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   2010| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 24  
    Online since October 20, 2010

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Assessment of viscoelasticity and hydration effect of herbal moisturizers using bioengineering techniques
Shweta Kapoor, Swarnlata Saraf
October-December 2010, 6(24):298-304
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71797  PMID:21120032
Background: A number of moisturizers are available containing natural hydrating, moisturizing, fi rming and occlusive property-imparting agent in the form of herbal extracts, juice and oils. The aim of this study is to assess the hydration and viscoelastic effect of commercially available herbal moisturizers, containing different herbs, on human skin, after a single and 3-week period of application using skin bio mechanical and electrical techniques. Materials and Methods: Twenty selected herbal moisturizers (HM) were coded as HM1-HM20. Forty volunteers, mean age of 40 ± 9 years, were participated in the short- and long-term study. Skin properties in terms of hydration and viscoelastic parameters were measured by multitester and cutometer, respectively. Measurements were done before and after 1, 2, and 3 h (single application) and for the 3-week period of daily application. Results: After single application, significant increase has been observed in both the skin electrical (P < 0.001) and mechanical properties (P < 0.01) as compared to the control, at which no products were applied. After the 3-week period, both effects are maintained and found to be significant at P < 0.001. Short-and long-term study revealed that out of 20 herbal moisturizers, HM8 and HM10 show pronounced increase in skin hydration (90-100%) and HM8, HM10, and HM11 shown marked increase in skin viscoelasticity (90-95%). Conclsuion: The possible reason of maximum effects obtained by these products is multifunctional effects of active ingredients of incorporated herbs. Combined used of both non invasive techniques is useful to substantiate the hydrating and viscoelasticity claim of herbal moisturizer. Short- and long-terms study revealed the best performing herbal moisturizer.
  8,602 46 14
Determination of total flavonoids in three Sedum crude drugs by UV-Vis spectrophotometry
Yujie Chen, Jing Wang, Dingrong Wan
October-December 2010, 6(24):259-263
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71784  PMID:21120025
A simple, rapid UV-Vis spectrophotometry method for the determination of total flavonoids in Sedum sarmentosum Bunge., S. lineare Thunb., and S. erythrostictum Migo. was developed, with a good linearity, precision, and stability. The detection wavelength was set at 500 nm, and an extraction solvent was optimized. Through the comparative study of multiple samples of the three plant drugs, their collected seasons and the habitats can be preliminarily ascertained, which may help to control the quality of the medicines to some extent.
  6,991 72 8
Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Saideh Davoodi
October-December 2010, 6(24):309-314
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71799  PMID:21120034
Background: Saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of Crocus sativus flowers. It is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food as a perfume. It is often used for treating several diseases. We investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of saffron to induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in cultured carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells in comparison with non-malignant (L929) cells. Materials and Methods: Both cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron at various concentrations for two consecutive days. Our study resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, such as loss of cell viability, morphology changes that were evaluated by MTT assay and invert-microscope, respectively. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of saffron decreased cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the lung cancer cell line were determined as 1500 and 565 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. However, the extract at different concentrations could not significantly decrease the cell viability in L929 cells. Morphology of MCF7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the MTT results. Conclusion: We also showed that even higher concentrations of saffron is safe for L929, but the extract exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a lung cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer.
  6,216 33 38
Determination of the antibiofilm, antiadhesive, and anti-MRSA activities of seven Salvia species
Amal G Al-Bakri, Ghadeer Othman, Fatma U Afifi
October-December 2010, 6(24):264-270
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71786  PMID:21120026
Background: Several Salvia species are indigenous to Jordan and are widely used as beverages and spices and for their medicinal properties. The objective of the study was to establish the antimicrobial activities, including the antiadhesive and antibiofilm effects of seven different Salvia species. Materials and Methods: Methods used for planktonic culture included agar diffusion, broth microdilution, and minimal biocidal concentration determination while viable count was used for the determination of the antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities. Overnight cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were used as test microorganisms. Results: An antimicrobial activity toward planktonic cultures demonstrated a significant bacteriocidal activity (≥4 log cycle reduction) for the S. triloba extract against S. aureus including MRSA. Its volatile oil exhibited an antimicrobial activity covering all tested microorganisms with the exception of P. aeruginosa. S. triloba extract and volatile oil were successful in preventing and controlling the biofilm, demonstrating antiadhesion and antibiofilm activities, respectively. Conclusion: These reported activities for S. triloba extract and volatile oil allows their listing as potential antibiofilm and anti-MRSA natural agents. This might suggest their use as an antiseptic in the prophylaxis and treatment of S. aureus-associated skin infections. The antimicrobial activity of the other tested Salvia species was negligible.
  5,668 53 14
Antioxidant activity of five Brazilian plants used as traditional medicines and food in Brazil
Allana K.L. Santos, José G. M. Costa, Irwin R. A. Menezes, Isaac F Cansanção, Karla K. A. Santos, Edinardo F. F. Matias, Henrique D. M. Coutinho
October-December 2010, 6(24):335-338
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71789  PMID:21120039
Background: This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric analysis of the plants' ethanol extracts was carried out. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) test. The antioxidant capacity was measured using ascorbic acid as a positive control. Results: All tested plant extracts showed an antioxidant activity, but the highest activity was observed with the extracts of Momordica charantia and Eugenia jambolana. Conclusions: Therefore, these species must be studied as a putative source of products for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases in which oxidants or free radicals are implicated.
  5,395 24 14
Free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale Makino and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. methanolic extracts
Mahesh Ramalingam, Park Yong-Ki
October-December 2010, 6(24):323-330
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71794  PMID:21120037
Background: Antioxidants from natural resources possess multifaceted and importance of the activities provides substantial scope in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the free radical scavenging activities of Cnidium officinale and Ligusticum chuanxiong, which are closely related species. Materials and Methods: The scavenging activities of plant materials were evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide radical (O 2· - ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), hydroxyl (OH·), nitric oxide radical (NO·) and metal chelation. In addition, the cell viability and nitric oxide release were assayed using Neuro-2a (N2a) cells. Results: The methanolic extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong showed scavenging activities of free radicals with an additional antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the efficacy on the cell viability and nitric oxide release in cell culture model has been established. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the extracts of C. officinale and L. chuanxiong have comparatively similar free radical scavenging activities in vitro and may have important health effects.
  4,902 27 17
Oral diuretic activity of hot water infusion of Sri Lankan black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) in rats
K. R. W. Abeywickrama, WD Ratnasooriya, A. M. T. Amarakoon
October-December 2010, 6(24):271-277
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71788  PMID:21120027
Background: Black tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (family: Theaceae)] has been used by Sri Lankan traditional practitioners to promote diuresis. However, the type and grade of tea is not specified. Materials and Methods: This study investigates the diuretic activity of black tea infusion (BTI) in rats using Broken Orange Pekoe Fannings (BOPF) grade from major agroclimatic elevations: high-, mid-, and low-grown. Different concentrations of BTI, furosemide (positive control), and water (vehicle) were orally administered to starved (18 h) male rats (n = 9/group), then hydrated. Acute and chronic (28 days) diuretic activities were assessed by measuring cumulative urine output at hourly intervals for 6 h. Electrolyte levels (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , H + , Cl , HCO3 ), pH, osmolarity of urine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of treated rats were determined. Results: Administration of BTI induced a significant (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent diuretic activity, which varied with the tea produced in different agroclimatic elevations. Diuretic activity had a rapid onset (1 st h), peaked at 2 nd h and maintained up to 4 th h (except the low dose). Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent increase in micturition frequency, which peaked at 2 nd h. A close association between the caffeine content of tea and diuretic activity was evident. BTI-induced diuresis was accompanied with an increased urine Na + level and GFR. The diuretic activity of BTI was mediated via multiple mechanisms: inhibition of both aldosterone secretion (with increased Na + /K + ratio) and carbonic anhydrase [with decreased Cl /(Na + + K + ) ratio] and via thiazide type of diuretic action (evaluated with increased Na + /Cl ratio). Conclusion: The Sri Lankan BOPF grade black tea possesses mild oral diuretic activity whose efficacy differs with the agroclimatic elevation of production. Furthermore, it supports the traditional claim that the black tea acts as a diuretic.
  4,828 46 10
Tissue culture and generation of autotetraploid plants of Sophora flavescens Aiton
Wei Kun-Hua, Gao Shan-Lin, Huang He-Ping
October-December 2010, 6(24):286-292
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71793  PMID:21120030
Background: Sophora flavescens Aiton is an important medicinal plant in China. Early in vitro researches of S. flavescens were focused on callus induction and cell suspension culture, only a few were concerned with in vitro multiplication. Objective: To establish and optimize the rapid propagation technology of S. flavescens and to generate and characterize polyploid plants of S. flavescens. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KT) were used to establish and screen the optimal rapid propagation technology of S. flavescens by orthogonal test; 0.2% colchicine solution was used to induce polyploid plants and the induced buds were identified by root-tip chromosome determination and stomatal apparatus observation. Results: A large number of buds could be induced directly from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants on the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS; 1962) supplemented with 1.4-1.6 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.3 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). More than 50 lines of autotetraploid plants were obtained. The chromosome number of the autotetraploid plantlet was 2n = 4x = 36. All tetraploid plants showed typical polyploid characteristics. Conclusion: Obtained autotetraploid lines will be of important genetic and breeding value and can be used for further selection and plant breeding.
  4,698 33 2
Phytoconstituents from Alpinia purpurata and their in vitro inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Oliver B Villaflores, Allan Patrick G Macabeo, Dietmar Gehle, Karsten Krohn, Scott G Franzblau, Alicia M Aguinaldo
October-December 2010, 6(24):339-344
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71785  PMID:21120040
Alpinia purpurata or red ginger was studied for its phytochemical constituents as part of our growing interest on Philippine Zingiberaceae plants that may exhibit antimycobacterial activity. The hexane and dichloromethane subextracts of the leaves were fractionated and purified using silica gel chromatography to afford a mixture of C 28 -C 32 fatty alcohols, a 3-methoxyflavone and two steroidal glycosides. The two latter metabolites were spectroscopically identified as kumatakenin (1), sitosteryl-3-O-6-palmitoyl-b-D-glucoside (2) and b-sitosteryl galactoside (3) using ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), electron impact mass spectrometer (EIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and by comparison with literature data. This study demonstrates for the first time the isolation of these constituents from A. purpurata. In addition to the purported anti-inflammatory activity, its phytomedicinal potential to treat tuberculosis is also described.
  4,675 23 9
Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China
Xiaoying Zhou, Gong Hai-Yan, Xu Tun-Hai, Shuge Tian
October-December 2010, 6(24):278-281
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71790  PMID:21120028
Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification.
  4,469 25 4
Chemical composition of the essential oils of Rhodiola rosea L. of three different origins
Ljuba Evstatieva, Milka Todorova, Daniela Antonova, Jordanka Staneva
October-December 2010, 6(24):256-258
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71782  PMID:21120024
Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae), or "rose root" is a perennial herbaceous plant, distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Pharmacological studies have shown that R. rosea exhibits different biological activities - antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, etc. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of essential oils from rhizomes of three commercial samples of R. rosea originated from Bulgaria (sample 1), China (sample 2) and India (sample 3). The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Thus, the main volatile component in the Bulgaria and Chinese R. rosea was geraniol, followed by myrthenol in sample 1 or octanol in sample 2. Phenethylalcohol was a principal constituent in the Indian oil. Myrtenol and octanol were in significant amounts too. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were characteristic of the latter sample. It is notable that cinnamyl alcohol, which was present in large concentration in Bulgarian sample, was not detected in the other two samples. The obtained results showed considerable differences in the composition of the studied three origins of R. rosea.
  4,436 50 7
Variations in fatty acid compositions of the seed oil of Eruca sativa Mill. caused by different sowing periods and nitrogen forms
Atnan Ugur, Ipek Süntar, Sinem Aslan, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Murat Kartal, Nazim Sekeroglu, Dursun Esiyok, Bilge Sener
October-December 2010, 6(24):305-308
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71801  PMID:21120033
Background: Eruca is a native plant genus of the South Europe and central Asia where it has been cultivated since centuries. As the genus name implies, the oil is high in erucic acid. Materials and Methods: In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of sowing periods (autumn and spring) and three forms of the nitrogen-containing fertilizers (manure, calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , 15.5% N], and ammonium sulphate [(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 21% N]) on fatty acid compositions of the oils obtained from Eruca sativa Mill. seeds cultivated. All oils were obtained by maceration of the seeds with n-hexane at room temperature and converted to their methyl ester derivatives by trans-methylesterification reaction using boron-trifluorur (BF 3 ). The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the oils were detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: All the samples analyzed were found to contain quite high amounts of erucic acid ranging between 46.64-54.79%, followed by oleic (17.86-19.95%), palmitic (7.25-10.97%), linoleic (4.23-9.72%), and linolenic (1.98-3.01%) acids. Conclusion: Our data pointed out that there is a statistically important alteration caused by these applications on the contents of only C12:0 and C14:0 found as the minor fatty acids, whereas no other fatty acids in the samples seemed to be affected by those criteria.
  4,349 31 1
Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria
José Galberto M da Costa, Adriana R Campos, Samara A Brito, Carla Karine B Pereira, Erlânio O Souza, Fabíola Fernandes G Rodrigues
October-December 2010, 6(24):331-334
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71792  PMID:21120038
Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods : Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Cearα state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC 50 of 3.9 μg/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8μg/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 μg/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 μg/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 μg/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays.
  4,008 28 14
Fractional extraction and structural characterization of opium poppy and cotton stalks hemicelluloses
Mustafa Cengiz, Ozlem Dilek Dincturk, H Turgut Sahin
October-December 2010, 6(24):315-319
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71798  PMID:21120035
Hemicellulosic moieties from opium poppy and cotton stalks were solublized in water at varying alkali concentrations (NaOH) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The hemicelluloses were then be precipitated from the solutions by acidification. The 2.0 and 3.0% H 2 O 2 extractions resulted in a yield of 0.8 and 0.71%, respectively, accounting for 3.2 and 2.9% of the hemicelluloses present in the opium poppy stalks. A similar result was also obtained for cotton stalks. It was found that alkaline peroxide is an effective agent for solubilization of hemicelluloses from opium poppy and cotton stalks.
  3,876 22 3
Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the methanol extract Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae) leaves
BA Ayinde, U Agbakwuru
October-December 2010, 6(24):293-297
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71795  PMID:21120031
Background: Global research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Usually consumed as a vegetable, Struchium sparganophora is indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. Materials and Methods: This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the leaves to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the extract on guinea corn radicle at 0.5, 1.0, 2 and 4 mg/ml in addition to evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves was performed. After 24 h, the crude extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 96.67 ± 4.71%, each at a concentration of 80 μg/ml, while the aqueous fraction produced 100% cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. Results: The crude extract had an LC50 of 26 μg/ml, the chloroform fraction had 6.25 while the aqueous fraction had 5 μg/ml. On the inhibition of the guinea corn radicle growth, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 67.81 ± 2.6 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 4 mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 35.83 ±1.75 mm, indicating 47.81% reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 32.51 and 43.81% inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids, with no traces of anthracene derivatives. Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments.
  3,294 27 2
Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus
S Swathi, G Murugananthan, SK Ghosh
October-December 2010, 6(24):320-322
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71796  PMID:21120036
Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).
  3,122 26 3
Effects of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat's gastric acid output at basal, vagotomized, and vagal-stimulated conditions
S Niazmand, E Khooshnood, M Derakhshan
October-December 2010, 6(24):282-285
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71791  PMID:21120029
Background: Achillea is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. There are some reports on gastrointestinal effects of Achillea, such as antiulcer, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and antispasmodic. To investigate the effects of aqueous-ethanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii on rat's gastric acid output in basal, vagotomized (VX), and vagal-stimulated conditions. Materials and Methods: 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and test. Gastroduodenostomy was performed for each rat. Gastric content was collected for 30 min by washout technique. One milliliter of 3 doses (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) was introduced into the stomach of each rat in the test group and the same volume of saline was used in the control group. Total titratable acid was measured by a titrator. Results: The extract inhibited acid output significantly in basal condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses (P < 0.05) but in VX condition this inhibitory effect on acid output disappeared and the 1 and 2 mg/kg doses increased acid output significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). The extract showed a reduction in the acid output in vagal-stimulated condition by 1 and 2 mg/kg doses, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect of A. wilhelmsii extract on acid output in basal condition. The inhibitory effect of the extract was exerted via gastric vagal parasympathetic nerve.
  3,107 17 12
Major changes in Pharmacognosy Magazine
KK Mueen Ahmed
October-December 2010, 6(24):255-255
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71780  PMID:21120023
  2,493 44 2
Uncovering negative results: Introducing an open access journal "Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results"
Vipra Kundoor, KK Mueen Ahmed
October-December 2010, 6(24):345-347
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71783  PMID:21120041
  2,238 19 6
Rapid determination of paeoniflorin
Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2010, 6(24):345-345
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71781  PMID:21120042
  1,479 18 -