Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 

Year : 2010  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 21  |  Page : 5-8 Table of Contents     

Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay

1 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, Antakya, 31040, Hatay, Turkey
2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gaziosmanpasa, Tasliciftlik, 60240, Tokat, Turkey
3 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gaziosmanpasa, Tasliciftlik, 60240, Tokat, Turkey

Date of Submission11-Dec-2009
Date of Decision17-Dec-2009
Date of Web Publication13-Feb-2010

Correspondence Address:
Sedat Serce
Mustafa Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Horticulture, 31034 Antakya, Hatay
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.59959

Rights and Permissions

Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani,' and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than others, although 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest pH and high soluble solids. 'Baduna 5' and 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Çukurgöbek') mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Eriobotrya japonica, ferric reducing ability of plasma, fruit, phenolics, pomology, TEAC

How to cite this article:
Polat A A, Caliskan O, Serce S, Saracoglu O, Kaya C, Ozgen M. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay. Phcog Mag 2010;6:5-8

How to cite this URL:
Polat A A, Caliskan O, Serce S, Saracoglu O, Kaya C, Ozgen M. Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Aug 18];6:5-8. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2010/6/21/5/59959

   Introduction Top

The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Rosaceae, Maloideae) is an evergreen fruit species grown in the subtropical zone, especially in the citrus-growing regions. [1] However, loquat has more specific environmental requirements than citrus. [2] Being different from other fruit species, the blossoming period of the loquat trees occurs in winter and fruits are harvested 152-189 days after the full bloom. [3] Thus, the fruits of the loquat can be sold at a higher price in spring, as there are few competitive fruits in the market except for strawberry, green plum, and green almond. The loquat is also rich in vitamins A, B, and C, mineral substances, salts, and sugar, making it important for nourishment during the low period of the fresh fruit season. [4]

The world loquat production was 566.031 tons and China stands out as the main producer and Spain as the prime exporter. [4] Turkey is one of the most important producers of loquat in the world. In 2006, Turkey ranked fourth in production in the world, with approximately 12,310 t. Until the last decade, loquat growing was carried out only in isolated home gardens for local consumption. After its economical value had been realized, demand for its commercial production rapidly increased. The total production in 1980 (3,000 t) increased more than three-fold by 1990 (9,000 t), four-fold by 2006, and reached about 12,310 t, which was produced from 243,429 trees. [5]

In Turkey, loquat is produced in certain parts of the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Sea regions, which have a subtropical climate. The Mediterranean region has the most suitable ecological conditions for growing this fruit; [6] in 2006, 91.2% of the plantations were located in the Mediterranean region lying in the southern part of the country, with 97% of the total loquat production of Turkey being from the coastal zone. Specifically 91.2, 4.4, 4.2, and 0.2% production was in the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black Sea, and Marmara, respectively. In addition, from that study, 97, 2.0, 0.9, and 0.1% of the total number of loquat trees were found growing in these four areas, respectively. Loquat production in the Mediterranean region has increased by 300% in the last decade. In this region, Antalya ranks first and Hatay ranks fourth, in the production of loquat trees. [4],[5]

While loquats meet the demand when there are not many fresh fruits available in the market, it also has an important place in nutrition, with its high vitamin A, B, and C content, minerals, and sugars. [7] Some of these phytochemicals, which act as antioxidants, have increasingly been seen to help optimize human health by neutralizing the harmful free radicals in the body. These antioxidants reduce the oxidative damage to cells that can lead to cancer, heart disease, and other degenerative diseases. [8] It has been seen that loquat has a high ability to scavenge free radicals and suppress LDL oxidation. [9]

The antioxidant activity of plant parts is mainly contributed by the constituent phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Consumer acceptance of the nutraceutical aspects of natural foods such as fruits and vegetables has increased significantly in the past few years. There is also an increase in the acceptance of formulated foods containing compounds extracted from fruits and vegetables. [10]

Although it is well known that loquats are a good source of beta-carotene [11],[12] the diversity of phytochemicals within this species has not been investigated in detail, primarily because most breeding programs aim at improving the yield, altering the season, and resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. Hence, we decided to investigate the variation in pomological characteristics, phenolics, and antioxidants among several genotypes of loquat so that superior genotypes could be identified and used for further improvement.

   Materials and Methods Top


All the chemicals used were purchased from the Sigma and Aldrich Company and were of analytical grade.

Plant materials

The study was conducted with fruits from five loquat cultivars/selections grown at Mustafa Kemal University, Agriculture Faculty, Horticulture Department, Dörtyol Experimental Station. The cultivars tested included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani', and Type 1. In 1997, on the orchard site, five loquat cultivars were budded onto seedlings and planted at a distance of 6 x 6 m. Standard cultivation methods with drip irrigation systems were applied. [13]

In 2008, the fruits were harvested at their fully mature stage from three replicates having 30 fruits in each replicate. Fruit weight (total, flesh and seed weights) was measured with a scale sensitive to 0.01 g (Precisa, xB 2200 C). Flesh/seed ratio was calculated from these values. Fruit size determinations were made using a digital compass (BTS, 0-150 mm). Soluble solids were determined with a hand-held refractometer (N.O.W., 0-32% Brix) and pH was determined by a pH-meter. Acidity (expressed as % citric acid) was determined by titrating with 0.1 N NaOH to an endpoint of pH 8.10. The soluble solid/acidity ratio was calculated. The seed number was also determined in each fruit.

For the TP and TAC analyses, harvested fruit samples were frozen and stored at 220ºC until analyzed. After thawing to room temperature, triplicate 100 g lots of loquat fruits from each cultivar were homogenized in a blender. All triplicates were screened for their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity following a single extraction procedure. [14] For this procedure, 3 g aliquots of each homogenate were transferred to polypropylene tubes and extracted with 20 mL of extraction buffer containing acetone, deionized water, and acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5 v/v), for one hour.

The sample total phenolic contents were measured according to Singleton and Rossi [14] with slight modifications. To determine the levels of TP, 1 mL of each extract was combined with Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent and water 1:1:20 (v/v) and incubated for eight minutes, followed by the addition of 10 mL of 7% (w/v) sodium carbonate. After two hours, the absorbance of each was measured at 750 nm. The values of TP were estimated by comparing the absorbance of each with those of a standard response curve generated with gallic acid. Results were expressed as µg gallic acid equivalents on a fresh weight (fw) basis (GAE/g fw).

For obtaining the antioxidant capacity, the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) method was conducted according to Benzie and Strain. [15] To conduct the assay, a 2.95 mL aliquot of a FRAP reagent, a mixture of 0.1 mol/L acetate buffer, 10 mmol/L TPTZ, and 20 mmol/L ferric chloride (10:1:1 v/v/v), were combined with 50 µL of acetone fruit extract. To determine the antioxidant capacity of the samples, the absorbance values were compared with those obtained from the standard curves of trolox (10-100 µmol/L). The antioxidant capacity values were expressed as mmol trolox equivalent in kg fresh weight basis (TE)/kg fw.

Data were analyzed using SAS software and procedures. [16] Means and standard deviations were calculated using the TABULATE procedure. Analysis of variance tables were constructed using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) methods at 0.05. Correlation coefficients and their levels of significance were calculated using the CORR procedure.

   Results and Discussion Top

The results indicated that there were significant differences among cultivars/selections for all the variables tested [Table 1]. For example, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than other cultivar/selections, although 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest fruit width and heavier seeds. The fruit length of the 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' was shorter than Baduna 5, Güzelyurt-1, and Type 1. The seed numbers were also higher in 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' when compared to the others. Seed weight was the lowest in Type 1 resulting in the highest flesh/seed ratio. The ratio in 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' was among the lowest. The soluble solids ranged from 10.5 to 12.8%, while the pH ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest pH. There was also a great scale range in acidity, from 0.32 ('Ottaviani') to 1.06 ('Baduna 5').

Statistically significant differences were seen for TP [Figure 1]. TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Çukurgöbek') mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). LSD separations indicated that the cultivars/selections were divided into two groups; 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and others. The differences were also significant for TAC, determined by FRAP [Figure 2]. 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw. The others were divided into more complex mean groups as compared to TP. 'Baduna 5' had higher FRAP value than 'Ottaviani', although Güzelyurt-1 and Type 1 were not different from these cultivars.

The relationships between TP and TAC and among these traits with other pomological characteristics were investigated by correlation analysis [Table 2]. TP and TAC were significantly correlated with the coefficient of 0.73. This is not surprising as these values were found to be correlated with many other fruit species. [17-21] Among the pomological characteristics, fruit width, seed weight, and flesh/seed ratios were significantly correlated with both TP and FRAP. It is also know that within the same fruit species and genotypes, the smaller fruits tend to have higher TP content and TAC, as the compounds resulting in higher activities are usually rich in fruit skin, and smaller fruits have a relatively larger skin area when compared to their large counterparts. [22],[23] It is surprising, however, that the flesh/seed ratio was differentially correlated with TP (-0.56) and TAC (0.58). TP was also found to be correlated with fruit length and pH, while FRAP was correlated with soluble solids and acidity.

   Conclusion Top

In this study, we did not determine the carotenoid content and its effect on TAC. More detailed studies are needed to assess the contribution of loquat pigments to TAC. However, our results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.

   References Top

1.Laure R. The Loquat. Division of Horticultural Sciences. Leafleft: University of California; 1976. p. 2488.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Caballero P, Fernandez MA. Loquat, production and market: I: International Symposium on Loquat, 2002 April 11-13; Valencia. Spain 2003;58:11-20.   Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Lupescu F, Lupescu T, Khelil A, Tnislav G. Performances Agrobiologiques de Quelques Varietes d' Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. Fruits 1980;35:251-61.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Polat AA. Loquat production in Turkey: Problems and solutions. Eur J Plant Sci Biot 2007;1:187-99.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Polat AA, Caliskan O. Loquat production in Turkey. Acta Hort 2007;750:49-54.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Polat AA. An important fruits species for Mediterranean Region: Mustafa Kemal University. J Agric Faculty 1996;2:37-52.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Gross J, Gabai M, Lifshitz A. Carotenoids of Eriobotrya japonica. Phytochem 1973;12:1775-82.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Prior RL. Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins: Potential health effects. In: Meskin, MS, Bidlack WR, Davies AJ, editors. Phytochemicals: Mechanisms of action. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 2004. p. 1-19.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Koba K, Matsuoka A, Osada K, Hang YS. Effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) extracts on LDL oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 2007;104:308-16.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: Nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1744-56.   Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Godoy HT, Amaya DB. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of Brazilian loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.). Arch Latinoam Nutr 1995;45:336-9.   Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Zhou CH, Xu CJ, Sun CD, Xian L, Chen KS. Carotenoids in white-and red-fleshed loquat fruits. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7822-30.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Polat AA, Durgac C, Kamiloglu O, Caliskan O. Effects of different planting densities on the vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of loquat. Acta Hort 2004;632:189-95.   Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Singleton VL, Rossi JL. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Viticult 1965;16:144-58.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": The FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem 1996;239:70-6.   Back to cited text no. 15      
16.SAS Institute. SAS Online Doc, Version 8. SAS Inst., Cary, NC. 2005.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Çelik H, Özgen M, Serçe S, îslam A. Phytochemical accumulation and antioxidant capacity at four maturity stages of cranberry fruit. Sci Hortic 2008;117:345-48.   Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Özgen M, Serçe S, Gündüz K, Yen F, Kafkas E, Paydaº S. Determining total phenolics and antioxidant capacities of selected Fragaria genotypes. Asian J Chem 2007;19:5573-81.   Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Özgen M, Durgaç C, Serçe S, Kaya C. Chemical and antioxidant properties of pomegranate cultivars grown in Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Food Chem 2008a;111:703-6.   Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Özgen M, Wyzgoski FJ, Tulio AZ, Gazula A, Miller AR, Scheerens JC, et al. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic antioxidants of midwestern black raspberries grown for direct markets are influenced by production site. Hortscience 2008b;43:2039-47.   Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Özgen M, Serçe S, Kaya C. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus sp.) fruits. Sci Hortic 2009;119:275-79.   Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Atkinson CJ, Dodds PAA, Ford YY, Miere JL, Taylor JM, Blake PS, et al. Effects of cultivar, fruit number and reflected photosynthetically active radiation on Fragaria xananassa productivity and fruit ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations. Ann Bot 2006;97:429-41.  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Moyer RA, Hummer KE, Finn CE, Frei B, Wrolsrad RE. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: Vaccinium, Rubus, and Ribes. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:519-25.  Back to cited text no. 23      


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Investigation of vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality characteristics of 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' loquat cultivar grafted on different quince rootstocks
Sibel AKKUS, Atila Aytekin POLAT
Harran Tarim ve Gida Bilimleri Dergisi. 2021; : 279
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Effects of different rootstocks on fruit quality of ‘Gold Nugget’ loquat cultivar
S. Tepe, M.A. Koyuncu
Acta Horticulturae. 2020; (1292): 31
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Modern and traditional extraction techniques affect chemical composition and bioactivity of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip
Gokhan Zengin, Aleksandra Cvetanovic, Uroš Gašic, Alena Stupar, Gizem Bulut, Ismail Senkardes, Ahmet Dogan, Kouadio Ibrahime Sinan, Sengul Uysal, Zaahira Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally
Industrial Crops and Products. 2020; 146: 112202
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Biological Activities of Extracts from Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.): A Review
Yilong Liu,Wenna Zhang,Changjie Xu,Xian Li
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(12): 1983
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Morphological, Biochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Local Loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) Germplasm from Turkey
Mustafa Akbulut,Sadiye Gozlekci,Sezai Ercisli,Ozlem Cakir
Erwerbs-Obstbau. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Pomological Traits, Sensory Profile and Nutraceutical Properties of Nine Cultivars of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) Fruits Grown in Mediterranean Area
C. Gentile,C. Reig,O. Corona,A. Todaro,A. Mazzaglia,A. Perrone,G. Gianguzzi,M. Agusti,V. Farina
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Antioxidative effect of loquat (Eriobotrya japonicaLindl.) fruit skin extract in soybean oil
Mojtaba Delfanian,Reza Esmaeilzadeh Kenari,Mohammad Ali Sahari
Food Science & Nutrition. 2015; 3(1): 74
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonicaLindl.) skin and pulp extracts
Mojtaba Delfanian,Reza Esmaeilzadeh Kenari,Mohammad Ali Sahari
Food Science & Nutrition. 2015; 3(3): 179
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Phenolic Composition from Different Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) Cultivars Grown in China and Their Antioxidant Properties
Wenna Zhang,Xiaoyong Zhao,Chongde Sun,Xian Li,Kunsong Chen
Molecules. 2015; 20(1): 542
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions for euphol from the medicinal plant, Euphorbia tirucalli, using response surface methodology
Quan V. Vuong,Van Tang Nguyen,Dang Trung Thanh,Deep Jyoti Bhuyan,Chloe D. Goldsmith,Elham Sadeqzadeh,Christopher J. Scarlett,Michael C. Bowyer
Industrial Crops and Products. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive content and antioxidant capacity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) fruits from Turkey
Ercisli, S. and Gozlekci, S. and Sengul, M. and Hegedus, A. and Tepe, S.
Scientia Horticulturae. 2012; 148: 185-189
12 2012-Another successful new year for Pharmacogn Mag.
Mueen Ahmed, K.K.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(29): 1-3
13 Phytochemical characterization of several hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
Çaliskan, O. and Gündüz, K. and Serçe, S. and Toplu, C. and Kamiloglu, Ö. and Sengül, M. and Ercisli, S.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(29): 16-21
14 Some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive content and antioxidant capacity of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) fruits from Turkey
S. Ercisli,S. Gozlekci,M. Sengul,A. Hegedus,S. Tepe
Scientia Horticulturae. 2012; 148: 185
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Effect of Eriobotrya japonica on adipogenesis and body weight
Oh, J., Min, O.-J., Kim, H., Kim, Y.J., Baek, H.Y., Rhyu, D.Y.
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry. 2011; 54(3): 382-387
16 Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of selected fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions from the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
Oguzhan Çaliskan,A. Aytekin Polat
Scientia Horticulturae. 2011; 128(4): 473
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves′ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam
Pochapski, M.T. and Fosquiera, E.C. and Esmerino, L.A. and Dos Santos, E.B. and Farago, P.V. and Santos, F.A. and Groppo, F.C.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2011; 7(26): 165-170
18 Fruit quality and yield characteristics of some loquat genotypes in Dortyol, Turkey
Polat, A.A. and Caliskan, O.
Acta Horticulturae. 2011; 887: 293-298
19 Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of selected fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions from the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey
Çalişkan, O., Aytekin Polat, A.
Scientia Horticulturae. 2011; 128(4): 473-478


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded288    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 19    

Recommend this journal