Figure 2: The effects of KOTMIN13 on the production and gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (a) Secreted TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 protein in the cell culture media were determined using ELISA. (b) mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were determined by a real time RT-PCR analysis. Data represent the means ± SEM of three independent experiments. Significantly different from the LPS-unstimulated value, ###P < 0.001. Significantly different from the LPS-stimulated value, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001. Dex, dexamethasone.