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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: AMP-activated protein kinase activation by 5-aminoimidazole- 4-carboxamide-1-β-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in HSC-2 cells. HSC-2 cells were treated with either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 2 mM of AICAR or metformin for 24 h. (a) The effects of AICAR and metformin on cell growth were determined using trypan blue exclusion assays. The graph was expressed the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate experiments. *P < 0.05 compared with the DMSO-treated group; (b) The whole-cell lysates were analyzed by Western blot analysis using antibodies against phosphorylation of AMPK and AMP-activated protein kinase; (c) The apoptotic effects of AICAR and metformin were observed by 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation were initially observed by fluorescence microscopy (magnification, ×400), and then DAPI-stained cells were quantified. Numbers of apoptotic cells were expressed the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. *P < 0.05 compared with the DMSO-treated group

Figure 3: AMP-activated protein kinase activation by 5-aminoimidazole- 4-carboxamide-1-β-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in HSC-2 cells. HSC-2 cells were treated with either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or 2 mM of AICAR or metformin for 24 h. (a) The effects of AICAR and metformin on cell growth were determined using trypan blue exclusion assays. The graph was expressed the mean ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate experiments. *<i>P</i> < 0.05 compared with the DMSO-treated group; (b) The whole-cell lysates were analyzed by Western blot analysis using antibodies against phosphorylation of AMPK and AMP-activated protein kinase; (c) The apoptotic effects of AICAR and metformin were observed by 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation were initially observed by fluorescence microscopy (magnification, ×400), and then DAPI-stained cells were quantified. Numbers of apoptotic cells were expressed the mean ± SD of triplicate experiments. *<i>P</i> < 0.05 compared with the DMSO-treated group