidant activity of several pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain
Luana Fernandes,José Alberto Pereira,Isabel Lopéz-Cortés,Domingo M. Salazar,Julia González-Álvarez,Elsa Ramalhosa
European Food Research and Technology. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli
Caterina Pagliarulo,Valentina De Vito,Gianluca Picariello,Roberta Colicchio,Gabiria Pastore,Paola Salvatore,Maria Grazia Volpe
Food Chemistry. 2016; 190: 824
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 The anti-proliferative and anti-androgenic activity of different pomegranate accessions
Ola Orgil,Limor Spector,Doron Holland,Jamal Mahajna,Rachel Amir
Journal of Functional Foods. 2016; 26: 517
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Biochemical Changes of Cubiu Fruits (<i>Solanum sessiliflorum</i> Dunal, Solanaceae) According to Different Tissue Portions and Ripening Stages
Moacir Couto de Andrade Júnior,Jerusa Souza Andrade,Suely de Souza Costa
Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2016; 07(12): 1191
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Effects of pomegranate extract supplementation on inflammation in overweight and obese individuals: A randomized controlled clinical trial
Banafshe Hosseini,Ahmad Saedisomeolia,Lisa G. Wood,Mehdi Yaseri,Sanaz Tavasoli
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016; 22: 44
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Evaluation of different extraction methods from pomegranate whole fruit or peels and the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the polyphenolic fraction
Alessandra Masci,Andrea Coccia,Eugenio Lendaro,Luciana Mosca,Patrizia Paolicelli,Stefania Cesa
Food Chemistry. 2016; 202: 59
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Protective effects of extracts from Pomegranate peels and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats
Xiang-lan Wei,Ru-tang Fang,Yong-hua Yang,Xue-yuan Bi,Guo-xia Ren,A-li Luo,Ming Zhao,Wei-jin Zang
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015; 15(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Fatty acid, vitamin E and sterols composition of seed oils from nine different pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars grown in Spain
Luana Fernandes,José Alberto Pereira,Isabel Lopéz-Cortés,Domingo M. Salazar,Elsa Ramalhosa,Susana Casal
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2015; 39: 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Cardioameliorative effect of punicalagin against streptozotocin-induced apoptosis, redox imbalance, metabolic changes and inflammation
Mohamed A. El-Missiry,Maher A. Amer,Faried A.E. Hemieda,Azza I. Othman,Doaa A. Sakr,Haitham L. Abdulhadi
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2015; 2(4): 247
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Extraction process optimization for bioactive compounds in pomegranate peel
Ankita Sood,Mahesh Gupta
Food Bioscience. 2015; 12: 100
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Determination of Heat Requirements and Effective Heat Summations of Some Pomegranate Cultivars Grown in Southern Anatolia
Ali Ikinci,Mehmet Mamay,Levent Unlu,Ibrahim Bolat,Sezai Ercisli
Erwerbs-Obstbau. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content ofCitrus limettaPeel Extract
Eduardo Padilla-Camberos,Estefania Lazcano-Díaz,José Miguel Flores-Fernandez,Moses S. Owolabi,Kirk Allen,Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez
The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of various Punica granatum l. Peel extracts from Algeria: A comparative study
N. Belkacem,R. Djaziri,F. Lahfa,I. A. El-Haci,Z. Boucherit
Phytothérapie. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of turkish pomegranate (punica granatum l.) accessions
karaaslan, m. and vardin, h. and varlikliöz, s. and yilmaz, f.m.
international journal of food science and technology. 2014; 49(1): 82-90
[Pubmed]
17 chemical changes and antioxidant activity in arils juice of two syrian pomegranate accessions during fruit maturation
al-halabi, r. and al-bakri, i. and al-joubbeh, m.
international journal of chemtech research. 2013; 5(6): 2769-2781
[Pubmed]
18 variability of the polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts of pomegranate peel
kam, a. and li, k.m. and razmovski-naumovski, v. and nammi, s. and chan, k. and li, g.q.
natural product communications. 2013; 8(6): 707-710
[Pubmed]
19 Indiaæs contribution on antioxidants: A bibliometric analysis, 2001-10
Mueen Ahmed, K.K. and Gupta, B.M.
Scientometrics. 2013; 94(2): 741-754
[Pubmed]
20 pharmacognosy magazineæs new and improved impact factor - 1.525
nandan, s.
pharmacognosy magazine. 2013; 9(36): 283-284
[Pubmed]
21 Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome
Svjetlana Medjakovic,Alois Jungbauer
Food & Function. 2013; 4(1): 19
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury
Fatemeh Forouzanfar,Amir Afkhami Goli,Elham Asadpour,Ahmad Ghorbani,Hamid Reza Sadeghnia
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013; 2013: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Management of reproduction and pregnancy complications in maternal obesity: Which role for dietary polyphenols?
Carmela Santangelo,Rosaria Varì,Beatrice Scazzocchio,Carmelina Filesi,Roberta Masella
BioFactors. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Chemical compositions and functional characteristics of Korean and imported pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Mi Sook Kim,Seol Hee Yun,Hwan Sik Na,Hark Jae Park,Gyeong Cheol Choi,Soo In Yang,Ji Heon Lee
Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 2013; 20(3): 342
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 India’s contribution on antioxidants: a bibliometric analysis, 2001–10
K. K. Mueen Ahmed,B. M. Gupta
Scientometrics. 2013; 94(2): 741
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of Turkish pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) accessions
Mehmet Karaaslan,Hasan Vardin,Suzan Varlikliöz,Fatih M. Yilmaz
International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2013; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Pomegranate pericarp extract enhances the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) producing Gram-negative bacilli
Diganta Dey,Sukalyani Debnath,Sudipta Hazra,Subhalakshmi Ghosh,Ratnamala Ray,Banasri Hazra
Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2012; 50(12): 4302
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Phytochemical and antioxidant attributes of autochthonous Turkish pomegranates
Oguzhan Caliskan,Safder Bayazit
Scientia Horticulturae. 2012; 147: 81
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract
Olaniyi A Fawole,Nokwanda P Makunga,Umezuruike Opara
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 12(1): 200
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Organic acid, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacities of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars and selected genotypes
M. Gundogdu,H. Yilmaz
Scientia Horticulturae. 2012; 143: 38
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract
Fawole, O.A. and Makunga, N.P. and Opara, U.L.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 12(200)
[Pubmed]
32 Organic acid, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacities of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars and selected genotypes
Gundogdu, M. and Yilmaz, H.
Scientia Horticulturae. 2012; 143: 38-42
[Pubmed]
33 2012-Another successful new year for Pharmacogn Mag.
Mueen Ahmed, K.K.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(29): 1-3
[Pubmed]
34 Investigation of antimicrobial activity of Punica granatum L. fruit peel ash used for protection against skin infections as folk remedies especially after male circumcision
Altuner, E.M.
African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2011; 5(20): 3339-3342
[Pubmed]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6758    
    Printed191    
    Emailed8    
    PDF Downloaded25    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 34    

Recommend this journal