Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Reader Login
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2012| April-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 30  
    Online since May 24, 2012

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts
Deepak Bhaskarmurthy Hiraganahalli, Chinampudur Velusami Chandrasekaran, Shekhar Dethe, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, Manoj Kumar Pandre, Jaya Balachandran, Amit Agarwal
April-June 2012, 8(30):116-123
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96553  PMID:22701284
Background : Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, and Acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress. Objective: We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the standardized herbal extracts against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) induced toxicity and their mechanism of hepatoprotective action in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of these herbal extracts on t-BH induced reduction in cell viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, the reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated using two antioxidant assay systems: cell free [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)] (ABTS)] and cell based [cellular antioxidant activity (CAA)]. Results and Discussion: The results obtained showed that these extracts possess significant hepatoprotective activity. This may indicate that the plant extracts contain compounds, which can remove toxic metabolites following t-BH induced toxicity. The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant property as evident by the Trolox values and effective scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The extracts also demonstrated inhibition of AAPH-induced fluorescence in HepG2 cells. These results indicate the ability of the plant extracts to protect the liver cells from chemical-induced damage, which might be correlated to their radical scavenging potential. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential, which might occur by reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage.
  7,416 58 16
Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth
Harleen Kaur Nadha, Richa Salwan, Ramesh Chand Kasana, Manju Anand, Anil Sood
April-June 2012, 8(30):93-97
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96547  PMID:22701279
Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also­ performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation.
  7,027 33 3
Analysis and comparison of the active components and antioxidant activities of extracts from Abelmoschus esculentus L
Haibing Liao, Wenqi Dong, Xiangjun Shi, Hualiang Liu, Ke Yuan
April-June 2012, 8(30):156-161
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96570  PMID:22701290
Background: Abelmoschus esculentus L. is a healthy vegetable belonging to the family Malvaceae. This article reports the contents of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) in 80% methanol extracts of the flower (FL), fruit (FR), leaf (L), and seed (S) of A. esculentus, and in 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% methanol eluates (ME), through the HP-20 column chromatography of 80% of the methanol fruit extract after it is defatted with petroleum and extracted with ethyl acetate. All the names of the samples are shortened for AEE-FL, AEE-FR, AEE-L, AEE-S and 0% MEF-WE, 10% MEF-WE, 30% MEF-WE, 50% MEF-WE, 70% MEF-WE respectively. In addition, the effects of the aforementioned extracts on 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and on ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) have been evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts and the enrichment fraction of A. esculentus were also evaluated by two assays, the DPPH radical-scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The content measurement of TF and TP adopts the UV-2102 PCS method, and the measurement of the antioxidant activity adopts the Infinite M 200 method. Results: The experiment results show that all the different parts and different enrichment fractions of the water extracts of A. esculentus contain phenolics and flavonoids. Through the research of antioxidant activity we know that all the parts of the methanol extracts and different enrichment fractions of water extracts in the A. esculentus have the effect of scavenging free radicals, among which the antioxidant activity in the 50% MEF-WE part is the strongest. Here, the main components of antioxidant activity must be the flavonoids and phenolics, and furthermore, we know that there is a direct relationship between the contents of flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activity. Conclusion: The study suggests that A. esculentus may be the potential rich source of natural antioxidant. The experiment result provided a scientific basis for the further research and development of A. esculentus.
  6,447 66 7
Pharmacognosy in modern pharmacy curricula
Satyajit D Sarker
April-June 2012, 8(30):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96545  PMID:22701278
  5,093 51 2
Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Inula helenium
Jin Wang, Yong-Ming Zhao, Chun-Yan Guo, Shao-Meng Zhang, Chun-Lei Liu, Dan-Shen Zhang, Xue-Mei Bai
April-June 2012, 8(30):166-170
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96581  PMID:22701292
Background: Inula helenium was a perennial herb belonging to composite family and the roots of I. helenium have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, I. helenium was used as an experimental matrix. Materials and Methods: Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of total flavonoids from I. helenium was studied with dual wavelength UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Effects of various factors including ratio of material to liquid, ultrasonic time, ethanol concentration and extraction times on extraction yield of total flavonoids were evaluated. Then, orthogonal design of four factors at three levels was applied for optimization the extraction yields of flavonoids from the root of I. helenium. Result: The optimal extracting process of the total flavonoids from the root of the I. helenium was 1 g plant sample with 20 ml of 60% ethanol, extracting twice and each time for 20 min. Conclusion: Under these optimal conditions, the yield of total flavonoids was (17.36±0.94) mg/g. UAE was more efficient and time saving for the extraction of flavonoids from plant materials.
  4,404 65 10
Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and elicitation on the asiaticoside production in cell cultures of Centella asiatica
Komar Ruslan, Anggrahaeni Dewi Selfitri, Shella A Bulan, Yaya Rukayadi, Elfahmi
April-June 2012, 8(30):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96552  PMID:22701283
Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is an important medicinal plant, and it has been using to prepare herbal medicines. The compounds responsible for the biological activity of C. asiatica are triterpenoids such as asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is also important as a marker for standardization of C. asiatica. Due to the low content, there is a need to enhance the production of asiaticoside of C. asiatica. The biotechnological approach is one of the methods that can be used to enhance its production. Objectives: This study was designed to enhance the production of asiaticoside from C. asiatica using A. rhizogenes and elicitation experiments. Materials and Methods : Callus cultures were initiated using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP). All media were supplemented with 4% (w/w) sucrose and solidified with 0.9% agar. Elicitations were done using pectin, methyl jasmonate, and Cu 2+ ions. Transformed hairy root cultures were performed using A. rhizogenes. Results: Callus culture of C. asiatica was successfully initiated. Enhancement of the production of asiaticoside in the callus culture by elicitors pectin was up to 31%; methyl jasmonate (50 ΅M) in cell suspension cultures at day 14 was up to 171% compared to explant and 494% compared to control callus; copper ion (25 ΅M) at day 21 was up to 144% compared to explant, and 676% compared to control cell suspension cultures. While enhancement by genetic transformation using A. rhizogenes was 166-172% compare to untransformed roots Conclusion: Elicitation and genetically transformed hairy root cultures of C. asiatica produced asiaticoside up to 172% higher than untreated callus.
  3,580 34 6
Kirenol production in hairy root culture of Siegesbeckea orientalis and its antimicrobial activity
Jian-Ping Wang, Ya-Ming Zhou, Yong-Hui Zhang
April-June 2012, 8(30):149-155
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96569  PMID:22701289
Background: Despite the excellent anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic efficacy associated with kirenol generation, the content of kirenol in Siegesbeckea orientalis is quite low. Objective: This study was designed to establish a reliable kirenol production protocol by transformed root cultures of S. orientalis and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis. Materials and Methods: Transformed root cultures of S. orientalis were established by the transformation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Transgenic status of the roots was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using rolB specific primers. The biomass and kirenol accumulation of hairy root clones were assessed using four different culture media: MS, MS/2, B5, and white. The antimicrobial activities of kirenol, hairy root, and S. orientalis were evaluated by the disc diffusion method. Results: The optimum media for kirenol synthesis was MS. The content of kirenol in transformed hairy roots made up about 80% of that observed in natural leaves of S. orientalis (1.6 mg/g dry weight). All tested samples displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, with MIC ranging from 78 to 625 μg/mL. Discussion and Conclusion: The high level of kirenol contents was obtained from hairy roots of S. orientalis. Kirenol was effective against gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, the extract from hairy roots showed a diverse antimicrobial effect from that of kirenol and S. orientalis.
  3,438 24 7
Chemical constituents with free-radical-scavenging activities from the stem of Fissistigma polyanthum
Hua Fan, Tong Zheng, Yu Chen, Guang-Zhong Yang
April-June 2012, 8(30):98-102
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96549  PMID:22701280
Background: Fissistigma polyanthum is a liane belonging to the Annonaceae family and it is one of the most important crude drugs in traditional Chinese medicine. Objective: The objective was to describe the structural elucidation and the free-radical-scavenging activities of the isolated compounds from Fissistigma polyanthum. Material and Methods: The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by normal, reverse column chromatography and HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods ( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) and by comparison with literature values, and the free-radical-scavenging activities of these two compounds were also evaluated through three in vitro model systems (DPPH, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Co (II) EDTA-induced luminol chemiluminescence by flow injection). Results: Two known compounds, named kanakugiol (1) and teutenone A (2), were isolated from the stem of Fissistigma polyanthum for the first time, and compound 1 exhibited moderate free-radical-scavenging activity. Conclusion: Fissistigma polyanthum, which has traditionally been used as an important Chinese medicine, showed a certain free-radical-scavenging activity.
  3,413 25 2
Anatomical study of secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens DC and quantification of harpagoside by high-performance liquid chromatography method
Fatiha El Babili, I Fouraste, C Rougaignon, C Moulis, C Chatelain
April-June 2012, 8(30):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96587  PMID:22701294
Aim and Background: A botanical study is conducted to provide a standard diagnostic tool. In order to improve the quality assurance of the secondary tuberized roots of Harpagophytum procumbens, derived extract and phytomedicine, a simple, rapid, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to assess the harpagoside. Material and Mehods: This HPLC assay was performed on a reversedphase C18 column with methanol and water (50/50-V/V) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min and using a monitoring wavelength at 278 nm. Results and Conclusion: This method was successfully applied to quantify these bioactive iridoid in an aqueous extract of H. procumbens and in its related phytomedicine "harpagophyton." The result demonstrated that the quantification of harpagoside, indicating that the quality control of the bioactive ingredient in H. procumbens, derived extract and phytomedicine, is critical to ensure its clinical benefits.
  3,398 25 2
Identification of four Sedum plant medicines by Fourier transform infrared spectra
Ran Xu, Yujie Chen, Dingrong Wan, Jing Wang
April-June 2012, 8(30):107-111
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96551  PMID:22701282
Background: Sedum sarmentosum bunge (SSB)., S. lineare Thunb. (SLT), S. erythrostictum migo. (SEM), and S. aizoon L. (SAL) were four widely used Chinese traditional drugs or ethnic drugs, which were easy to be confused with each other. Objective: This study aimed at developing a rapid and accurate method to identify the four Sedum plant medicines with very similar appearances and close relationships. Materials and Methods: The herbal medicines employed here were SSB, SLT, SEM, and SAL collected in different places and seasons. Through comparing the infrared (IR) spectra of their 70% ethanol extracts, the results showed that the IR spectra of the four plant medicines possessed not only some common characteristics but also certain notable distinctions, such as shapes, numbers, positions, intensity, and ratios of the absorbing peaks. Results: By Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the four medicines could be effectively differed, their habitats could be judged preliminarily, and the genetic relationships of the original plants of the four medicines could also be estimated to some extent. Conclusion: The application of FT-IR spectroscopy in crude medicine authentication and quality evaluation deserved to be further emphasized.
  3,394 23 2
Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography
Zhen Liu, Zhiwei Xu, Hanyu Zhou, Gang Cao, Xiao-Dong Cong, Yun Zhang, Bao-Chang Cai
April-June 2012, 8(30):162-165
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96575  PMID:22701291
Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C 18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32-102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.
  3,351 28 8
Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice
Stefka Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Branka Blagovic, Srecko Valic
April-June 2012, 8(30):171-174
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96583  PMID:22701293
Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity.
  3,258 21 3
Evaluation of the antifungal activity and modulation between Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. leaves and roots ethanolic extracts and conventional antifungals
Samara A Brito, Fabíola F. G. Rodrigues, Adriana R Campos, José G. M. da Costa
April-June 2012, 8(30):103-106
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96550  PMID:22701281
Background: The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. Results: The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. Conclusion: The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases.
  3,200 31 3
The impact of the Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq on antitumor and antioxidant activity in a S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mouse tumor model
Ainiwaer Aikemu, Abdiryim Yusup, Anwar Umar, Bénédicte Berké, Nicholas Moore, Halmurat Upur
April-June 2012, 8(30):141-148
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96568  PMID:22701288
Aim: This study was designed to study the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Uighur medicine abnormal savda munziq (ASMq) in the S180 and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma mice tumor model. Materials and Methods: The serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA), and glutathione-catalase (GSH-PX) were analyzed, and the mice were also subjected to a hypoxia tolerance test. Their climbing ability was also analyzed. Results: The findings of the study revealed that ASMq-treatment leads to an increase in blood serum SOD and GSH-PX levels but a decrease in blood serum MDA levels. Moreover, ASMq-treatment enhanced the survival time of mice maintained under hypoxic conditions and improved their mice climbing ability. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that ASMq has obvious antitumor and antioxidative effects.
  3,190 25 10
Biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B using magnetic resonance imaging in a normal and tumoric animal model
Subramani Parasuraman, Ramasamy Raveendran, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Ramesh Ananthakrishnan, Ali Jabbari-Arabzadeh, Mohammad Shafiee Alavidjeh, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Sundararajan Elangovan, Halanaik Dhanapathi
April-June 2012, 8(30):129-134
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96559  PMID:22701286
Aim: To determine the biodistribution properties of cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B in rodents using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Cleistanthins A and B, constituents of Cleistanthus collinus Roxb., were labelled with gadolinium (Gd 3+ ) directly and injected into normal and tumoric nude mice. The tissue signal intensity was measured using MRI to perform a noninvasive kinetic assay. Wistar rats were used for determination of the grayscale intensity to observe the distribution patterns of of cleistanthins A and B. Results: Cleistanthin A is kinetically more attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than is cleistanthin B, which gets accumulated in muscular tissues of mice in greater concentrations compared with cleistanthin A. Cleistanthin B but not cleistanthin A showed tumoric affinity and exhibited a tumor kinetic attraction in tumoric mice. In rats, cleistanthin A showed greater grayscale intensities in the brain, liver, and skeletal muscles in immediate post contrast MRI images, whereas the gadolinium tagged cleistanthin B showed higher grayscale intensities in the cardiac muscle and skeletal muscles in delayed post contrast MRI images. Conclusions: Cleistanthin A is more pharmacokinetically attractive to the gastrointestinal tract than cleistanthin B.
  2,896 23 1
Antifungal activity of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f.) O. Hoffm. and Gasteria bicolor Haw. against opportunistic fungi associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Wilfred M Otang, Donald S Grierson, Roland N Ndip
April-June 2012, 8(30):135-140
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96564  PMID:22701287
Background : In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antifungal activities of the medicinal plant extracts against 10 opportunistic fungi. Results: All the hexane and acetone extracts were active against at least one of the fungi with zones of inhibition varying from 8 to 32 mm, while none of the aqueous extracts was active against any of the fungi. The inhibitory activity of the active extracts, based on the overall mean inhibition diameters, was in the order: A. arctotoides (hexane) > A. arctotoides (acetone) > G. bicolor (hexane) > G. bicolor (acetone). The most susceptible fungi, based on the overall mean diameter of growth inhibition, were Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and Microsporum canis, while Cyptococcus neoformans, Trycophyton tonsurans, and Microsporum gypseum were not susceptible to any of the extracts even at 5 mg/ml which was the highest concentration used. Conclusion: This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine in the treatment of secondary fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients.
  2,607 25 8
Biotransformation of furannoligularenone by transgenic crown galls of Panax quinquefolium
Chunyan Yan, Jue Wang, Guoyan Duan, Rongmin Yu
April-June 2012, 8(30):124-128
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.96555  PMID:22701285
Background: Transgenic plant suspension cultures could be used as an effective tool for the biotransformation of exogenous compounds. Objective: To investigate the biotransformation of furannoligularenone ( 1 ) by transgenic crown galls of Panax quinquefolium. Materials and Methods: Compound 1 was administered into the crown gall cultures and co-cultured for 6 days. The cultures were dried and extracted with methanol for HPLC analyses. The extract was separated on column chromatography, and biotransformation products' structures were elucidated by the physicochemical properties and the data of NMR and MS. Moreover, three flasks were randomly chosen each day to establish time-course during the period for co-culturing . Results: Co-culturing compound 1 with crown galls yielded two compounds, 3-oxo-eremophila-1,7(11)-dien-12,8-olide ( 2 ) and 3-oxo-8-hydroxy-eremophila-1,7(11)-dien-12,8-olide ( 3 ), which were obtained by biotransformation using P. quinquefolium crown galls for the first time. Time-course investigation revealed that the mole conversion ratio reached the highest level of 45.5% and 33.9% on fourth and fifth day after substrate administration, respectively. Furthermore, a proposal biosynthesis pathway was given from compound 1 to compounds 2 and 3 . Conclusion: This was the first example of compound 1 being successfully converted into compounds 2 and 3 by transgenic crown galls of P. quinquefolium.
  2,446 18 2