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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Efficacy Study of Sunscreens Containing Various Herbs for Pro­tecting Skin from UVA and UVB Sunrays
Shweta Kapoor, Swarnlata Saraf
July-September 2009, 5(19):238-248
Currently, no standard protocols and objective measures are existing in present system for quality analysis of herbal sunscreens. Present work is an attempt to compile rapid, non-invasive technologies to investigate the sunscreens containing various herbs like aloe vera, jojoba, cucumber, wheat germ, olive etc for their efficacy in protecting skin from UVA and UVB sunrays. Commercial herbal sunscreens containing herbs aloe vera, basil, green tea, etc and bearing SPF range 10-40 coded as HS1- HS14, were analyzed by subjective, photostability and other parameters evaluation. All sunscreens shown pH [6.09±0.01 to 8.30±0.03], Saponification value [6.01±0.2 to 207.57±0.3], Acid value [1.56±0.6 to 17.27±0.5], Ash value [0.01±1 to 0.08±2 gm], Spreadibility [96±0.9 to 98±0.9 %], Layer thickness [28.99±1.55 to 32.25±1.00 %]. Viscosity profile showed the pseudoplastic behaviour of all formulations. Phase separation was observed in HS1 to HS4, HS7& HS9 to HS12 during stability study. None of them were found to be irritant [erythema score = 0] and have microbial count load in the range of to 31±1 to 34±2 CFU/gm. 98±5 % of all sunscreens has shown SPF as per labelled claim by In-vitro and In-vivo method. HS 6, 9, 11 were found to be unstable in UVA range. HS8, most preferred by volunteers after Psychometric evaluation. Results of the study scientifically verified that herbs are having enough potential to protect skin to protect skin from harmful sunrays and it is worthwhile for consumers to use herbal sunscreens. Overall study is useful to substantiate product claims.
  28,290 157 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil-yielding crop, against CCl 4 -induced liver injury in rats
Mahadevappa Paramesha, Chapeyil K Ramesh, Venkatarangaiah Krishna, Yelegara S Ravi Kumar, Karur M.M. Parvathi
October-December 2011, 7(28):289-297
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.90406  
Background: The present investigation evaluates the hepatoprotective and in vitro antioxidant effect of methanolic extract and its isolated constituent, dehydroabietylamine, in Carthamus tinctorious L, var Annigeri-2-, an oil yielding crop. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effects were estimated for the parameters viz, total bilirubin, total protein, serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and along with the pathological findings of hepatotoxicity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging assays: DPPH, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity. Results: Both the methanolic extract (at 150 and 300 mg/kg bw) and dehydroabietylamine (at 50 mg/kg bw) showed significant liver protection against CCl 4 -induced liver damage that was comparable with the standard drug, silymarin (100 mg/kg bw), in reducing the elevated serum enzyme markers. The liver sections of the animals treated with dehydroabietylamine elicit a significant liver protection compared with the methanolic extract against CCl 4 -induced liver damage. Further, both the methanolic extract and dehydroabietylamine exhibited a considerable and dose-dependent scavenging activity of DPPH, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical. Similarly, in the reducing power assay, the results were very persuasive. In addition, the Fe 2+ chelating activity and the total antioxidant assay established the antioxidant property of the methanolic extract and its isolated constituent. Among the two experimental samples, dehydroabietylamine proved to be more effective for the said parameters. Conclusion: The potent antioxidant and its correlative hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract and isolated constituent dehydroabietylamine is therefore attributed to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.
  13,068 352 7
Anticancer and antiradical scavenging activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae)
AH Adebayo, NH Tan, AA Akindahunsi, GZ Zeng, YM Zhang
January-March 2010, 6(21):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59968  PMID:20548938
Ageratum conyzoides has been used in folklore for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. In the present investigation, the in vitro activity of ethanol, petroleum ether, ethylacetate, butanol, and water extracts of A. conyzoides were screened in some cancer cell lines using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. These cell lines include: Human non-small cell lung carcinoma (A-549), human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), human gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901), human golima (U-251), human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), human prostate carcinoma (DU-145), human hepatic carcinoma (BEL-7402), and mouse leukemia (P-388) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, kaempferol was isolated from the ethylacetate extract and the structure was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. The effect of DPPH antiradical activity on the extracts and kaempferol was also determined. The results showed that ethylacetate extract exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity on A-549 and P-388 cancer cells with IC 50 values of 0.68 and 0.0003 µg/ml, respectively. Kaempferol isolated from the ethylacetate extract of A. conyzoides rapidly scavenged DPPH at a concentration of 130.07 ±17.36 g/kg. The result therefore showed that A. conyzoides possessed anticancer and antiradical properties.
  11,111 253 35
A validated high performance liquid chromatography method for the analysis of thymol and carvacrol in Thymus vulgaris L. volatile oil
H Hajimehdipoor, M Shekarchi, M Khanavi, N Adib, M Amri
July-September 2010, 6(23):154-158
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66927  PMID:20931071
Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant that contains important compounds such as thymol and carvacrol and it has been used in many pharmaceutical dosage forms. Thymol and carvacrol in essential oils are often quantified by gas chromatography (GC) technique but in this work, a validated and reliable high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the analysis of these two components in T. vulgaris essential oil. The essential oil of the plant was analyzed by HPLC and GC techniques. The HPLC system consisted of ACE C 18 column and an isocratic acetonitrile:water (50:50) as the mobile phase which was kept at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity (r2 > 0.997 for both thymol and carvacrol), precision (intra-day 0.8-1.9, 1.7-2.6; and inter-day 3.5-4.5, 3.6-4.7) and recovery (97.7%, 97.6%) for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantization (LOQs) were calculated to be 2.8, 0.6 μg/ml and 8.6, 1.8 μg/ml for thymol and carvacrol, respectively. The GC system consisted of flame ionization detector (FID) and CP-SIL 8 column. The concentrations of thymol and carvacrol in essential oil obtained by HPLC (41.2%, 4.3%) and GC (40.7%, 4.2%) were compared by statistical methods and they showed good agreement.
  10,459 311 24
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Formulation and evaluation of topical polyherbal antiacne gels containing Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera
Gowda Bhaskar, Shariff Arshia, S.R.B Priyadarshini
July 2009, 5(19):93-99
The objective of the study was to develop a topical poly herbal gel for the treatment of mild acne vulgaris. Aqueous extracts of Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera were formulated in an aqueous based carbopol-934(1%w/w) gel system. Preformulation studies on solubility, partition co-efficient, MIC, MBC were determined along with compatibility studies using a validated HPLC method. Six formulations of the gel were prepared by varying the proportions of polymers and evaluated for their physicochemical properties like pH, spreadability, viscosity and microbial assay. Based on these tests, formulation F-6 containing 1% carbopol-934 was selected as best formulation and carried over to in-vitro drug diffusion studies wherein it showed Cumulative Drug Release of 81.03% at the end of 8 hours with a flux of 0.0879 mg/cm2/hr.The microbial assay of all the formulations demonstrated better inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acne and Staphylococcus epidermidis compared to the marketed clindamycin phosphate gel in equivalent amounts of application. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that aqueous extract of Garcinia mangostana and Aloe vera can be formulated in an aqueous based gel system for topical therapy of mild acne vulgaris.
  10,509 117 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity
Vadivel Arulmozhi, Mani Krishnaveni, Kandhan Karthishwaran, Ganesan Dhamodharan, Sankaran Mirunalini
January-March 2010, 6(21):42-50
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59965  PMID:20548935
The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/ kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.
  9,872 228 30
Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves
Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz, Renato Péres-Roses, Imilci Urdaneta-Laffita, Miladis Isabel Camacho-Pozo, Jesús Rodríguez-Amado, Irina Licea-Jiménez
July-September 2010, 6(23):242-247
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66944  PMID:20931087
Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.
  9,837 145 24
Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves
AM Metwally, AA Omar, FM Harraz, SM El Sohafy
July-September 2010, 6(23):212-218
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66939  PMID:20931082
Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-b-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds.
  9,090 168 37
Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis
Sinjitha S. Nambiar, Nandini Prasad Shetty, Praveena Bhatt, Bhagyalakshmi Neelwarne
May 2014, 10(38):240-248
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.133241  PMID:24991098
Background: Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Materials and Methods: Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. Results: A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC 50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. Conclusions: The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract.
  8,889 156 1
Effect of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) seed essential oil on biofilm formation and plasmid Integrity of Klebsiella pneumoniae
Safoura Derakhshan, Morteza Sattari, Mohsen Bigdeli
January-March 2010, 6(21):57-61
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59967  PMID:20548937
Seeds of the cumin plant (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been used since many years in Iranian traditional medicine. We assessed the effect of cumin seed essential oil on the biofilm-forming ability of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and on the integrity of a native resistance plasmid DNA from K. pneumoniae isolates, treated with essential oil. Antibacterial coaction between the essential oil and selected antibiotic disks were determined for inhibiting K. pneumoniae. The essential oil of the cumin seeds was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clavenger system. A simple method for the formation of biofilms on semiglass lamellas was established. The biofilms formed were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of essential oil on plasmid integrity was studied through the induction of R-plasmid DNA degradation. The plasmid was incubated with essential oil, and agarose gel electrophoresis was performed. Disk diffusion assay was employed to determine the coaction. The essential oil decreased biofilm formation and enhanced the activity of the ciprofloxacin disk. The incubation of the R-plasmid DNA with essential oil could not induce plasmid DNA degradation. The results of this study suggest the potential use of cumin seed essential oil against K. pneumoniae in vitro, may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of this essential oil.
  8,636 168 18
Correlation between antioxidant effect mechanisms and polyphenol content of Rosa canina
Hasan Kilicgun, Dehen Altiner
July-September 2010, 6(23):238-241
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66943  PMID:20931086
Rosa canina L. is a member of Rosaceae family, which is well-known for its high phenolic contents. These compounds are known to possess antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. However, they have yet to pass controlled clinical trials for efficacy, and their potential for prooxidant activity is an understudied field of research. In order to estimate the correlations between phenolic contents and antioxidant/proxidant effect mechanisms, different concentrations of R. canina fruit extracts were examined in this study. R. canina showed antioxidant activities at all concentrations with respect to the reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging (O2·-) activity assays, whereas a negative correlation was observed with the metal ion chelating activity and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) % inhibition] assays at higher concentrations with the phenolic content of R. canina. These results suggest that R. canina may act not only as an antioxidant, but also as a prooxidant with the effects depending on its concentrations.
  7,822 125 26
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Hypolipidemic Effects of Seed Extract of Celery (Apium graveolens ) in Rats
Kamal Mansi, Adel M Abushoffa, Ahmad Disi, Talal Aburjai
October-December 2009, 5(20):301-305
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.58149  
The hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract of A. graveolens L. (Apiaceae) were investigated. Forty adult male albino rats weighing about 260 g each, were divided into four groups (n = 10). Experimental animals were gavaged at doses of 213 and 425 mg/kg body wt. for sixty consecutive days. Extract showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and significant increase (p<0.05) in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in the treated groups. The oral administration of ethanol extract of A. graveolens revealed good hypolipideamic effects in adult male albino rats. The results have given a considerable agreement to the traditional use of A. graveolens in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; it could possibly lead to appropriate changes in blood lipid profiles.
  7,820 119 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Determining total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of loquat cultivars grown in Hatay
A Aytekin Polat, Oguzhan Caliskan, Sedat Serce, Onur Saracoglu, Cemal Kaya, Mustafa Ozgen
January-March 2010, 6(21):5-8
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.59959  PMID:20548929
Several fruit characteristics of five loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) cultivars/selections grown in Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey were investigated in 2008. The cultivars/selections included 'Baduna 5', Güzelyurt 1, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek', 'Ottaviani,' and Type 1. The characteristics evaluated included fruit weight, width, length, seed number and weight, flesh/seed ratio, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, acidity, total phenolic (TP) content, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The analyses were conducted by three replicates, with 30 fruits in each replicate. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the cultivars, for all the traits tested. For example, 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' and 'Ottaviani' had smaller fruits than others, although 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had heavier seeds. The flesh/seed ratio was the highest in Type 1, while 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest pH and high soluble solids. 'Baduna 5' and 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' had the highest acidity. The TP ranged from 129 ('Baduna 5') to 578 ('Hafif Çukurgöbek') mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh fruit (fw). 'Hafif Çukurgöbek' also had the highest FRAP mean (12.1 mmol Trolox Equivalent (TE)/kg fw). The results suggest that loquat cultivars have a variable range of TP content and a relatively high total antioxidant capacity, which is crucial for human health.
  7,604 176 16
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Antimutagenic potential and phytochemical analysis of selected Philippine plants
Christine L Chichioco-Hernandez, Noemi D Paguigan
December 2009, 5(20):388-393
Chemopreventive agents can act to prevent or stop genetic mutation that can lead to cancer. Several promising chemopreventive agents include vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals, all of which are obtained from plants. Natural products derived from plants continue to be a fertile source of cure for cancer. In this study, selected Philippine plants were tested for their ability to inhibit chromosomal damage induced by tetracycline in the in vivo micronucleus test (MT). The methanolic extract of Canarium ovatum Engl., locally recognized as pili, showed the most promising activity by reducing the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by 54.41% in the preliminary MT screening. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of C. ovatum leaves have identified the most active portion in the hexane fraction. Further isolation and purification will be done to determine the constituent/s responsible for the observed antimutagenic activity in C. ovatum. Identification and characterization of the bioactive compound/s in this plant could be a starting point in the search for other chemopreventive substances, and for the possible synthesis and development of more efficacious agents.
  7,421 108 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L.) accessions
Mustafa Ozgen, Joseph C Scheerens, R Neil Reese, Raymond A Miller
July-September 2010, 6(23):198-203
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66936  PMID:20931079
Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L.) obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%); individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively). TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93), although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70-0.85). Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles.
  7,140 287 23
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study
N Esmaeili, H Ebrahimzadeh, K Abdi, S Safarian
January-March 2011, 7(25):74-80
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.75906  PMID:21472084
It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA) + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS). Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 μg/g) and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 μg/g); also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 μg/g) and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 μg/g) phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and EC 50 values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively.
  7,082 23 16
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves
Chunpeng Wan, Yanying Yu, Shouran Zhou, Shuge Tian, Shuwen Cao
April-June 2011, 7(26):101-108
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.80666  PMID:21716618
Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) analytical method was developed to identify some minor constituents in the n-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Gynura divaricata. Results: Six flavonols and one Dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated from the leaves of Gynura divaricata, and these compounds were identified as follows: quercetin (1), kaempferol (2), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (4), kaempferol-3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7). A total of 13 compounds, including 9 flavonol glycosides and 4 phenolic acids, were tentatively identified by comparing their retention time (RT), UV, and MS spectrum values with those that had been identified and the published data. Conclusion: This was the first time to use the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method to identify the phytochemicals of the genera Gynura. Moreover, compounds (6) and (7) have been isolated for the first time from the genus Gynura.
  6,928 36 19
Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals from Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials
Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Iraj Rasooli, Parviz Owlia, Massoud Taghizadeh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor Astaneh
July-September 2010, 6(23):147-153
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66926  PMID:20931070
Mentha piperita essential oil was bactericidal in order of E. coli> S. aureus > Pseudomonas aeruginosa> S. faecalis > Klebsiella pneumoniae. The oil with total phenolics of 89.43 ± 0.58 μg GAE/mg had 63.82 ± 0.05% DPPH inhibition activity with an IC 50 = 3.9 μg/ml. Lipid peroxidation inhibition was comparable to BHT and BHA. A 127% hike was noted in serum ferric-reducing antioxidant power. There was 38.3% decrease in WBCs count, while platelet count showed increased levels of 214.12%. Significant decrease in uric acid level and cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were recorded. The volatile oil displayed high cytotoxic action toward the human tumor cell line. The results of this study deserve attention with regard to antioxidative and possible anti-neoplastic chemotherapy that form a basis for future research. The essential oil of mint may be exploited as a natural source of bioactive phytopchemicals bearing antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials that could be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.
  6,484 363 20
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Quantification of flavonoids of Psidium guajava L. preparations by Planar Chromatography (HPTLC)
SM El Sohafy, AM Metwalli, FM Harraz, AA Omar
January-March 2009, 5(17):61-66
Guava leaves, as most medicinal plants used in folk medicine, lack any systematic methodology needed to demonstrate genuine efficacy. The method described in this study is the first step towards establishing consumer confidence in guava preparations and demonstrates the use of HPTLC-UV to quantify the quercetin content of Psidium guajava L. leaves (quercetin content of the leaves ranged from 0.181 0.393 %) The results obtained were accurate (recovery ranged from 96 - 97.20 %) and precise (% RSD 0.856 and SD 0.01).
  6,497 119 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts
KS Sim, AM Sri Nurestri, AW Norhanom
July-September 2010, 6(23):248-254
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.66945  PMID:20931088
The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as "Jarum Tujuh Bilah" in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and b-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau's method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in b-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia.
  6,426 181 28
RESEARCH ARTICLES
In-vitro anticancer activity of standard extracts used in ayurveda
SN Gaidhani, GS Lavekar, AS Juvekar, S Sen, Arjun Singh, Suman Kumari
December 2009, 5(20):425-429
The hydro-alcoholic extracts of five Ayurvedic medicinal plants, pericarp of Terminalia chebula, rhizome of Acorus calamus, stem bark of Bauhinia variegate, whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus, root of Glycyrrhiza glabra were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on fourteen cancer cell lines. These plant extracts were tested by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay for its anti proliferative activity and four extracts except Glycyrrhiza glabra were found active against prostrate cancer cell line (DU145. In addition to this Terminalia chebula exhibited activity against leukemia cancer cell line (K562).
  6,322 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of viscoelasticity and hydration effect of herbal moisturizers using bioengineering techniques
Shweta Kapoor, Swarnlata Saraf
October-December 2010, 6(24):298-304
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.71797  PMID:21120032
Background: A number of moisturizers are available containing natural hydrating, moisturizing, fi rming and occlusive property-imparting agent in the form of herbal extracts, juice and oils. The aim of this study is to assess the hydration and viscoelastic effect of commercially available herbal moisturizers, containing different herbs, on human skin, after a single and 3-week period of application using skin bio mechanical and electrical techniques. Materials and Methods: Twenty selected herbal moisturizers (HM) were coded as HM1-HM20. Forty volunteers, mean age of 40 ± 9 years, were participated in the short- and long-term study. Skin properties in terms of hydration and viscoelastic parameters were measured by multitester and cutometer, respectively. Measurements were done before and after 1, 2, and 3 h (single application) and for the 3-week period of daily application. Results: After single application, significant increase has been observed in both the skin electrical (P < 0.001) and mechanical properties (P < 0.01) as compared to the control, at which no products were applied. After the 3-week period, both effects are maintained and found to be significant at P < 0.001. Short-and long-term study revealed that out of 20 herbal moisturizers, HM8 and HM10 show pronounced increase in skin hydration (90-100%) and HM8, HM10, and HM11 shown marked increase in skin viscoelasticity (90-95%). Conclsuion: The possible reason of maximum effects obtained by these products is multifunctional effects of active ingredients of incorporated herbs. Combined used of both non invasive techniques is useful to substantiate the hydrating and viscoelasticity claim of herbal moisturizer. Short- and long-terms study revealed the best performing herbal moisturizer.
  6,308 22 13
Determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by HPLC method
Shuge Tian, Yang Shi, Qian Yu, Halmurat Upur
April-June 2010, 6(22):116-119
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.62898  PMID:20668577
A simple, precise, rapid and accurate, binary-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid contents in the Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with short run time. Chromatographic separation is achieved by using HPLC system consisting of a Shimadzu LC-6AD and Kromasil C 18 column (150 Χ 4.6 mm, 10 ΅m, with pre-column), the mobile phase consists of methanol and 0.03 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3, 90:10). Detection wavelength is 214 nm. The speed of flow is 0.5 ml/min. The specimen handing quantity is 10 μl. The oleanolic acid's linearity range is 0.4~1.2 mg/ml (r = 0.9996). The ursolic acid's linearity range is 0.6~1.8 mg/ml (r = 0.9996), and the linear relationship is accurate. The average recovery (n = 6) of oleanolic acid is 99.5% (RSD = 1.19%) and ursolic acid is 102.3%(RSD = 1.25%). The content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in Ziziphora clinopodioides are 0.76 mg/g and 1.176 mg/g, respectively. The developed HPLC method can therefore be applied to both in vitro studies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid formulations as well as drug estimation in biological samples.
  6,009 181 22
Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants
Mohammad M Hudaib, Khaled A Tawaha, Mohammad K Mohammad, Areej M Assaf, Ala Y Issa, Feras Q Alali, Talal A Aburjai, Yasser K Bustanji
October-December 2011, 7(28):320-324
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.90413  
Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.
  6,050 11 7
Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family
Maryam Shekarchi, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Morteza Pirali Hamedani
January-March 2012, 8(29):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.93316  
Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g -1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .
  6,005 25 33
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