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   2011| April-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 26  
    Online since May 9, 2011

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Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars
Sadiye Gözlekçi, Onur Saraçoglu, Ebru Onursal, Mustafa Özgen
April-June 2011, 7(26):161-164
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80681  PMID:21716925
The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.
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Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves
Chunpeng Wan, Yanying Yu, Shouran Zhou, Shuge Tian, Shuwen Cao
April-June 2011, 7(26):101-108
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80666  PMID:21716618
Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) analytical method was developed to identify some minor constituents in the n-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Gynura divaricata. Results: Six flavonols and one Dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated from the leaves of Gynura divaricata, and these compounds were identified as follows: quercetin (1), kaempferol (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (4), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7). A total of 13 compounds, including 9 flavonol glycosides and 4 phenolic acids, were tentatively identified by comparing their retention time (RT), UV, and MS spectrum values with those that had been identified and the published data. Conclusion: This was the first time to use the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method to identify the phytochemicals of the genera Gynura. Moreover, compounds (6) and (7) have been isolated for the first time from the genus Gynura.
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Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt
Taha S El-Alfy, Shahira M Ezzat, Ahmed K Hegazy, Aziza M.M. Amer, Gehan M Kamel
April-June 2011, 7(26):109-115
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80667  PMID:21716619
Background: Moringa peregrina is a wild plant that grown in the eastern desert mountains in Egypt. Although, this plant is native to Egypt, no details studies were traced on its chemical composition and biological activity. Materials and Methods: The different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the dried aerial parts of the plants were subjected to fractionation and purification on various silica and sephadex columns for the isolation of the major compounds which were tested for there anticancer activity. The aqueous and ethanolic extract as well as its different fractions were tested for antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Results: Investigation of the different fractions of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of M. peregrina yielded lupeol acetate (1), β-amyrin (2), α-amyrin (3), β-sitosterol (4), β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (5), apigenin (6), rhamnetin (7), neochlorogenic acid (10), rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (12), and 6-methoxy-acacetin-8-C-β-glucoside (13) which were isolated for the first time from the plant. Compound (13) was isolated for the first time from genus Moringa. In addition, quercetin (8), chryseriol-7-O-rhamnoside (9) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (11) were also isolated. Identification has been established by spectral data (UV, MS, IR, 1H, 1H -1H COSY, and 13C-NMR). The major isolated compounds were found to have valuable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF 7) and colon (HCT 116) cancer cell lines and their activities were comparable to the reference drug doxorubicin. On the other hand, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts as well as the n-hexane fraction were found to have potent antihyperglycemic effect on Streptozitocin-induced diabetes in rats. Conclusion: The Egyptian plant M. peregrina is rich in biologically active ingredients which showed potent cytotoxic activity and also its ethanolic extraxt exert a significant antihyperglycemic effect.
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Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam
Márcia Thaís Pochapski, Eliana Cristina Fosquiera, Luís Antônio Esmerino, Elizabete Brasil dos Santos, Paulo Vitor Farago, Fábio André Santos, Francisco Carlos Groppo
April-June 2011, 7(26):165-170
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80682  PMID:21716926
Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed.
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Membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa
Paul Chidoka Chikezie, Augustine Amadikwa Uwakwe
April-June 2011, 7(26):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80669  PMID:21716621
Background: Many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes. Objective: The present study seeks to ascertain the osmotic stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in aqueous extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa. Materials and Methods: The fraction of erythrocytes lysed when suspended in saline solution of varying concentrations was investigated by spectrophotometric method. The percentage hemolysis of erythrocytes in the control and test samples showed a sigmoidal relationship with increasing concentrations of saline solution. Membrane stability was ascertained as mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) index of erythrocytes incubated in 400 and 800 mg/dL aqueous concentrations of the three plant extracts. Results: The two experimental concentrations of P. guajava and T. catappa protected the erythrocytes against osmotic stress, as evidenced by decreases in the values of MCF compared with the control sample (P < 0.05). However, 800 mg/dL of A. occidentale promoted significant (P < 0.05) distabilization of sickle erythrocytes. Conclusion: Whereas the two experimental concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. guajava and T. catappa stabilized erythrocyte membrane, higher concentration (800 mg/dL) of A. occidentale exhibited no membrane protective effect.
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Sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa)
Paul Chidoka Chikezie
April-June 2011, 7(26):126-132
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80670  PMID:21716622
Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na 2 S 2 O 5 ) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts.
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The effects of oral Ginkgo biloba supplementation on radiation-induced oxidative injury in the lens of rat
Seydi Okumus, Seyithan Taysi, Mustafa Orkmez, Edibe Saricicek, Elif Demir, Mustafa Adli, Behcet Al
April-June 2011, 7(26):141-145
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80673  PMID:21716624
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of Ginkgo biloba (GB) against radiation-induced cataract in the rat lens after total cranial irradiation with a single 5 Gray (Gy) dose of gamma irradiation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the experiment. The rats were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group 1 did not receive GB or irradiation (control group) but received 1-ml saline orally plus sham-irradiation. Group 2 received total cranium 5 Gy of gamma irradiation as a single dose (IR group) plus 1-ml saline orally. Group 3 received total cranium irradiation plus 40 mg/kg/day GBE (IR plus GBE group). Biochemical parameters measured in murine lenses were carried out using spectrophotometric techniques. Results: Lens total (enzymatic plus non-enzymatic) superoxide scavenger activity (TSSA), non-enzymatic superoxide scavenger activity (NSSA), glutathione reductase (GRD), and glutathione-S- transferase (GST) activities significantly increased in the IR plus GBE groups when compared with the IR group. However, TSSA, GRD and GST activities were significantly lower in the IR group when compared with the control group. Lens xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the IR group significantly increased compared to that of both the control and IR plus GBE groups. Conclusion: GBE has clear antioxidant properties and is likely to be a valuable drug for protection against gamma-irradiation and/or be used as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.
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Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats
Nehal M Abd El-Mageed
April-June 2011, 7(26):151-156
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80675  PMID:21716923
Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.
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Protective effects on myelosuppression mice treated by three different classic chinese medicine formulae
An-bin Zhao, Bin YU, Xian-Lin WU, Ke-Jian Cao, En-Qing LI, Qing-Mei LI, Xiao-Yin Chen
April-June 2011, 7(26):133-140
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80671  PMID:21716623
Background: In order to observe the protective therapeutic action and mechanism of Liuwei Dihuang Decoction, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, and Compound Danshen Decoction on Myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide. Materials and Methods: The mice model was established by intraperitoneal injected with 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide by human and mice dose conversion on the 9 th , 11 th , 13 th days during the experiment. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used for detecting the number of cells and investigating bone marrow cell cycles. Spleen was taken out and the mRNA expression level of thrombopoietin (TPO) and c-Mpl were detected by Q-PCR, and c-Mpl in spleen in order to discuss the mechanism of myelosuppression and the protective effects of traditional Chinese medicine. Results: Both Liuwei Dihuang Decoction Group and Buzhong Yiqi Decoction Group can accelerate bone marrow hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in marrow-suppressed mice and enhance cell proliferation by promoting cell cycles from G0/G1 phase to access into S, G2/M phase. And at the same time these Chinese decoctions can increase the mRNA expression level of TPO and c-Mpl in spleen. Conclusion: Researched showed that Chinese formula take effect by affecting these genes on myelosuppressed mice.
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Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants
Christine Chichioco-Hernandez, Jakub Wudarski, Lieven Gevaert, Luc Verschaeve
April-June 2011, 7(26):171-175
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80683  PMID:21716927
The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9.
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Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf
Masoumeh Nasiri, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ali Mashinchian-Moradi, Ahmad R Gohari
April-June 2011, 7(26):97-100
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80663  PMID:21716930
Context: Two of the important algae from Persian Gulf are Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flageliformis (Rhodophyta). Antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic effects of the mentioned algae have been presented in the previous studies. Aim: In this study, the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from these algae are reported. Materials and Methods: The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out with silica gel, sephadex LH 20 column chromatography (CC) and HPLC to obtain six pure compounds 1-6 . The structural elucidation of the constituents was based on the data obtained from H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, HMBC, HSQC, DEPT, and EI-MS. Results: The isolated compounds from G. salicornia were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), and stigmasterol (4), and the isolated constituents from H. flagelliformis were identified as 22-dehydrocholesterol (1), cholesterol (2), oleic acid (3), cholesterol oleate (5), and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol-7-one (6) based on the spectral data compared to those reported in the literature. Conclusion: Red algae are enriched with cholesterol polysaccharides. We first reported the presence of cholesteryl oleate and (22E)-cholesta-5,22-dien-3b-ol-7-one in H. flagelliformis.
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Citing Phcog Mag. articles made easy
KK Mueen Ahmed
April-June 2011, 7(26):89-91
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80661  PMID:21716928
  4 2,615 51
Phytochemical investigation and hair growth studies on the rhizomes of Nardostachys jatamansi DC
Venkateswara Rao Gottumukkala, Tiruganasambandham Annamalai, Triptikumar Mukhopadhyay
April-June 2011, 7(26):146-150
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80674  PMID:21716625
Nardostachys jatamansi DC rhizomes were subjected to extraction, fractionation, and isolation of terpenoid compounds. Three terpenoid compounds were isolated which are nardal, jatamansic acid, and nardin. These compounds were identified based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, 2D NMR, Mass) and comparison with authentic compounds. The crude extract, fractions, and two of the isolated compounds were tested for their hair growth activity. The hair growth studies showed good activities for the extract, fraction, and the isolated compounds.
  4 4,087 50
Simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites from Vinca rosea plant extractives by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography
Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad Siddiqui, Zhari Ismail, Noor Hafizoh Saidan
April-June 2011, 7(26):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80662  PMID:21716929
Background: Vinca rosea (Apocynaceae) is one of the most important and high value medicinal plants known for its anticancer alkaloids. It is the iota of the isolated secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers. Several high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed to quantify the active alkaloids in the plant. However, this method may serve the purpose in quantification of V. rosea plant extracts in totality. Objective: To develop and validate the reverse phase (RP)-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of secondary metabolites, namely alkaloids from V. rosea plant extracts. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination was conducted by RP-HPLC equipped with ultraviolet detector. Optimal separation was achieved by isocratic elution with mobile phase consisting of methanol:acetonitrile:ammonium acetate buffer (25 mM) with 0.1% triethylamine (15:45:40 v/v) on a column (Zorbax Eclipse plus C 18 , 250 mm × 4.6 mm; 5 μm). The standard markers (vindoline, vincristine, catharanthine, and vinblastine) were identified by retention time and co-injected with reference standard and quantified by external standard method at 297 nm. Results: The precision of the method was confirmed by the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), which was lower than 2.68%. The recoveries were in the range of 98.09%-108%. The limits of detection (LOD) for each marker alkaloids were lower than 0.20 μg. Different parts of the V. rosea extracts shows different concentrations of markers, flower samples were high in vinblastine content, while methanol extract from the leaves contains all the four alkaloids in good yield, and there is no significant presence of markers in water extracts. Conclusion: HPLC method established is appropriate for the standardization and quality assurance of V. rosea plant extracts.
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Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract
Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi Hewageegana, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha Arambewela, Hettiarachchige Sami Ariyawansa
April-June 2011, 7(26):157-160
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80678  PMID:21716924
The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.
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Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China
Xiaojin Li, Yue'e Wang, Jun Zhu, Qiong Xiao
April-June 2011, 7(26):116-120
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80668  PMID:21716620
Objective: Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Results: Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Conclusion: Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang.
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