Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 

Year : 2010  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 23  |  Page : 147-153 Table of Contents     

Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials

1 Department of Biology, Shahed University, Tehran-Qom Express Way, Opposite Imam Khomeini's shrine, Tehran-3319118651, Iran
2 Medicinal Plants Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran-Qom Express Way, Opposite Imam Khomeini's shrine, Tehran-3319118651, Iran
3 Faculty of Medicine, Shahed University, P.O.Box 14155-7435, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission12-Feb-2010
Date of Decision26-Mar-2010
Date of Web Publication30-Jul-2010

Correspondence Address:
Iraj Rasooli
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran-Qom Express Way, Opposite Imam Khomeini's shrine, Tehran-3319118651
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.66926

Rights and Permissions

Mentha piperita essential oil was bactericidal in order of E. coli> S. aureus > Pseudomonas aeruginosa> S. faecalis > Klebsiella pneumoniae. The oil with total phenolics of 89.43 ± 0.58 μg GAE/mg had 63.82 ± 0.05% DPPH inhibition activity with an IC 50 = 3.9 μg/ml. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was comparable to BHT and BHA. A 127% hike was noted in serum ferric-reducing antioxidant power. There was 38.3% decrease in WBCs count, while platelet count showed increased levels of 214.12%. Significant decrease in uric acid level and cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were recorded. The volatile oil displayed high cytotoxic action toward the human tumor cell line. The results of this study deserve attention with regard to antioxidative and possible anti-neoplastic chemotherapy that form a basis for future research. The essential oil of mint may be exploited as a natural source of bioactive phytopchemicals bearing antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials that could be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

Keywords: Antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, cancer, Mentha piperita

How to cite this article:
Sharafi SM, Rasooli I, Owlia P, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA. Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials. Phcog Mag 2010;6:147-53

How to cite this URL:
Sharafi SM, Rasooli I, Owlia P, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA. Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Aug 13];6:147-53. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2010/6/23/147/66926

   Introduction Top

Supplementation of human diet with herbs, containing especially high amounts of compounds capable of deactivating free radicals, besides the fruits and vegetables recommended as optimal sources of antioxidant activity, may have beneficial effects. The benefits resulting from the use of natural products rich in bioactive substances have promoted the growing interest of pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries as well as of individual consumers in the quality of herbal products. The oxidative deterioration of lipids is of great concern in the shelf life of foods. Lipid peroxidation leads to development of undesirable off-flavors and decreases the acceptability of foods. In addition, lipid oxidation decreases food safety and nutritional quality by the formation of potentially toxic products and secondary oxidation products during cooking or processing. [1] To prevent and retard lipid oxidation, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) have been added to lipid-containing foods. [2] However, potential health hazards of synthetic antioxidants in foods, including possible carcinogens, have been reported several times. [3] Antioxidants are compounds that can delay, inhibit, or prevent the oxidation of oxidizable matters by scavenging free radicals and diminishing oxidative stress. Plants contain a wide variety of antioxidant phytochemicals or bioactive molecules, which can neutralize the free radicals and thus retard the progress of many chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The intake of natural antioxidants has been associated with reduced risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and diseases associated with ageing. Studies on dietary free radical scavenging molecules have attracted the attention to characterize phenolic compounds and other naturally occurring phytochemicals as antioxidants. [4] Spices and herbs are generally applied to food which is a nutrient rich environment for most bacteria. The antibacterial activity, however, could be also used in nutrient poor environments, for example, cleaning of food processing devices and depuration of shellfish. [5] A variety of molecules derived from spice possess bioactive properties. Spices are also considered as nutraceuticals in view of their nutritional, medicinal and therapeutical properties. In addition to improving flavor, certain spices and essential oils prolong the storage life of foods by an antimicrobial activity. Spices are primarily used in the food industry for improving the quality of the product. These powdered spices suffer disadvantages, e.g. quality variations from batch to batch caused by uneven distribution of flavor, loss of flavor strength, quality during storage, insect infestation, bacterial contamination, unhygienic nature and inconveniency in bulk handling. To overcome these problems, spice essential oil has come into use in the food industries. [6] Food-borne illness caused by consumption of contaminated foods with pathogenic bacteria and/or their toxins has been of great concern to public health. Controlling pathogenic microorganisms would reduce food-borne outbreaks and assure consumers a continuing safe, wholesome and nutritious food supply. [7],[8] The exploration of naturally occurring antimicrobials for food preservation receives increasing attention due to consumer awareness of natural food products and a growing concern of microbial resistance toward conventional preservatives. [9] Bearing in mind the growing use of essential oils, their genotoxicity testing, identification of genotoxic compounds and attempts to improve their safety may be important fields of future research. Mentha piperita (Peppermint) is globally and widely used in the forms of oil, extract, leaves, and water. However, very little information is available on physiological, pharmacological and cytotoxic properties of Mentha piperita essential oil. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the protective activity of bioactive phytochemicals from M. piperita essential oil.

   Materials and Methods Top

Equipments and chemicals

The major equipments used were UV-2501PC spectrophotometer, ELISA reader and routine microbiology laboratory equipments. The essential oil was purchased from Zardband company, Tehran, Iran. Microbial and cell culture media and laboratory reagents were from Merck, Germany. Other chemicals were of analytical grade.

Microbial strain and growth media

E. coli (ATCC 25922), S. aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus fecalis (PTCC 33186), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 8830) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 13883) were employed in the study. Bacterial suspensions were made in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth to a concentration of approximately 10 8 cfu/ml. Subsequent dilutions were made from the above suspension, which were then used in the tests.

Oil sterility test

To ensure sterility of the oils, geometric dilutions ranging from 0.036 to 72.0 mg/ml of the essential oil were prepared in a 96-well microtitre plate, including one growth control (BHI+DMSO) and one sterility control (BHI+DMSO+test oil). Plates were incubated under normal atmospheric conditions, at 37 o C for 24 h. The contaminating bacterial growth, if at all, was indicated by the presence of a white ''pellet'' on the well bottom.

Oil dilution solvent

5 μl of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) loaded on sterile blank disks were placed on Mueller Hinton agar plates streaked with suspensions of bacterial strains, and were then incubated at 37 o C for 24 hours. There was no antibacterial activity on the plates and hence DMSO was selected as a safe diluting agent for the oil. 10 μl from each oil dilution was added to sterile blank discs. The solvent also served as control.

Disc diffusion method

The agar disc diffusion method was employed for the determination of antimicrobial activities of the essential oils in question. Briefly, 0.1 ml from 10 8 CFU/ml bacterial suspension was spread on the Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) plates. Filter paper discs (6 mm in diameter) were impregnated with 10 μl of the undiluted oil and were placed on the inoculated plates. These plates, after remaining at 4 o C for 2h, were incubated at 37 o C for 24 h. The diameters of the inhibition zones were measured in millimeters. All tests were performed in triplicate.

Radical scavenging capacity of the oils

The hydrogen atom or electron donation abilities of the corresponding extracts and some pure compounds were measured from the bleaching of the purple-colored methanol solution of 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH). 50 μl of 1:5 concentrations of the essential oil in methanol was added to 5 ml of a 0.004% methanol solution of DPPH. Trolox (1 mM) (Sigma-Aldrich), a stable antioxidant, was used as a synthetic reference. After a 30 min incubation period at room temperature, the absorbance was read against a blank at 517 nm. Inhibition of free radical by DPPH in percent (I%) was calculated in the following way:

I% = (A blank ─ A sample /A blank ) Χ 100;

where A blank is the absorbance of the control reaction (containing all reagents except the test compound), and A sample is the absorbance of the test compound. Tests were carried out in triplicate.

Lipid peroxidation (LPO) assay

Approximately 10 mg of β-carotene (type I synthetic, Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in 10 ml of chloroform. The carotene-chloroform solution, 0.2 ml, was pipetted into a boiling flask containing 20 mg linoleic acid (Sigma-Aldrich) and 200 mg Tween 40 (Sigma- Aldrich). Chloroform was removed using a rotary evaporator at 40 o C for 5 min and to the residue, 50 ml of distilled water was added, slowly with vigorous agitation, to form an emulsion. 5 ml of the emulsion was added to a tube containing 200 μl of essential oils solution and the absorbance was immediately measured at 470 nm against a blank, consisting of an emulsion without β-carotene. The tubes were placed in a water bath at 50o C and the oxidation of the emulsion was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring absorbance at 470 nm over a 60 min period. Control samples contained 10 μl of water instead of essential oils. Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), stable antioxidants, were used as synthetic references. The antioxidant activity was expressed as inhibition percentage with reference to the control after 60 minutes incubation using the following equation: AA = 100(DR C─DR S )/DR C ,

where AA = antioxidant activity;

DR C = degradation rate of the control = [ln(a/b)/60];

DR S = degradation rate in the presence of the sample = [ln(a/b)/60];

a = absorbance at time 0;

b = absorbance at 60 min.

Total phenolic content assay

Total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE; μg gallic acid/mg extract) as described earlier.[10] In brief, a 100 μl aliquot of dissolved extract was transferred to a 10 ml volumetric flask, containing ca. 6.0 ml H2 O, to which was subsequently added 500 μl Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. After 1 min, 1.5 ml 200 g/l Na2 CO 3 was added and the volume was made up to 10 ml with H 2 O. After 2 h of incubation at 25°C, the absorbance was measured at 760 nm. Gallic acid (Sigma Co., 0.2-1 mg/ml gallic acid) was used as the standard for the calibration curve, and the total phenolic contents were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of tested extracts (Y=0.001x +0.0079; r2 = 0.997).

Acute and subchronic toxicity

A 30-day oral toxicity study was conducted in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus; 180-200 g) to determine the potential of C. cyminum essential oil to produce toxic effects. The rats of both sexes were housed in temperature-controlled rooms and were given food and water ad libitum until used. For the acute toxicity analysis, the essential oil was administered via oral gavage to the rats (n = 10 mice per group) at doses ranging from 100 to 2000 mg/kg/day. The results obtained were compared with those for the control animals [3% (v/v) Tween 80 in saline]. The LD 50 was calculated by the probit method by using SPSS 7.0 for Windows. To investigate the subchronic toxicity of the essential oil, after 30 days of oral administration to rats, the hematological and serum biochemistry parameters were evaluated. Blood samples were collected by puncture in the infraorbital plexus. The blood samples collected on day 0 and day 30 were used for determining red cell and leucocyte counts and for hemoglobin, hematocrit and biochemical parameter analysis. The serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and other parameters were determined by using commercial kits. The values obtained were compared within and between the groups.

Ferric reducing antioxidant power of serum (FRAP)

The antioxidant power of blood serum was determined using FRAP assay. [11] Briefly, 50 μl of the blood serum (normal as well as experimental cells) suspension was added to 1.5 ml of freshly prepared and pre-warmed (37 o C) FRAP reagent (300 mM acetate buffer, pH = 3.6, 10 mM TPTZ (tripyridyl-s-triazine) in 40 mM HCl and 20 mM FeCl3.6H2O in the ratio of 10:1:1) and incubated at 37 o C for 10 min. The absorbance of the sample was read against reagent blank (1.5 ml FRAP reagent + 50 μl distilled water) at 593 nm. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(II) concentration (FeSO4 .7H 2 O) were used for calibration of the FRAP assay and antioxidant power was expressed as μg/ml (y0 = 0.0025x+0.0005; r2 = 0.9976).

Cytotoxicity assay

The human cervical carcinoma Hela cell line NCBI code No. 115 (ATCC number CCL-2) were obtained from Pasteur Institute, Tehran-Iran. The cells were grown in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 1% (w/v) glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere at 37°C in 5% CO 2 . Cytotoxicity was measured using a modified MTT assay. This assay detects the reduction of MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] by mitochondrial dehydrogenase, to blue formazan product, which reflects the normal functioning of mitochondrial and cell viability. [12] Briefly, the cells (5 Χ 10 4 ) were seeded in each well containing 100μl of the RPMI medium supplemented with 10% FBS in a 96-well plate. After 24 h of adhesion, a serial of doubling dilution of the essential oil was added to triplicate wells over the range of 1.0-0.005 μl/ml. The final concentration of ethanol in the culture medium was maintained at 0.5% (volume/volume) to avoid toxicity of the solvent. [13] After 2 days, 10 μl of MTT (5 mg/ml stock solution) was added and the plates were incubated for an additional 4 h. The medium was discarded and the formazan blue, which formed in the cells, was dissolved with 100 μl dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The optical density was measured at 490 nm using a microplate ELISA reader. The cell survival curves were calculated from cells incubated in the presence of 0.5% ethanol. Cytotoxicity is expressed as the concentration of drug inhibiting cell growth by 50% (IC 50 ), (y = 110.12x0.025 ; r2 = 0.9981). All tests and analyses were run in triplicate and mean values were recorded.

Statistical analysis

All the experimental data are presented as mean ą SEM of three individual samples. Data are presented as percentage of free radical scavenging/inhibition lipid peroxidation on different concentrations of cumin oil. IC 50 (the concentration required to scavenge 50% of free radicals) value was calculated from the dose-response curves. Antibacterial effect was measured in terms of zone of inhibition to an accuracy of 0.1 mm and the effect was calculated as a mean of triplicate tests. All of the statistical analyses were performed with the level of significant difference between compared data sets being set at p < 0.05.

   Results and Discussion Top

The antibacterial effect of Mentha piperita was tested against some bacteria by agar diffusion method. All the test organisms were sensitive to the oil with the sensitivity order of  E.coli Scientific Name Search > S. aureus > Pseudomonas aeruginosa>  S.faecalis Scientific Name Search  > Klebsiella pneumoniae [Figure 1]. The antimicrobial activity of various essential oils including mint (Mentha piperita) was evaluated on survival and growth of different strains of E. coli O157:H7. The strains of E. coli exhibited similar susceptibilities to the action of the essential oils assayed at the inhibition zone diameter range of 16-19mm. [14] Addition of mint essential oil reduced the total viable counts of S. aureus about 6-7 logs. [15] Our results seem to be consistent with the above reports. Since essential oils consist of terpenes (phenolics in nature), it would seem reasonable that their mode of action might be related to those of other phenolic compounds. [15] Mentha extract (ME) has been reported to have antioxidant and antiperoxidant properties. [16] Hence we attempted to evaluate these properties with the essential oil under study. The oil showed at its maximum 63.82 ą 0.05% inhibition of DPPH activity with an IC 50 = 3.9 μg/ml [Table 1]. The extracts of the M. piperita has shown 93.9 ą 1.68% inhibition of DPPH activity with an IC 50 = 273 μg/ml.[17] In another study the essential oils of M. piperita had an IC50 = 2.53 μg/ml in the DPPH assay. [18] Total phenolics of M. piperita were 89.43 ą 0.58 μg GAE/mg [Table 1]. Plant phenols and flavonoids are known to inhibit lipid peroxidation by quenching lipid peroxy radicals and reduce or chelate iron in lipoxygenase enzyme and thus prevent initiation of lipid peroxidation reaction.[19] The antioxidant capacities of the essential oil as assessed by different assay methods are summarized in [Table 2] and [Figure 2]. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by M. Piperita oil was statistically (P>0.05) at the same level of the synthetic antioxidant BHT and lower (P<0.001) than BHA [Figure 2]. Many different methods have been established for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of certain biological samples, with such methods being classified, roughly, into one of two categories based upon the nature of the reaction that the method involved. [20] The methods involving an electron-transfer reaction include the total phenolics assay using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the TEAC and the DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The radical scavenging effect of M. piperita essential oil was found to be 6.6 and 4.17 times more potent than the standard BHT and BHA respectively, but less potent (64%) than Trolox [Table 1]. This suggests that M. piperita essential oil is a good free radical scavenger or hydrogen donor and contributes significantly to the antioxidant capacity of M. piperita. The DPPH radical scavenging is a sensitive antioxidant assay and is independent of substrate polarity. [21] DPPH is a stable free radical that can accept an electron or hydrogen radical to become a stable diamagnetic molecule. A significant correlation was shown to exist between the phenolic content and with DPPH scavenging capacity for each spice. [22] Ferric-reducing antioxidant power in the blood sera of the rats gavaged with a daily dose of 100 μl oil showed 127% hike as compared to the control group [Table 2]. The antioxidant activity can be correlated to the moderate phenolic content of the oil. The phenolic content of certain spices appears to correlate well with such spices' protective effect against peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and lipid peroxidation. Such an observation indicates that phenolics present in the spices contributed to such spice-elicited protection against peroxynitrite toxicity. [22] There were some treatment-related effects in hematology parameters [Table 3]. Although the animals gained significant weight but the weight gain was statistically (P=0.1) insignificant. There was 38.3% decrease in WBCs count, while platelet count showed increased levels of 214.125% [Table 3]. Clinical chemistry parameters showed significant decrease in uric acid level while total cholesterol and triglycerides levels increased significantly. The interesting observations were of increased good cholesterol (HDL) level that reduced cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios to 80% and 45.93% respectively. Thus, M. piperita with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods. Recently Dragland et al.[23] speculated that the daily intake of 1 g of various potent antioxidant spices makes a relevant contribution to the total intake of antioxidants in a normal diet. Peppermint oil was minimally toxic in acute oral studies. Short-term and subchronic oral studies reported cyst-like lesions in the cerebellum in rats that were given doses of peppermint oil containing pulegone, pulegone alone, or large amounts (>200 mg/kg/day) of menthone. With the limitation that the concentration of pulegone in these ingredients should not exceed 1%, it was concluded that Mentha piperita (peppermint) oil, Mentha piperita (peppermint) extract, Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaves, Mentha piperita (peppermint) water are safe as used in cosmetic formulations. [24] At a concentration of 0.02 μl/ml, oil destructed Hela cells by 98.48% [Table 4]. At lower doses, the oil was still toxic to the cells. The volatile oil displayed an excellent cytotoxic action toward the human tumor cell line. The IC 50 was calculated to be 1Χ10 -16 which seem to be indicative of high toxicity of the oil that needs testing with normal healthy cells in order to rule out its hazardous cytotoxicity before it is recommended for use. The oral administration of Mentha piperita extract (ME) showed a significant reduction in the number of lung tumors from an incidence of 67.92% in animals given only benzo[a]pyrene (BP) to 26.31%. Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the use of chemicals or dietary components to block, inhibit, or reverse the development of cancer in normal or preneoplastic tissue. A large number of potential chemopreventive agents have been identified, and they function by mechanisms directed at all major stages of carcinogenesis. [25] Essential oil constituents have a very different mode of action in bacterial and eukaryotic cells. For bacterial cells they are having strong bactericidal properties, while in eukaryotes they modify apoptosis and differentiation, interfere with the post-translational modification of cellular proteins, induce or inhibit some hepatic detoxifying enzymes. So, essential oils may induce very different effects in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Peppermint essential oil was reported to be cytotoxic. [26] Thus, peppermint essential oil may be classified as "high toxicity clastogen", [27] which induces chromosome aberrations by secondary mechanism associated with cytotoxicity. It was suggested [28] that such compounds do not react with DNA and are not genotoxic in vivo and usually not carcinogenic. Some reports support the relationship of cytotoxicity with antioxidant activity. [29] Although all in vitro experiments hold limitations with regard to possible in vivo efficacy, the results of this study deserve attention with regard to antioxidative and possible anti-neoplastic chemotherapy that form a basis for future research. Even though essential oils might not be ideal for the treatment of human cancers, the oil tested certainly deserves some further investigation.

   Conclusion Top

From the above results, it can be concluded that the tested essential oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms and it could be a better natural antioxidant. The essential oil provided comparable antioxidative activity as compared with synthetic antioxidants, which provides a way of screening antioxidants for foods, cosmetics and medicine. Hence, the essential oil of mint may be exploited as a natural source of bioactive phytopchemicals bearing antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials.

   Acknowledgements Top

The authors wish to thank Medicinal Plants Research Centre of Shahed University (Tehran-Iran) for the sanction of research grants to conduct the present study.

   References Top

1.Maillard MN, Soum MH, Boivin P, Berset C. Antioxidant activity of barley and malt: relationship with phenolic content. Lebenson Wiss Technol 1996;29:238-44.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Winata A, Lorenz K. Antioxidant potential of 5-n-pentadecylresorcinol. J Food Process Preserv 1996;20:417-29.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Hettiarachchy NS. Natural Antioxidant Extract from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) for Ground Beef Patties. J Food Sci 1996;61:516-9.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Ani V, Varadaraj MC, Naidu KA. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenolic compounds from bitter cumin (Cuminum nigrum L.). Eur Food Res Technol 2006;224:109-15.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Birkenhauer JM, Oliver JD. Use of diacetyl to reduce the load of Vibrio vulnificus in the eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. J Food Prot 2003;66:38-43.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Milan KS, Dholakia H, Tiku PK, Vishveshwaraiah P. Enhancement of digestive enzymatic activity by cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and role of spent cumin as a bionutrient. Food Chem 2008;110:678-83.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Grohs BM, Kunz B. Use of spice mixtures for the stabilisation of fresh portioned pork. Food Control 2000;11:433-6.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Karanika MS, Komaitis M, Aggelis G. Effect of aqueous extracts of some plants of Lamiaceae family on the growth of Yarrowia lipolytica. Int J Food Microbiol 2001;64:175-81.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Schuenzel KM, Harrison MA. Microbial antagonists of foodborne pathogens on fresh, minimally processed vegetables. J Food Prot 2002;65:1909-15.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Vol 299. Methods in Enzymology. Packer L, editor. San Diego: Academic Press Inc; 1999;. p. 152-78.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Benzie IF, Strain JJ. [2] Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Vol 299. Methods in Enzymology Oxidants and Antioxidants Part A. In: Lester P, editor. San Diego: Academic Press;1999;15.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Lau CB, Ho CY, Kim CF, Leung KN, Fung KP, Tse TF, et al. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on human leukemia and lymphoma cells by induction of apoptosis. Life Sci 2004;75:797-808.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Sylvestre M, Legault J, Dufour D, Pichette A. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of leaf essential oil of Myrica gale L. Phytomedicine 2005;12:299-304.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Moreira MR, Ponce AG, del Valle CE, Roura SI. Inhibitory parameters of essential oils to reduce a foodborne pathogen. LWT - Food Sci Technol 2005;38:565-70.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Tassou C, Koutsoumanis K, Nychas GJ. Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus in nutrient broth by mint essential oil. Food Res Intl 2000;33:273-80.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.al-Sereiti MR, Abu-Amer KM, Sen P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37:124-30.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Samarth RM, Panwar M, Kumar M, Soni A, Kumar M, Kumar A. Evaluation of antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities of certain radioprotective plant extracts. Food Chem 2008;106:868-73.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Mimica-Dukiζ N, Bozin B, Sokoviζ M, Mihajloviζ B, Matavulj M. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils. Planta Med 2003;69:413-9.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Torel J, Cillard J, Cillard P. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids and reactivity with peroxy radical. Phytochem 1986;25:383-5.  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1841-56.  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Yamaguchi T, Takamura H, Matoba T, Terao J. HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1998;62:1201-4.  Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Ho SC, Tsai TH, Tsai PJ, Lin CC. Protective capacities of certain spices against peroxynitrite-mediated biomolecular damage. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:920-8.  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K, Holte K, Blomhoff R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants. J Nutr 2003;133:1286-90.  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water. Int J Toxicol 2001;20:61-73.  Back to cited text no. 24      
25.Samarth RM, Panwar M, Kumar M, Kumar A. Protective effects of Mentha piperita Linn on benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in Swiss albino mice. Mutagenesis 2006;21:61-6.  Back to cited text no. 25      
26.Lazutka JR, Mierauskiene J, Slapsyte G, Dedonyte V. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster. Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39:485-92.  Back to cited text no. 26      
27.Kirkland D. Chromosome aberration testing in genetic toxicology - Past, present and future. Mutat Res 1998; 404:173-85.  Back to cited text no. 27      
28.Galloway SM. Cytotoxicity and chromosome aberrations in vitro: Experience in industry and the case for an upper limit on toxicity in the aberration assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 2000;35:191-201.  Back to cited text no. 28      
29.Hou J, Sun T, Hu J, Chen S, Cai X, Zou G. Chemical composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of the leaf essential oil of Photinia serrulata. Food Chem 2007;103:355-8.  Back to cited text no. 29      


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Grinding of Serbian peppermint ('Mentha' × 'piperita L.') leaves: Variations regarding yield, composition and antimicrobial activity of isolated essential oil
Dušica Ilic, Jelena Stanojevic, Dragan Cvetkovic, Ivan Ristic, Vesna Nikolic
Advanced Technologies. 2022; 11(1): 5
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Cholesterol-lowering activity of natural mono- and sesquiterpenoid compounds in essential oils: A review and investigation of mechanisms using in silico protein–ligand docking
Tyler Bahr, Gavin Butler, Christian Rock, Kyle Welburn, Kathryn Allred, Damian Rodriguez
Phytotherapy Research. 2021; 35(8): 4215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Antioxidant status of medicinal and aromatic plants under the influence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria and osmotic stress
Julieta Chiappero, Lorena del Rosario Cappellari, Tamara Belén Palermo, Walter Giordano, Naeem Khan, Erika Banchio
Industrial Crops and Products. 2021; 167: 113541
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Comparative analysis and antimicrobial action of some essential oils from plants
Monica Mironescu, Cecilia Georgescu, I. Spichak, O. Lebedeva
BIO Web of Conferences. 2021; 30: 01011
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Chemical components of essential oils and biological activities of the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens L. grown under inorganic and organic conditions
Sedef Ozliman, Gulsum Yaldiz, Mahmut Camlica, Nurten Ozsoy
Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. 2021; 8(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Mint Oils: In Vitro Ability to Perform Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities and to Enhance Intestinal Barrier Integrity
Monika Hejna, Lauren Kovanda, Luciana Rossi, Yanhong Liu
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(7): 1004
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Potential Application of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) as Active Fillers in Natural Rubber Biocomposites
Marcin Maslowski, Andrii Aleksieiev, Justyna Miedzianowska, Krzysztof Strzelec
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(14): 7530
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Inhibitory Effect of Fermented Mentha piperita on MUC5AC in Lung Epithelial Cells
Hye Jin Jee, Katrina Joy Bormate, Ok Lim, Yi-Sook Jung
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 2021; 50(4): 330
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Changes in the Content of Phenolic Compounds and Biological Activity in Traditional Mexican Herbal Infusions with Different Drying Methods
Sandra N. Jimenez-Garcia, Moisés A. Vazquez-Cruz, Xóchitl S. Ramirez-Gomez, Vicente Beltran-Campos, Luis M. Contreras-Medina, Juan F. Garcia-Trejo, Ana A. Feregrino-Pérez
Molecules. 2020; 25(7): 1601
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 The Healing Effects of Spices in Chronic Diseases
Danka Bukvicki, Davide Gottardi, Sahdeo Prasad, Miroslav Novakovic, Petar D. Marin, Amit Kumar Tyagi
Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 27(26): 4401
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological updates on Peppermint ( Mentha × piperita L.)—A review
Ganesan Mahendran, Laiq-Ur Rahman
Phytotherapy Research. 2020; 34(9): 2088
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Elucidating the effect of anti-biofilm activity of bioactive compounds extracted from plants
Dibyajit Lahiri, Sudipta Dash, Rachayeeta Dutta, Moupriya Nag
Journal of Biosciences. 2019; 44(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Improvement of Bioavailability of Sage and Mint by Ultrasonic Extraction
Kubra DOGAN, Perihan Kubra AKMAN, Fatih TÖRNÜK
International Journal of Life Sciences and Biotechnology. 2019; 2(2): 122
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 In Vitro Cytobiochemical Potentials and Protective Effects of Bioactive Phytochemicals from Artemisia Turanica
M. Taherkhani
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Chemical Constituents, Total Phenolic Content, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Radical Scavenging Properties, Chelating Ability, Tyrosinase Inhibition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Effects of Artemisia Aucheri Herbs
M. Taherkhani
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2017; 50(11): 736
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 A comparative ethnopharmacological analysis of traditional medicine used against respiratory tract diseases in Mauritius
Shanoo Suroowan,M. Fawzi Mahomoodally
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; 177: 61
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Evaluating the Pharmacological Dose (Oral LD50) and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Mentha piperita Linn. Grown in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study for Nephrotoxicity
Sasikumar Dhanarasu,Mathi Selvam,Nayef Khalid Abdulla Al-Shammar
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2016; 12(3): 195
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Herbal drugs with depressant effects on the central nervous system
Marie Kašparová
Praktické lékárenství. 2016; 12(5): 182
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety
Davide Gottardi,Danka Bukvicki,Sahdeo Prasad,Amit K. Tyagi
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2016; 7
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Hematological responses of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Serrassalmidae) fed with diets supplemented with essential oil from Mentha piperita (Lamiaceae) and challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila
Suzana Cardoso RIBEIRO,Antonielson Silva CASTELO,Bruna Marjara Picanço da SILVA,Andreza da Silva CUNHA,Aldo Aparecido PROIETTI JÚNIOR,Eliane Tie OBA-YOSHIOKA
Acta Amazonica. 2016; 46(1): 99
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Tyrosinase Inhibition,In vitroAntimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity and Anticancer activities of the Essential Oil from the Leaves ofArtemisia turanica, Growing Wild in Iran
Mahboubeh Taherkhani
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2016; 19(5): 1141
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Evaluation of a hydrophobic gel adhering to the gingiva in comparison with a standard water-soluble 1% chlorhexidine gel after scaling and root planing in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis. A randomized clinical trial
D Rusu,S-I Stratul,C Sarbu,A Roman,A Anghel,A Didilescu,H Jentsch
International Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2015; : n/a
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Peppermint antioxidants revisited
Liza G. Riachi,Carlos A.B. De Maria
Food Chemistry. 2015; 176: 72
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil Extracted from the Mentha piperita of Southern Algeria
Mohamed Bilal Goud,Segni Ladjel,Salah Eddine Ben,Souad Zighmi,Djamila Hamada
Research Journal of Phytochemistry. 2015; 9(2): 79
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Anti Cancer, Cytotoxic Activity, Mutagenic and Anti-mutagenic Activities ofArtemisia aucheriEssential Oil
Mahboubeh Taherkhani
Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2015; 18(6): 1329
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Chemical Constituents and In Vitro Anticancer, Cytotoxic, Mutagenic and Antimutagenic Activities of Artemisia Diffusa
M. Taherkhani
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. 2015; 48(11): 727
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Isolation, fractionation and identification of chemical constituents from the leaves crude extracts of Mentha piperita L grown in Sultanate of Oman
Mohammad Amzad Hossain,Seham Salim Al-Hdhrami,Afaf Mohammed Weli,Qasim Al-Riyami,Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014; 4: S368
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds
Efterpi Christaki,Eleftherios Bonos,Ilias Giannenas,Panagiota Florou-Paneri
Agriculture. 2012; 2(4): 228
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Radioprotective effect of alcoholic extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) on swiss albino mice exposed to whole body gamma irradiation: A preliminary study
Kaushik, P. and Mathur, M. and Rawat, N. and Dutt, P.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 2012; 3(3): P598-P610
30 Seasonal variation in DPPH scavenging activity of Mentha × piperita
GrulćovĂĄ, D. and Labun, P. and Ĺ erĹĄeň, F. and Ĺ alamon, I.
Advances in Environmental Biology. 2012; 6(4): 1477-1480
31 Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents
SolĂłrzano-Santos, F. and Miranda-Novales, M.G.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2012; 23(2): 136-141
32 2012-Another successful new year for Pharmacogn Mag.
Mueen Ahmed, K.K.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(29): 1-3
33 Essential oils from aromatic herbs as antimicrobial agents
Fortino Solórzano-Santos,Maria Guadalupe Miranda-Novales
Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 2012; 23(2): 136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Enhancement of the antibiotic activity of erythromycin by volatile compounds of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown against Staphylococcus aureus
Veras, H.N.H. and Campos, A.R. and Rodrigues, F.F.G. and Botelho, M.A. and Coutinho, H.D.M. and Menezes, I.R.A. and Da Costa, J.G.M.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2011; 7(28): 334-337


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded608    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 34    

Recommend this journal