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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2017
Volume 13 | Issue 52
Page Nos. 535-743

Online since Monday, November 13, 2017

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Identification of hepatoprotective constituents in Limonium tetragonum and development of simultaneous analysis method using high-performance liquid chromatography Highly accessed article p. 535
Jae Sun Lee, Yun Na Kim, Na-Hyun Kim, Jeong-Doo Heo, Min Hye Yang, Jung-Rae Rho, Eun Ju Jeong
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_477_16  PMID:29200710
Background: Limonium tetragonum, a naturally salt-tolerant halophyte, has been studied recently and is of much interest to researchers due to its potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Objective: In the present study, we attempted to elucidate bioactive compounds from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction of L. tetragonum extract. Furthermore, the simultaneous analysis method of bioactive EtOAc fraction of L. tetragonum has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: Thirteen compounds have been successfully isolated from EtOAc fraction of L. tetragonum, and the structures of 1–13 were elucidated by extensive one-dimensional and two-dimensional spectroscopic methods including 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Hepatoprotection of the isolated compounds against liver fibrosis was evaluated by measuring inhibition on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) undergoing proliferation. Results: Compounds 1–13 were identified as gallincin (1), apigenin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2), quercetin (3), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), (−)-epigallocatechin (5), (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (6), (−)-epigallocatechin-3-(3″-O-methyl) gallate (7), myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (8), myricetin-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (10), myricetin-3-O-(2″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11), myricetin-3-O-(3″-O-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (12), and myricetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (13), respectively. All compounds except for 4, 8, and 10 are reported for the first time from this plant. Conclusion: Myricetin glycosides which possess galloyl substituent (9, 11, and 12) showed most potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of HSCs. Abbreviations used: HSQC: Heteronuclear single quantum coherence; HMBC: Heteronuclear multiple bond correlation; NOESY: Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy; EGCG: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate; EGC: Epigallocatechin; HSC: Hepatic stellate cell; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide.
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Biological activities and cytotoxicity of Eperua oleifera Ducke oil-resin p. 542
Fernanda Torlania Alves Gomes, Ana Paula de Araújo Boleti, Lidiam M Leandro, Diego Squinello, Ellen S. P. Aranha, Marne C Vasconcelos, Paul Cos, Valdir F Veiga, Emerson Silva Lima
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_552_16  PMID:29200711
Background: The oil-resin of Eperua oleifera Ducke has been used in popular medicine similarly to the copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.). Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the acid fraction of E. oleifera oil-resin (AFEOR) on cell proliferation, collagen production in human fibroblasts, inhibition of metalloproteinases, and cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods: Acid fraction of E. oleifera was fractionated in the ion exchange column chromatography. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated by Alamar Blue® and Cometa assay. The inhibition of metalloproteinases was performed by zymography and Western blotting. Results: The predominant acidic diterpenes in the AFEOR were copalic and hardwickiic acids. AFEOR caused morphology alteration and decrease of proliferation at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. It also caused significant collagen proliferation in fibroblasts. It showed cytotoxicity against tumoral and nontumoral cell lines, with IC50values ranging from 13 to 50 μg/mL, and a hemolytic activity with an IC50value of 38.29 μg/mL. AFEOR inhibited collagenase activity, with an IC50value of 46.64 μg/mL, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in HaCaT cells or MMP-1 expression in MRC-5 cells. AFEOR induced genotoxicity in MRC-5 cells with a DNA damage index between 40% and 60% when compared to the negative controls (0%–20%). Conclusion: For the first time, biological activities from oil-resin E. oleifera demonstrated ratifying somehow its popular use. Abbreviations used: AFEOR: Eperua oleifera oil-resin.
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Evaluating the feasibility of five candidate DNA Barcoding Loci for Philippine Lasianthus Jack (Lasiantheae: Rubiaceae) p. 553
Muhammad Jefte C Arshed, Marcos B Valdez, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_1_17  PMID:29200712
Introduction: The pantropical genus Lasianthus Jack is identified for high phenotypic plasticity making traditional taxonomic identification difficult. Having some members with important medicinal properties, a precise complimentary identification through DNA barcoding is needed for species delineation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 12 samples representing six Philippine Lasianthus species were used to determine the most efficient barcoding loci among the cpDNA markers (matK, rbcL, rps16, and trnT-F) and nrDNA (ITS) based on the criteria of universality, discriminatory power, and resolution of species. Results: The results revealed that ITS has the recommended primer universality, greatest interspecific divergences, and average resolution of species. Among the cpDNA markers, matK and rbcL are recommended but with minimal resolution of species. While trnT-F showed moderate interspecific variations and resolution of Lasianthus species, rps16 has the lowest interspecific divergence and resolution of species. Conclusion: Consequently, ITS is the potential ideal DNA barcode for Lasianthus species. Abbreviations used: ITS: Internal Transcribe Spacer, matK: maturase K, rbcL: ribulose-1,5-biphospahte-carboxylase, rps16: ribosomal protein 16 small subunit gene.
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Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of camel milk and urine in HCl/EtOH, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin), and water-restraint stress-induced ulcer in rats p. 559
Zijuan Hu, Xiaoman Chang, Qing Pan, Kebin Gu, Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_135_17  PMID:29200713
Background: Camel milk has been reportedly used to treat dropsy, jaundice, tuberculosis, and diabetes while camel urine is used to treat diarrhea and cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence on the antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine. Thus, the present is designed to investigate the gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of camel milk and urine on experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Materials and Methods: The gastroprotective effect was investigated in HCl/EtOH, water-restraint stress (WRS) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin)-induced ulcer models while ulcer healing activity was investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model. Cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard antiulcer drug. Results: Acute toxicity study done up to a dosage of 10 ml/kg of camel milk and urine showed no signs of toxicity and mortality among the rats, indicating the present dosage of 5 ml/kg is safe to be administered to the rats. In the HCl/EtOH model, oral administration of cimetidine (100 mg/kg), camel urine (5 ml/kg), and camel milk (5 ml/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited gastric lesions by 83.7, 60.5 and 100%, respectively. In the WRS-induced model, cimetidine, and camel urine showed an ulcer inhibition of 100% while camel milk showed an inhibition of 50%. Similarly, in the indomethacin-induced ulcer model, cimetidine, camel milk, and urine showed an ulcer inhibition of 100, 33.3, and 66.7%, respectively. In addition, camel milk and urine also showed a significant (P < 0.05) ulcer healing effect of 100% in indomethacin-induced ulcer model, with no ulcers observed as compared to that of cimetidine, which offers a healing effect of 60.5%. Conclusion: The antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine may be attributed to its cytoprotective mechanism and antioxidant properties. Abbreviations used: NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, UI: Ulcer index, ANOVA: One-way analysis of variance, WRS: Water-restraint stress, ROS: Reactive oxygen species
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Simultaneous determination of ten constituents in chaiqin qingning capsule by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry p. 566
Ting Yu Li, Xiao Kui Huo, Lu Zheng, Chao Wang, Hai Jian Cong, Ting Xiang, Lin Zhang, Bao Jing Zhang, Shan Shan Huang, Bin Wu, Xin Yu Li
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_81_17  PMID:29200714
Background: Chaiqin Qingning Capsule (CQQNC) was a prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine with the effects of clearing away heat and removing toxin, harmonizing the exterior and interior, it was widely used in Asian, for example, China and Japan, different batches of the raws materials and different processing time may be the vital factor which raised a challenge to control the quality of the CQQNC. Experimental Methods: In this experiment, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/MS (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine ten bioactive components for the quality control of CQQNC. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an XBridge BEH C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.5 μm) with a mobile phase composed of 10 mm aqueous ammonium acetate and acetonitrile using a gradient elution in 20 min. This study was conducted by multiple reaction monitoring mode through electrospray ionization resource with a negative ionization mode. Results: The established method was validated with good performance of precision, accuracy, stability, and reproducibility and was utilized to simultaneously quantify ten constituents of CQQNC obtained from seven different batches. Conclusion: It is the first time to report the rapid and simultaneous analysis of the ten compounds in CQQNC by HPLC-MS/MS and apply to determine 10 constituents in 7 batches of CQQNC bought from drug store in china. This method could be considered as good quality criteria to control the quality of CQQNC. Abbreviations used: CHM: Chinese herbal medicine; TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; CQQNC: Triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry Chaiqin Qingning Capsules; HPLC–MS/MS: High liquid chromatography equipped with tandem mass spectrometry; ESI: Electrospray ionization; DP: Declustering potential; CE: Collision energy; RSD: Relative standard deviation; LOD: Limit of detection; LOQ: Limit of quantity.
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Antitumor effects of ethanol extracts from Hyptis rhomboidea in H22 tumor-bearing mice p. 571
Hong-Xin Cui, Lu Tang, Fang-Rong Cheng, Ke Yuan
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_314_16  PMID:29200715
Background: Research the antitumor effects of ethanol extracts from Hyptis rhomboidea in H22 tumor-bearing mice. At the fist-stage of the experiments, the research team took MTT method to measure the antitumor activity in vitro, then selected the most inhibitory tumor cell strain as the test object of antitumor activity in vivo, established three models of a solid tumor H22 liver cancer, ascites tumor, and immunodeficiency in male mice. From inflammatory factor, liver toxicity, in vivo antioxidant index to observe antitumor activity of ethanol extracts from H. rhomboidea. Materials and Methods: Hundred and twenty ICR male mice were used to establish three models of a solid tumor H22 liver cancer, ascites tumor, and immunodeficiency in male mice and models group of a solid tumor H22 liver cancer randomly divided into six groupshe normal control group, the model control group, the positive group (cyclophosphamide), the sample treated group (high - 1.300 g/kg, medium - 0.750 g/kg, low - 0.373 g/kg). The animals were sacrificed 15d after oral administration and tumors were taken out for the tumor weights and antitumor rates. Blood in eyeball was collected for the determination of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin (IL)-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum. Sections of tumor issue were prepared, and morphological changes in tumor tissue cells were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining technique. Results: The results showed that ethanol extracts from H. rhomboidea have a certain inhibitory effect on the digestive tumor cells. In solid tumor model, the inhibitory rate is up to 68.84% of the high dose of treated group from H. rhomboidea, and H. rhomboidea could improve the immune organ index, decrease the concentration of TNF-α and IL-2 in serum. In ascites tumor model, H. rhomboidea could slow down weight gain in mice and prolong the survival time; in immunodeficiency model, H. rhomboidea could improve the serum TNF-α and, IL-2 levels, increase SOD activity, and reduce MDA content, so as to achieve antitumor effect. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts from H. rhomboidea have obvious antitumor activity in vivo and can improve a tumor-burdened mice inflammation factors, improve the survival quality of H22 tumor mice, and enhance immunity and antitumor activity. Abbreviations used: H. rhomboidea: Hyptis rhomboidea; AST: Aspartate transaminase; ALT: Alanine transaminase; MDA: Malondialdehyde; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; IL-2: Interleukin 2; TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor-α; CTX: Cyclophosphamide.
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Antioxidant and inhibitory effects of saponin extracts from Dianthus basuticus Burtt Davy on key enzymes implicated in type 2 diabetes In vitro p. 576
Mikhail Olugbemiro Nafiu, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_583_16  PMID:29200716
Context: Dianthus basuticus is a plant of South African origin with various acclaimed pharmaceutical potentials. Aims: This study explored the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of saponin extract from D. basuticus in vitro. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of saponin was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (*NO)-free radical scavenging activity while antidiabetic potentials were measured by the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the saponin extract. Results: The results showed that the saponin extract, compared with quercetin, displayed better DPPH (IC50 = 6.95 mg/ml) and NO (IC50 = 3.31 mg/ml) radical scavenging capabilities. Similarly, the saponin extracts elicited stronger α-glucosidase (IC50 = 3.80 mg/ml) and moderate α-amylase (IC50 = 4.18 mg/ml) inhibitory activities as compared to acarbose. Saponin exhibited a competitive mode of inhibition on α-amylase with same maximum velocity (Vmax) of 0.0093 mM/min for saponin compared with control 0.0095 mM/min and different the Michaelis constant (Km) values of 2.6 × 10-6 mM and 2.1 × 10-5 mM, respectively, while for α-glucosidase, the inhibition was uncompetitive, Vmax of 0.027 mM/min compared with control 0.039 mM/min and Km values of 1.02 × 10-6 mM and 1.38 × 10-6 mM, respectively. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of bioactive like β- and α-amyrin, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, methyl commate, and olean-12-en-3-beta-ol. Conclusion: Overall, the data suggested that the saponin extract from D. basuticus has potentials as natural antioxidants and antidiabetics. Abbreviations used: DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Km: The Michaelis constant, Vmax: Maximum velocity, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, NIDDM: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, UFS: University of the Free State, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric, MS: Mass spectrometry, NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology, DNS: 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, NO: Nitric oxide, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, PNPG: p-Nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside.
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In vitro and In vivo activity of Myrsine africana on elastase inhibition and anti-wrinkle activity p. 583
Namrita Lall, Navneet Kishore, Bianca Fibrich, Isa Anina Lambrechts
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_145_17  PMID:29200717
Background: Myrsine africana (MA) is a plant traditionally used in South Africa to treat various diseases. Objective: The ethanolic extract of MA, was used for in vitro and in vivo studies to determine its elastase inhibitory activity. Materials and Methods: MA and its isolated compound, myrsinoside B, were tested in vitro for their elastase inhibitory activity. The MA extract was also evaluated for mutagenicity using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA 98 and TA 100), microbial count, metal analysis, and stability. In vivo studies included irritancy and wrinkle reduction trials using Visioscan and Visioface. Results: The leaf extract showed good elastase inhibition with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 28.04 μg/ml. Myrsinoside B inhibited the elastase enzyme at an IC50of 4.68 ± 0.34 μg/ml. No colony growth observed during mutagenicity studies and it was concluded that MA ethanolic extract is a nonmutagen. MA extract was found to be a nonirritant during the patch test clinical trial. MA was found to contain negligible amounts of microorganisms and heavy metals. Gel cream containing MA crude extract was found to be stable for 2 years when kept at temperatures below 30°C. In clinical trials (in vivo), it was found that the test product containing 5% ethanolic extract of MA was effective in reducing wrinkles after application 2 times a day for 14 days and 28 days compared to the placebo aqueous cream. Conclusion: MA is effective in reducing the appearance of wrinkles. Abbreviations used: 4-NQO: 4-nitroquinoline, D14-BL: Baseline to day fourteen, D28-BL: Baseline to day twenty-eight, CFU: Colony forming units, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MA: Myrsine africana, MOU: Measurement of uncertainty, NaCl: Sodium chloride, NaH2PO4.H2O: Sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, SEM: Standard error of the mean, TA 98: Salmonella typhimurium strain 98, TA 100: S. typhimurium strain 100, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, TMA: Total microbial activity, XVB salt: Vogel-Bonner medium E.
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α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity from ethyl acetate extract of Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng stem bark containing triterpenoids p. 590
Marista Gilang Mauldina, Rani Sauriasari, Berna Elya
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_25_17  PMID:29200718
Background: Buni (Antidesma bunius [L.] Spreng) has been used as a traditional antidiabetic agent in Asia. Objective: The mechanism of antidiabetic properties was studied in this study by determine its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Method: Inhibition of α-glucosidase was performed in all fraction of Buni stem bark with acarbose and miglitol as standards. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of acarbose and miglitol was 5.75 and 59.76 μg/mL respectively while ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was the most active fraction with IC50of 19.33 μg/mL. Three isolates (B1, B2, and B3) were found in the EtOAc fraction and elucidated by infrared, 1hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Result: The chemical structures of the isolates were identified by the spectrum then compared with literature which concluded that B1 is friedelin, B2 is β-sitosterol, and B3 is betulinic acid. Inhibition of the α-glucosidase assay showed IC50values of B1, B2, and B3 were 19.51, 49.85, and 18.49 μg/mL, respectively. Abbreviations used: IC50: Half maximal inhibitory concentration; H-NMR: Hydrogen-nuclear magnetic resonance; C-NMR: Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance; 2D-NMR: Two dimensional-nuclear magnetic resonance; EtOH: Ethanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; MeOH: Methanol; CHCl3: Chloroform; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; EtF: Ethyl acetate fraction; Na2CO3: Sodium carbonate; IR: Infrared; TGR5: Transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor 5; EC50: Half maximal effective concentration
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Anti-cancer effects of polyphenolic compounds in epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small cell lung cancer p. 595
Hyungmin Jeong, Ai N. H. Phan, Jong-Whan Choi
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_535_16  PMID:29200719
Background: Polyphenolic phytochemicals are natural compounds, easily found in fruits and vegetables. Importantly, polyphenols have been intensively studied as excellent antioxidant activity which contributes to anticancer function of the natural compounds. Lung cancer has been reported to mainly account for cancer-related deaths in the world. Moreover, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance is one of the biggest issues in cancer treatment, especially in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Even though several studies both in preclinical and clinical trials have showed promising therapeutic effects of polyphenolic compounds in anticancer therapy, the function of the natural compounds in TKI-resistant (TKIR) lung cancer remains poorly studied. Objective: The aim of this study is to screen polyphenolic compounds as potential anticancer adjuvants which suppress TKIR lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Colony formation and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay were performed in the pair-matched TKI-sensitive (TKIS) versus TKIR tumor cell lines to investigate the therapeutic effect of polyphenolic compounds in TKIR NSCLC. Results: Our data show that equol, kaempferol, resveratrol, and ellagic acid exhibit strong anticancer effect in HCC827 panel. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of most of tested polyphenolic compounds was highly selective for TKIR lung cancer cell line H1993 while sparing the TKIS one H2073. Conclusion: This study provides an important screening of potential polyphenolic compounds for drug development to overcome TKI resistance in advanced lung cancer. Abbreviations used: EGFR: Epidermal growth factor receptor, EMT: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, GTP: Green tea polyphenols, IGF1R: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, MET: Met proto-oncogene, MTT: Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue, NSCLC: Non-small cell lung cancer, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RTK: Receptor tyrosine kinase, STAT3: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, TKIR: TKI-resistant, TKIs: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, TKIS: TKI-sensitive.
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Extraction of chelerythrine and its effects on pathogenic fungus spore germination p. 600
Qinghui Wei, Min Zhao, Xiaoyan Li
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_545_16  PMID:29200720
Background: Chemical fungicides are widely used to control crop diseases, but these chemicals have adverse effects. They destroy the ecological environment and even have toxic effects on human beings. In this context, the development of botanical pesticides is relevant. One potential botanical pesticide is chelerythrine, a main alkaloid of Chelidonium majus L., which has high antitumor, fungistasis, and antiphlogosis bioactivity. Objective: This study was designed to present an ultrasonic extraction method for chelerythrine and spore germination experiments to inhibit pathogenic fungi. Fungistasis of chelerythrine is now centralized in basic microbiology experiments, such as observing bacteriostatic rings. This study investigates chelerythrine based on pathogenic fungal spore germination and the influence of germ tube elongation. Materials and Methods: Samples of C. majus L., which were wild used in this experiment, were picked from Harbin experimental forest farm of Northeast Forestry University. An L9 (34) orthogonal experiment was designed to optimize the ultrasonic extraction method. All the plant pathogenic fungus strains used in the experiment were preservation strains of Northeast Forestry University Microbial preservation center. Pathogenic fungi were cultivated by joining chelerythrine with and observed germ tube growth and spore germination. Results: The optimum ultrasonication extraction process for chelerythrine has a liquid/solid ratio of 1:8, 35 min of extraction time, 85% of ultrasonic frequency, and 75% of ethanol concentration. When the concentration of chelerythrine was 1.7 × 10−2 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of Septoria microspora Speg. spores and Curvularia lunata were 96.67% and 84.94%, respectively. Moreover, when the concentration of chelerythrine was 1.7 × 10−6 mg/ml, the inhibition rates of S. microspora spores and C. lunata were 47.64% and 12.05%, respectively. Conclusion: Fungistasis activity reached a high level with 1.7 × 10−6 mg/ml of chelerythrine. Chelerythrine has the characteristics of less dosage and obvious fungistasis and has a good prospect for botanical fungicide development. Abbreviations used: C. majus L.: Chelidonium majus L.; Sphaerulina juglandis: S. juglandis; Septoria microspora Speg.: S. microspora; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici: F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici; F. oxysporum f. cucumerinum: F. oxysporum f. cucumerinum; Curvularia lunata: C. lunata.
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Helichrysetin induces DNA damage that triggers JNK-mediated apoptosis in Ca Ski cells p. 607
Ho Yen Fong, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek, Hui Shin Yee, Saiful Anuar Karsani
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_53_17  PMID:29200721
Background: Cervical cancer has become one of the most common cancers in women and currently available treatment options for cervical cancer are very limited. Naturally occurring chalcones and its derivatives have been studied extensively as a potential anticancer agent in different types of cancer and helichrysetin is naturally occurring chalcone that possess potent antiproliferative activity toward human cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Inhibitory activity of helichrysetin was evaluated at different concentrations. Ability of helichrysetin to induce apoptosis and its relation with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated mechanism of apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Helichrysetin inhibited Ca Ski cells at half maximal inhibitory concentration 30.62 ± 0.38 μM. This compound has the ability to induce DNA damage, mitochondrial membrane disruption, and loss of cell membrane integrity. We have shown that apoptosis was induced through the activation of JNK-mediated apoptosis by DNA damage in the cells then triggering p53-downstream apoptotic pathway with increased expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and caspase 3, and suppression of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. DNA damage in the cells also caused phosphorylation of protein ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, an activator of DNA damage response. Conclusion: We conclude that helichrysetin can inhibit Ca Ski cells through DNA damage-induced JNK-mediated apoptotic pathway highlighting the potential of this compound as anticancer agent for cervical cancer. Abbreviations used: ATM: Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate, IC50: Half maximal inhibitory concentration, JC1-5,5',6,6'-Tetrachloro: 1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine, iodide, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential, PBS: Phosphate-buffered saline, SRB: Sulforhodamine B, TUNEL: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick labeling
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In vitro and In vivo postprandial glycemic activity of Citrus limetta peel flour p. 613
José Miguel Flores-Fernandez, Carla Patricia Barragán-Álvarez, Nestor Emmanuel Díaz-Martínez, Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_158_17  PMID:29200722
Background: Previous studies of Citrus spp. peel have shown hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. Citrus limetta has been studied for its therapeutic properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health problem in Mexico and worldwide, that takes a vital importance due to its high incidence. Recently, scientists have searched natural sources to control the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the in vitro hypoglycemic activity and in vivo postprandial glycemic effect of C. limetta peel flour by glucose adsorption and retardation assays as well as postprandial serum glucose levels using a group of female Balb-c mice, respectively. Results: C. limetta peel flour showed a glucose adsorption capacity of 16.58 mM, having a similar effect regarding the positive control. The glucose diffusion in the dialysate was elevated, with a glucose dialysis retardation index of 33.79% in a period of 3 h, showing similar results to positive control. Postprandial serum glucose levels in the animal group treated with C. limetta peel flour showed a glucose level of 41.4 mg/dL, being this value significantly lower than negative control group and similar to positive control. Toxicity tests showed good tolerance to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: C. limetta peel flour could act as a source of functional compounds for the control of DM. Abbreviations used: CIATEJ: Center for Research and Assistance in Technology and Design of Jalisco; DM: Diabetes mellitus; FGC: Final glucose concentration; GDRI: Glucose dialysis retardation index; IGC: Initial glucose concentration; OECD: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
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Mice behavioral phenotype changes after administration of Anani (Symphonia globulifera, clusiaceae), an alternative Latin American and African medicine p. 617
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini, Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia, Ingrit E. C. Díaz, Sergio Alexandre Frana, Maria Martha Bernardi
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_168_17  PMID:29200723
Background: Anani, (Symphonia globulifera, Clusiaceae), known as chewstick, is a traditional plant occurring in Africa and in Central and South Americas that is used against parasites and microorganisms. Although its use is popular in some of these countries, there is a lack of information related to its influence over behavioral phenotype (BP). Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the administration of the extract obtained from the aerial organs of Anani (EB1257) to male Balb-c mice over BP. Materials and Methods: Open cage observation, open field, and elevated-plus maze apparatuses were used. Evaluations were done 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after intraperitoneal administration of Anani extract. Results: Impairment of general behavior activity, response to touch, tail squeeze, defecation, locomotion and rearing frequency were observed although no signs of hemorrhage or macroscopical alterations of internal organs. Anani is harmful, but not toxic if used in the appropriate doses, yet to be determined to male mice. Impairment of locomotion and defecation was observed, indicating some degree of influence over locomotion, but no alterations in anxiety levels were assessed. Three compounds were previously found in the plant-lupeol (1), β-amyrin (2) and 3-β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene (3), and one is being described for the first time to occur in the species: oleanolic acid (4). Conclusions: The present work contributes in the support of the rational use of Anani, an important Latin American and African alternative medicine, presenting findings that are being reported for the first time. Abbreviations used: BP: Behavioral phenotype; OF: Open field, EPM: Elevated-plus maze, MMA/ICMBio/SISBIO: Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade/Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade, IBAMA/MMA/CGen: Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis/Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Conselho de Gestão do Patrimônio Genético, AM: Amazonas State, UNIP: Universidade Paulista, mg: milligram, kg: kilogram, I.P: Intraperitoneal, CEUA/ICS/UNIP: Comissão de Ética no Uso de Animais/Instituto de Ciências da Saúde/Universidade Paulista, LD: Lethal dose, NLD: Nonlethal dose, GBA: General behavior activity, FCHCL3: Fraction chloroform, FBuOH: Fraction buthanol, FH2O: Fraction water, FrHEX: Fraction hexane, FrDCM: Fraction dichloromethane, FrMeOH: Fraction methanol, 13C NMR: Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, EPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency.
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Bioassay-guided isolation of neuroprotective fatty acids from Nigella sativa against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced neurotoxicity p. 627
Leila Hosseinzadeh, Hoda Monaghash, Farahnaz Ahmadi, Nastaran Ghiasvand, Yalda Shokoohinia
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_470_16  PMID:29200724
Objective: Parkinson's disease, a slowly progressive neurological disease, is associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The main aspects of researches are the protection of normal neurons against degeneration. Fatty acids (FAs), the key structural elements of dietary lipids, are carboxylic straight chains and notable parameters in nutritional and industrial usefulness of a plant. Materials and Methods: Black cumin, a popular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant food seasoning, contains nonpolar constituents such as FAs which were extracted using hexane. Different fractions and subfractions were apt to cytoprotection against apoptosis and inflammation induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12) as a neural cell death model. The experiment consisted of examination of cell viability assessment, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3 and -9 activity, and measurement of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. Results: MPP+ induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Pretreatment with subfractions containing FA mixtures attenuated MPP+-mediated apoptosis partially dependent on the inhibition of caspase-3 and -9 activity and increasing the MMP. A mixture of linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid also decreased the COX activity induced by MPP+ in PC12 cells. Conclusion: Our observation indicated that subtoxic concentration of FA from Nigella sativa may exert cytoprotective effects through their anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation actions and could be regarded as a dietary supplement. Abbreviations used: ANOVA: Analysis of variance; Ca: Calcium; CDCl3: Chloroform; COX: Cyclooxygenase; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; EA: Elidic acid; EDTA: Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid; ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay; ESI-MS: Electron spray mass spectroscopy; FAs: Fatty acids; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; GC: Gas chromatography; 1HNMR: Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance; LA: Linoleic acid; MPP+: 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; N. sativa: Nigella sativa; OA: Oleic acid; PA: Palmitic acid; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; PC12: Rat pheochromocytoma cell line; PD: Parkinson's disease; PDA: Photo diode array detector; PGE2: Prostaglandin E2; TLC: Thin layer chromatography; TMPD: N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine; USA: United states of America.
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Ligustilide relieves complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through inhibiting the activation of spinal c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-jun pathway in rats p. 634
Yi-Rui Wang, Hui Xu, Min Tao, Li-Hua Xu, Xin-Chun Fu
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_546_16  PMID:29200725
Background: Ligustilide, an active ingredient in a traditional Chinese medicine, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory pain effects of ligustilide are not completely understood. Objective: The aim of this study to investigate whether ligustilide conducts its analgesic effects on the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain through regulating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun pathway in the spinal cord. Materials and Methods: Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) and paw withdrawal latencies (PWLs) were tested to examine the analgesic effect of ligustilide on CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats. The change of spinal JNK/c-Jun activation was detected by western blotting after CFA injection with or without consecutive intrathecal ligustilide administration. After SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) was intrathecally injected in CFA rats, PWTs and PWLs were tested to investigate the change of ligustilide's analgesic effect. Results: Repeated intravenous injection of ligustilide could attenuate the pain hypersensitivity induced by CFA. CFA caused increased activation of spinal JNK/c-Jun, which could be inhibited by ligustilide administration. Intrathecal injection of JNK inhibitor inhibited the CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Conclusion: Ligustilide could inhibit the upregulation of spinal p-JNK/p-c-Jun caused by CFA, and the inhibition of JNK/c-Jun activation is closely related to its anti-mechanical hyperalgesia effect in inflammatory pain. Abbreviations used: CFA: Complete Freund's adjuvant, JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase, PWT: Paw withdrawal threshold, PWL: Paw withdrawal latency.
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Influence of flavonoids on mechanism of modulation of insulin secretion p. 639
Juliana Mikaelly Dias Soares, Ana Ediléia Barbosa Pereira Leal, Juliane Cabral Silva, Jackson R. G. S. Almeida, Helinando Pequeno de Oliveira
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_87_17  PMID:29200726
Background: The development of alternatives for insulin secretion control in vivo or in vitro represents an important aspect to be investigated. In this direction, natural products have been progressively explored with this aim. In particular, flavonoids are potential candidates to act as insulin secretagogue. Objective: To study the influence of flavonoid on overall modulation mechanisms of insulin secretion. Methods: The research was conducted in the following databases and platforms: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and ScienceDirect, and the MeSH terms used for the search were flavonoids, flavones, islets of Langerhans, and insulin-secreting cells. Results: Twelve articles were included and represent the basis of discussion on mechanisms of insulin secretion of flavonoids. Papers in ISI Web of Knowledge were in number of 1, Scopus 44, PubMed 264, ScienceDirect 511, and no papers from LILACS and SciELO databases. Conclusion: According to the literature, the majority of flavonoid subclasses can modulate insulin secretion through several pathways, in an indication that corresponding molecule is a potential candidate for active materials to be applied in the treatment of diabetes. Abbreviations used: KATP channels: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, GLUT4: Glucose transporter 4, ERK1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2, L-VDCCs: L-type voltage-dependent Ca+2 channels, GLUT1: Glucose transporter 1, AMPK: Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, PTP1B: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, GLUT2: Glucose transporter 2, cAMP: Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, PKA: Protein kinase A, PTK: Protein tyrosine kinase, CaMK II: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, GSIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, Insig-1: Insulin-induced gene 1, IRS-2: Insulin receptor substrate 2, PDX-1: Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, SREBP-1c: Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, DMC: Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone, GLP-1: Glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1R: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor.
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Antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Corchorus depressus p. 647
Samina Afzal, Bashir Ahmad Chaudhry, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Uzair, Khurram Afzal
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_95_17  PMID:29200727
Background: Corchorus depressus (Cd) commonly known as Boa-phalee belonging to the family Tiliaceae having 50 genera and 450 species. Cd is not among the studied medicinal agent despite its potential in ethnopharmacology. Objectives: The present study investigated antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Cd. The dichloromethane and methanolic extracts of the Cd were evaluated for biological activities such as antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of AChE, BChE, and α-glucosidase. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring free radical scavenging potential of Cd using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Enzyme inhibition activities were done by measuring optical density. Results: The methanol extract of roots of Cd showed potential free radical scavenging activity 99% at concentration 16.1 μg/ml. AChE was inhibited by aerial part of dichloromethane fraction by 46.07% ± 0.45% while dichloromethane extracts of roots of Cd possessed significant activity against BChE with 86% inhibition compared with standard drug Eserine at concentration 0.5 mg/ml. The dichloromethane extract of roots of Cd showed 79% inhibition against α-glucosidase enzyme activity with IC50 62.8 ± 1.5 μg/ml. Conclusion: These findings suggest Cd as useful therapeutic option as antioxidant and inhibition of AChE, BChE, and α-glucosidase activities. Abbreviations used: DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Cd: Corchorus depressus, AChE: Acetylcholinesterase, BChE: Butyrylcholinesterase, AD: Alzheimer's disease.
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Superoxide scavenging and antiglycation activity of rhinacanthins-rich extract obtained from the leaves of Rhinacanthus nasutus p. 652
Muhammad Ajmal Shah, Haji Muhammad, Yasir Mehmood, Ruqaiya Khalil, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_196_17  PMID:29200728
Background: Oxidative stress and nonenzymatic protein glycation lead to serious diabetic complications that increase the risk of mortality. Rhinacanthus nasutus leaf crude extracts are previously reported for their antidiabetic, antiglycation, and antioxidant potential. Objective: The present study was performed to prepare a standardized rhinacanthins-rich extract (RRE) and evaluate its superoxide scavenging and antiglycation effects as compared to its marker compounds, namely, rhinacanthin-C (RC), rhinacanthin-D (RD), and rhinacanthin-N (RN). Materials and Methods: RRE was obtained by microwave-assisted green extraction along with a simple step of fractionation using Amberlite® column. RC, RD, and RN were isolated from the RRE using silica gel column chromatography. Superoxide scavenging activity was performed by cyclic voltammetry, and fructose-mediated human serum albumin glycation model was used for antiglycation activity. In silico studies were conducted to identify the structure-activity relationships of rhinacanthins. Results: On the basis of kinetic measurements, RRE exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity via ErCi mechanism, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 8.0 μg/mL, antioxidant capacity of 39439 M−1, and binding constant of 45709 M−1. Antiglycation assay showed that RRE exhibited almost equivalent glycation inhibitory effect to that of RC, with IC50values of 39.7 and 37.3 μg/mL, respectively, but higher than that of RD (IC50 of 50.4 μg/mL), RN (IC50 of 89.5 μg/mL), as well as the positive control, rutin (IC50of 41.5 μg/mL). Conclusions: The potent superoxide scavenging and albumin glycation inhibitory effect of RRE rationalized its therapeutic application in various chronic diseases, especially in the complications of diabetes. Abbreviations used: RRE: Rhinacanthins-rich extract; RC: Rhinacanthin-C; RD: Rhinacanthin-D; RN: Rhinacanthin-N; IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration; Kao: Antioxidant activity coefficient; Kb: Binding constant; ErCi: Reversible electron transfer followed by an irreversible chemical reaction; DM: Diabetes mellitus; AGEPs: Advanced glycation end products; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; CV: Cyclic voltammetry; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; Ipa: Anodic peak current; Ipc: Cathodic peak current; HSA: Human serum albumin; MOE: Molecular operating environment; PASSonline: Online prediction of activity spectra for substances.
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Rapid quantitative analysis of naringenin in the fruit bodies of Inonotus vaninii by two-phase acid hydrolysis followed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet p. 659
Xia Guohua, Ruirong Pan, Rui Bao, Yanru Ge, Cunshan Zhou, Yuping Shen
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_350_16  PMID:29200729
Introduction: Sanghuang is one of mystical traditional Chinese medicines recorded earliest 2000 years ago, that included various fungi of Inonotus genus and was well-known for antitumor effect in modern medicine. Inonotus vaninii is grown in natural forest of Northeastern China merely and used as Sanghuang commercially, but it has no quality control specification until now. This study was to establish a rapid method of two-phase acid hydrolysis followed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet (RP-HPLC-UV) to quantify naringenin in the fruit body of I. vaninii. Materials and Methods: Sample solution was prepared by pretreatment of raw material in two-phase acid hydrolysis and the hydrolysis technology was optimized. After reconstitution, analysis was performed using RP-HPLC-UV. The method validation was investigated and the naringenin content of sample and comparison were determined. Results: The naringenin was obtained by two-phase acid hydrolysis method, namely, 10.0 g of raw material was hydrolyzed in 200 mL of 1% sulfuric acid aqueous solution (v/v) and 400 mL of chloroform in oil bath at 110°C for 2 h. Good linearity (r = 0.9992) was achieved between concentration of analyte and peak area. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision was 2.47% and the RSD of naringenin contents for repeatability was 3.13%. The accuracy was supported with recoveries at 96.37%, 97.30%, and 99.31%. The sample solution prepared using the proposed method contained higher content of naringenin than conventional method and was stable for 8 h. Conclusion: Due to the high efficiency of sample preparation and high reliability of the HPLC method, it is feasible to use this method for routine analysis of naringenin in the fungus. Abbreviations used: RP-HPLC-UV: Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultra Violet, RSD: Relative Standard Deviation, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate, ACN: Acetonitrile, MeOH: Methanol, RH: Relative Humility.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of three gelatinous chinese medicines and their authentications by tryptic-digested peptides profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry p. 663
Huan Yang, Jie Zheng, Hai-yan Wang, Nan Li, Ya-ya Yang, Yu-ping Shen
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_54_17  PMID:29200730
Background: Gelatinous Chinese medicines (GCMs) including Asini Corii Colla, Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, and Cervi Cornus Colla, were made from reptile shell or mammalian skin or deer horn, and consumed as a popular tonic, as well as hemopoietic and hemostatic agents. Misuse of them would not exert their functions, and fake or adulterate products have caused drug market disorder and affected food and drug safety. GCMs are rich in denatured proteins, but insufficient in available DNA fragments, hence commonly used cytochrome c oxidase I barcoding was not successful for their authentication. Objective: In this study, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of them and their animal origins to identify the composition of intrinsic proteins for the first time. Materials and Methods: A reliable and convenient approach was proposed for their authentication, by the incorporation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Results: A total of 26 proteins were identified from medicinal parts of original animals, and GCMs proteins presented in a dispersive manner in electrophoresis analyses due to complicated changes in the structure of original proteins caused by long-term decoction and the addition of ingredients during their manufacturing. In addition, by comparison of MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS profiling, 19 signature peptide fragments originated from the protein of GCM products were selected according to criteria. Conclusion: These could assist in the discrimination and identification of adulterates of GCMs and other ACMs for their form of raw medicinal material, the pulverized, and even the complex. Abbreviations used: GCMs: Gelatinous Chinese medicines, COI: Cytochrome c oxidase I, SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry, LC: Liquid chromatography, ChP: Chinese Pharmacopoeia, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, LC-ESI+-MS: Liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry, IEF: isoelectric focusing, HCCA: α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.
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Brazilian cerrado Qualea grandiflora Mart. leaves exhibit antiplasmodial and trypanocidal activities In vitro p. 668
Thuany de Moura Cordeiro, Fabian Borghetti, Sarah C Caldas Oliveira, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, Jaime Martins de Santana, Philippe Grellier, Sébastien Charneau
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_100_17  PMID:29200731
Background: The rapid spread of drug-resistant strains of protozoan parasites required the urgent need for new effective drugs. Natural products offer a variety of chemical structures, which make them a valuable source of lead compounds for the development of such new drugs. Cerrado is the second largest biome in Brazil and has the richest flora of all the world savannahs. We selected Qualea grandiflora, a plant species known for its proprieties in folk medicine and its antibacterial activity. Objective: However, its antiprotozoal activity was not yet explored. Materials and Methods: We investigated the activities of fractions from the ethyl acetate extract of Q. grandiflora leaves against human life forms of Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and for its cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Ten fractions were produced by ethyl acetate:hexane chromatography. Results and Conclusion: The fractions showed no cytotoxicity against L-6 cells (IC50 > 100 μg/mL) and no hemolysis propriety. Three fractions had a moderate activity against P. falciparum, anyone was active against T. cruzi but four fractions demonstrated a high activity against bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense (8.0< IC50 <15 μg/mL). Identification and characterization of the active compounds are currently under investigation. Abbreviations used: CQ: Chloroquine, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, HEPES: 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid, HMI: Modified Iscove's medium, IC50: Concentration inhibiting 50% of parasite growth, IC90: Concentration inhibiting 90% of parasite growth, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute, SD: Standard deviation, SI: Ratio of cytotoxicity to biological activity − TC50/IC50, TC50: Concentration causing 50% of cell growth inhibition, TC90: Concentration causing 90% of cell growth inhibition, TLC: Thin-layer chromatography
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Two new phenolic glycosides from the aerial part of Dryopteris erythrosora p. 673
Guijae Yoo, SeonJu Park, Heejung Yang, Xuan Nhiem Nguyen, Nanyoung Kim, Jun Hyung Park, Seung Hyun Kim
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_326_16  PMID:29200732
Background: Dryopteris erythrosora (D.C. Eaton) Kuntze is a species of fern in the family of Dryopteridaceae, which is distributed throughout East Asia. The genus Dryopteris has been used as traditional medicine, especially to treat hepatitis and protect liver. However, only few studies of chemical constituents of D. erythrosora have been conducted so far. Objective: In this study, we investigated the phytochemical constituents of D. erythrosora. Materials and Methods: The 80% methanol extract of the aerial part of D. erythrosora was used for the isolation of phenolic compounds. The isolated compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Results: The present phytochemical investigation on the aerial part of D. erythrosora led to the isolation of two new phenolic glycosides, 1 and 2, as well as nine known flavonoids including two flavones (3 and 4) and seven flavonols (5-11). Conclusion: In this study, two new phenolic glycosides together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the aerial part of D. erythrosora. Among them, compounds 4, 8, and 11 were isolated for the first time in Dryopteridaceae family from the present investigation. These results helped us to enrich our understanding of the chemical constituents of D. erythrosora and to identify compounds 1 and 2 which could be potential chemotaxonomic markers for the species. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; Q-TOF LC/MS: Quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; TMS: Tetramethylsilane
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Amelioration of intestinal barrier dysfunction by berberine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats p. 677
Donghao Li, Jimin Zheng, Yiting Hu, Hongtao Hou, Shurong Hao, Na Liu, Yuzhen Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_584_16  PMID:29200733
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine (BBR) on intestinal barrier function in nonalcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: normal diet group (control group [CON group]), high-fat diet feeding group (HFD group), and HFD with BBR group. After 8 weeks of HFD feeding, rats in the BBR group were given BBR intragastrically at a dose of 150 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The same volume of normal saline was given to the CON and HFD groups. Liver index was detected, and Sudan black B staining was used to study fatty degeneration, also the expression level of occluding and intestinal flora was analyzed. Results: BBR administration significantly reduced HFD-induced increase in body weight (CON group: 379.83 ± 61.51 g, HFD group: 485.24 ± 50.15 g, and BBR group: 428.60 ± 37.37 g). It obviously alleviated the HFD-induced liver fatty degeneration and histopathological changes of intestinal mucosa according to liver index low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and total cholesterol (P < 0.05). The triglyceride, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were greatly elevated after BBR treatment (P < 0.05); while endotoxin, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Moreover, we found that BBR could obviously elevate the level of occludin and decrease the level of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and upregulate the level of bacteroides. Conclusion: BBR provides significant protection in NAFLD through ameliorating intestinal barrier function. Abbreviations used: BBR: Berberine, NAFLD: Nonalcoholic fat liver disease, ALT: Alanine transaminase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, TG: Triglyceride, I-FABP: Intestinal-fatty acid-binding protein, IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease.
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Toxicity and detoxification effects of herbal Caowu via ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics analyzed using pattern recognition method p. 683
Yan Yan, Aihua Zhang, Hui Dong, Guangli Yan, Hui Sun, Xiuhong Wu, Ying Han, Xijun Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_475_16  PMID:29200734
Background: Caowu (Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii, CW), the root of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb., has widely used clinically in rheumatic arthritis, painful joints, and tumors for thousands of years. However, the toxicity of heart and central nervous system induced by CW still limited the application. Materials and Methods: Metabolomics was performed to identify the sensitive and reliable biomarkers and to characterize the phenotypically biochemical perturbations and potential mechanisms of CW-induced toxicity, and the detoxification by combinatorial intervention of CW with Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae) (CG), Baishao (Radix Paeoniae Alba) (CB), and Renshen (Radix Ginseng) (CR) was also analyzed by pattern recognition methods. Results: As a result, the metabolites were characterized and responsible for pentose and glucuronate interconversions, tryptophan metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and starch and sucrose metabolism, six networks of which were the same to the metabolic pathways of Chuanwu (Radix Aconiti, CHW) group. The ascorbate and aldarate metabolism was also characterized by CW group. The urinary metabolomics also revealed CW-induced serious toxicity to heart and liver. Thirteen significant metabolites were identified and had validated as phenotypic toxicity biomarkers of CW, five biomarkers of which were commonly owned in Aconitum. The changes of toxicity metabolites obtained from combinatorial intervention of CG, CB, and CR also were analyzed to investigate the regulation degree of toxicity biomarkers adjusted by different combinatorial interventions at 6th month. Conclusion: Metabolomics analyses coupled with pattern recognition methods in the evaluation of drug toxicity and finding detoxification methods were highlighted in this work. Pattern recognition plot reflects the toxicity effects tendency of the urine metabolic fluctuations according to time after treatment of herbal Caowu. Abbreviations used: CW: Caowu (Radix Aconiti kusnezoffii); CHW: Chuanwu (Radix Aconiti); TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine; CG: Caowu and Gancao; CB: Caowu and Baishao; CR: Caowu and Renshen; QC: Quality control; UPLC: Ultra performance liquid chromatography; MS: Mass spectrometry; PCA: Principal component analysis; PLS-DA: Partial least squares-discriminant analysis; OPLS: Orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis.
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Therapeutic effects of Cyathula officinalis Kuan and its active fraction on acute blood stasis rat model and identification constituents by HPLC-QTOF/MS/MS p. 693
Yanmei Cao, Cuicui Gu, Fangli Zhao, Yuanlin Tang, Xiaobing Cui, Le Shi, Li Xu, Lian Yin
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_560_16  PMID:29200735
Background: Cyathula officinalis Kuan is widely used in the clinics for the treatment of blood stasis in China. Objective: To evaluate the improving blood rheology and anti-inflammatory properties of C. officinalis Kuan extract (CO) and its active fraction (ACO) on acute blood stasis model Wistar rats and characterize the correlative constituents. Materials and Methods: CO at 0.26, 0.53, and 1.04 g/kg and ACO at 0.38, 0.75, and 1.5 g/kg were administered to acute blood stasis model Wistar rats for 3 days. Whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the plasma were measured. HPLC-QTOF/MS/MS method was used to identify the major constituents of ACO; the properties of two representative components (cyasterone and chikusetsusaponin IV) from ACO on thrombin-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells damage model were also assessed by the levels of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), endothelin (ET), malondialdehyde (MDA), COX-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results: CO and ACO significantly reduced whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, and levels of IL-6, NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in vivo. Forty compounds were identified from ACO, mainly as phytoecdysteroids and saponins. Cyasterone and chikusetsusaponin IV could significantly inhibit levels of TXA2, ET, MDA, and COX-2 and promote the activities of eNOS and SOD in vitro. Conclusion: CO and ACO possessed significant improving blood rheology and anti-inflammatory effects on acute blood stasis model rats and the representative components Cyasterone and chikusetsusaponin IV showed significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticoagulant effects in vitro. Abbreviations used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, CO: Cyathula officinalis Kuan extract, ACO: Active fraction of Cyathula officinalis Kuan, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, IL-6: Interleukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha, NO: Nitric oxide, COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, TXA2: Thromboxane A2, ET: Endothelin, MDA: Malondialdehyde, eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, ESI: Electronic spray ionization, ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HUVECs: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase.
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Induction of apoptosis by Tithonia diversifolia in human hepatoma cells p. 702
Min-Ren Lu, Huey-Lan Huang, Wen-Fei Chiou, Ray-Ling Huang
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.218113  PMID:29200736
Background: Traditional Chinese herb Tithonia diversifolia, belonging to the Compositae family, has long been applied for the treatment of liver diseases. In recent years, many reports also indicated that it possesses hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether T. diversifolia is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: Dry leaves of T. Diversifolia were first extracted in ethyl acetate, then further fractionated by different ratio of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (8:2→0:1) or methanol as fractions 1-6 (Td-F1 to Td-F6), respectively. We first showed that the ethyl acetate extracts of T. diversifolia leaves (Td-L-EA) exhibits growth inhibition on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. To further check the extracts-induced apoptosis, microscopic observation, fragmented chromosomal DNA electrophoresis, apoptotic DNA-detection ELISA assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were performed. Results: After isolating the effective fractions from Td-L-EA, we found strong cytotoxic effects of fraction-2 (Td-F2). By further analyzing the mechanisms of cytotoxic activities using microscopic observation, fragmented chromosomal DNA electrophoresis, apoptotic DNA-detection ELISA assay, and flow cytometry, we found that induction of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation increased the apoptosis rate and the apoptosis sub-G1 populations in Td-F2-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, we also confirmed Td-F2-induced degradation of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and caspase-3 substrate PARP. Besides, Td-F2 also increased the Bcl-2 proapoptotic family protein Bax expression. Conclusion: In short, our results clearly showed the induction of apoptosis by ethyl acetate extracts of T. diversifolia leaves in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, suggesting its potential application as an antitumor agent. Abbreviations used: T. diversifolia, Tithonia diversifolia; HCC, Hepatocellular carcinoma DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide; OD, optical density; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PARP, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; PI, propidium iodide.
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Hispidulin-7-O-neohesperidoside from Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense attenuates the production of inflammatory mediators in LPS-induced raw 264.7 cells and HT-29 cells p. 707
Jong Cheol Park, Hyunji Yoo, Cho Een Kim, Sun-Yup Shim, Mina Lee
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.218116  PMID:29200737
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and involves secretion of inflammatory mediators. The flavone diglycoside hispidulin-7-O-neohesperidoside (HN) isolated from the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, but its pharmacologic activities, with the exception of alleviation of alcohol toxicity, have not been investigated to date. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of HN for the treatment of chronic inflammatory illnesses, including IBD. Materials and Methods: In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and HT-29 cells, the effects of HN on cell viability and nitric oxide (NO) production were examined via MTT assay and the Griess reaction, respectively. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, respectively. Results: HN concentration-dependently inhibited NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Treatment with HN considerably downregulated the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α and the iNOS protein level in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, HN inhibited the production of the chemotactic cytokine, IL-8, in LPS-induced HT-29 cells. Conclusion: HN has potential as an anti-inflammatory agent to prevent and/or treat IBD. Abbreviations used: IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease, HN: hispidulin-7-O-neohesperidoside, LPS: lipopolysaccharide, NO: nitric oxide, IL: interleukin, TNF: tumor necrosis factor, iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD: Crohn's disease, UC: ulcerative colitis, RT: room temperature, DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, FBS: fetal bovine serum, PBS: phosphate buffered saline, SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate, PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride, SD: standard deviation
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In Vitro bioassay-guided isolation of radioprotective fractions from extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark p. 712
Keli Yun, Jian-Hai Bai, ZhenYu Wang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_409_16  PMID:29200738
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark and its fractions on rat splenocytes by using bioassay-guided isolation in order to obtain the best active fraction. Materials and Methods: P. koraiensis bark was ground and extracted with water, 40% acetone, 95% ethanol. Bio-guided assay was selected as an evaluation method to further fractionate radioprotective component from P. koraiensis bark extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in fractions were also measured. Rat splenocytes were prepared by using mechanical trituration method. DNA damage was assessed as comet parameters (tail DNA%, tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment). The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) in cultured rat splenocytes were also measured. Results: The radioprotective effects decreased from rutin >95% ethanol extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark (95EEP) >40AEP > WEP. The stimulating effects decreased from rutin > n-butanol extract (NBE) > EAE. The results demonstrate that there exists toxic ingredients (PEE and dichloromethane extract), proliferative-promoting, radioprotective component (EAE and NBE) in 95EEP. fraction eluted from n-butanol fractions of 95EEP with 50% methanol solution (NBEPKB-50ME), a fraction of NBE result from bio-guided isolation, demonstrates good radioprotective efficacy on rat splenocytes. NBEPKB-50ME pretreated rat splenocytes demonstrated progressively reduced levels of MDA when compared with γ-ray exposed cells. Different dose of NBEPKB-50ME pretreatment with 8 Gy-irration showed an increase in enzymatic antioxidant. Conclusions: Proliferative-promoting efficacy, radioprotective effect of different solvents extracts of the bark of P. koraiensis were investigated in this work. NBEPKB-50ME was the best elution in NBE, especially in restoring SOD, CAT activities, content of GSH, decreasing DNA damage. Abbreviations used: MDA: Malondialdehyde; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; CAT: Catalase; PEE: Petroleum ether Extract; DME: Dichloromethane extract; EAE: Ethyl acetate extract; NBE: n-butanol extract; WAP: Water extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark; 40AEP: 40% acetone extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark; 95EEP: 95% ethanol extracts of Pinus koraiensis bark; TPC: Total phenolic content; TFC: Total flavonoid content; NBEPKB-50ME: Fraction eluted from n-Butanol fractions of 95EEP with 50% methanol solution.
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A study of the anti-cancer effects of the hexane fraction of the methanol extract of forsythiae fructus p. 719
Se-Eun Lee, Chiyeon Lim, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Suin Cho
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.211079  PMID:29200739
Background: Forsythiae Fructus (FF) is a well-known medicinal herb derived from the dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. (Oleaceae). Recently, bioactive compounds isolated from hydrophobic solvent fractions of FF have been reported to have anti-oxidant, antibacterial, and anti-cancer effects. Objective: Almost all herbal medicines are derived from water extracts, which suggests different extraction methods might enhance the practical efficacies of herbal medicines. In this study, the authors further investigated the most potential anti-cancer fraction, that is, the hexane fraction (FFH) of the methanol extract (FFM) of the dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Materials and Methods: FFH was investigated by measuring its effects on the viability and apoptotic death of PC-3 cells (a prostate cancer cell line), on the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, procaspase-9, procaspase-3 and PARP, and caspase-3 activity. Results: FFH significantly accelerated apoptotic cell death and decreased the protein levels of Bcl-2, procaspase-9, and procaspase-3. Conclusion: FFH can act as a pro-oxidative agent and induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Abbreviations used: FF: Forsythiae Fructus; FFM: Methanol extract of Forsythiae Fructus; FFH: Hexane fraction of the methanol extract; DCFH-DA: 2',7'-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate.
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Evaluation of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in phenol-rich fraction of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit in hyperlipidemia rats and identification of chemical composition by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry p. 725
Feng Shao, Lifei Gu, Huijuan Chen, Ronghua Liu, Huilian Huang, Lanying Chen, Ming Yang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_402_16  PMID:29200740
Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruit has enjoyed a great popularity as a pleasant-tasting food associated with hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Objective: Our aim was to screen the effective fraction of hawthorn fruit in the treatment of hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit (Fr.1) and four fractionated extracts (Fr.2, Fr.3, Fr.4, and Fr.5) were compared to total phenol content evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu method, and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects were assessed in hyperlipidemic rats. Results: Total phenol content of Fr.4 was higher than other fractions by at least 2 fold. Furthermore, this fraction possessed the strongest hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in hyperlipidemic rats. On this basis, 15 phenolic compounds and four organic acids in Fr.4 were positively or tentatively identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In addition, 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid butyl ester was first reported in hawthorn fruit. Conclusion: Phenol-rich fraction in hawthorn fruit exhibited satisfactory hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects, and this could be exploited for further promotion of functional foods. Abbreviations used: UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS: Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; MDA: Malondialdehyde; CAT: Catalase; NO: Nitric oxide; NOS: Nitric oxide synthase; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; •OOH: Superoxide anions, •OH: Hydroxyl radicals.
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Enzyme inhibitors cause multiple effects on accumulation of monoterpene indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell cultures p. 732
Zhou Pengfei, Zhu Jianhua, Yu Rongmin, Zi Jiachen
DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.218121  PMID:29200741
Background: Enzyme inhibitors have been used for the clarification of biosynthesis of natural products. Catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell (CMC) culture has been established and proved to be a better monoterpeneindole alkaloid (MIA) producer than C. roseus dedifferentiated cell (DDC) culture. However, little is known about the inter-relationship of the MIA-biosynthetic genes with respect to their transcription. Objective: To clarify effects of alteration of one gene transcription on transcript levels of another genes in MIA-biosynthetic pathway, and how the accumulation of MIAs in CMCs are influenced by the alteration of their biosynthetic gene transcript levels. Materials and Methods: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitor lovastatin and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) inhibitor clomazone were fed to C. roseus CMC cultures. The contents of MIAs were qualified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and the transcript levels of the relevant genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Results: Lovastatin improved the accumulation of MIAs via increasing the transcription of their biosynthetic genes encoding DXS1, tryptonphan decarboxylase (TDC), loganic acid methyltransferase (LAMT), strictosidine synthase (STR), desacetoxyvindoline-4-hydroxylase (D4H) and ORCA3 (a jasmonate-responsive transcriptional regulator), whereas clomazone reduced the contents of MIAs and the mRNA levels of the corresponding genes. Conclusion: The biosynthesis of MIAs in C. roseus is is manipulated via a complex mechanism, the knowledge of which paves the way for rationally tuning metabolic flux to improve MIA production in C. roseus CMCs.
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Contribution of the glucosinolate fraction to the overall antioxidant potential, cytoprotection against oxidative insult and antimicrobial activity of Eruca sativa Mill. leaves extract p. 738
Maria Fernanda Taviano, Antonietta Melchini, Angela Filocamo, Chiara Costa, Stefania Catania, Roberto Raciti, Shikha Saha, Paul Needs, Giuseppe Giovanni Bisignano, Natalizia Miceli
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_245_16  PMID:29200742
Background: Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae) is commonly utilized as an ingredient in salads and also as a folk remedy to treat various diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish the contribution of the glucosinolate (GLS) fraction to the overall antioxidant, cytoprotection against oxidative insult and antimicrobial properties of the hydro-alcoholic extract of E. sativa leaves from Sicily (Italy), characterized phytochemically. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by different in vitro systems. The cytoprotective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress was tested in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The antimicrobial potential against bacteria and fungi was assayed by standard methods. Results: E. sativa extract exhibited both radical scavenging (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] 1.04 ± 0.04 mg/mL) and ferrous ions-chelating activity (IC50 0.327 ± 0.0032 mg/mL) and mild reducing power; the GLS fraction showed chelating ability only (IC50 0.225 ± 0.009 mg/mL). In the experimental model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human PBMCs, a significant cytoprotective effect and a suppression of reactive oxygen species production by both extract and GLS fraction were observed (P < 0.001). E. sativa extract displayed moderate antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (minimum inhibitory concentration 0.125 mg/mL), whereas the GLS fraction was not active. Conclusion: GLSs are not involved in the primary antioxidant activity of E. sativa leaf extract but they are, almost in part, responsible for its ferrous ion-chelating properties. Iron-chelating compounds in E. sativa extract may protect cells under conditions of oxidative stress, and GLSs might play a chief role in this effect. Abbreviations used: GLS: Glucosinolate; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide; PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration.
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