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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January 2020
Volume 16 | Issue 68 (Supplement)
Page Nos. 1-228

Online since Tuesday, March 31, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of the anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Dolichandrone serrulata ethanolic extracts against human cervical cancer cell line Highly accessed article p. 1
Ratikorn Chatchanayuenyong, Patcharawan Sujayanont
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_327_19  
Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death affecting women in developing country. Several medicinal plants have recently increasing in the involvement of chemotherapeutic drugs development, including Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Dolichandrone serrulata (DS). Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-migration effects of LL leaves and D. serrulata flowers ethanolic extracts against human cervical cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: The content of total phenolic and flavonoid and antioxidant activity of extracts collected from different fractions were determined. MTT assay, cell morphology, and wound healing assay were established to observe anti-proliferative and anti-migration effects in HeLa cell line. Results: Total phenolic contents of both medicinal plant extracts and flavonoids content of LL extract were observed highest in ethyl acetate fraction, while flavonoid content of D. serrulata extract was greatly observed in hexane fraction. LL extract in ethyl acetate fraction showed the most promising result in antioxidant activity assay using both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid with inhibition concentration for fifty percent of 4.917 ± 0.955 and 11.005 ± 1.491, respectively. In cytotoxicity test, both herbal extract at concentration of 250 μg/ml were significantly reduced HeLa cell viability comparing with the control. The assay for wound healing showed that both LL and D. serrulata extract at concentration of 125 μg/ml could significantly decrease the migration rate of HeLa cell comparing with the control and Trolox-treated groups. Conclusion: LL and D. serrulata ethanolic extracts (125–500 μg/ml) have been proposed in this study of possessing antioxidant and anti-migration activity, as well as the ability in induce cancer cell death.
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A unified method for different placental products species identification p. 8
Tien-Lin Chang, Shang-Fang Wu, Der-Yuan Wang, Chih-Hung Huang
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_296_19  
Background: Placentas are widely used in the production of cosmetics, Chinese medicines, and injections. As the esthetic medicine market grows, challenges such as impure preparations and an increasing number of counterfeit products develop, owing to the lack of standard inspection methods and accurate description of the composition of these products. Objectives: To develop a universal species identification method for placental products. Materials and Methods: Fresh swine, cattle, goat, and frozen human placenta were used as references, while Placenta Hominis and placental extract products from the market as trial samples. Samples were prepared by kit-free DNA isolation, and vertebrate-specific primer sets of mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA were used for species-specific region amplification. Direct sequence of amplicons and National Center for Biotechnology Information database comparison was carried for species identification of the testing samples. Results: Trail tests had confirmed the usability of this method. Six of seven Placenta Hominis samples were shown to contain human DNA traces, while the seventh showed no DNA signals belonging to any mammals and a paper-like material underneath the vegetal part, instead of membrane-like placental tissue by visual inspection, suggesting the possibility of counterfeit. Eight injectable and cosmetic placental extract products were tested, and none of them contained analyzable DNA or comparable protein fragments except one, which DNA was from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) rather than sheep, as per the product claim, and was hence misbranded as per the U.S. Food and Drug Administration definition. Conclusion: Our species identification method is easy-to-operate, unified, and resource-saving, which can be applied to different placental products.
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Immunomodulatory effect of Kaempferia parviflora against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Swiss albino mice p. 13
Akoijam Ranjita Devi, Bibu John Kariyil, N Mini Raj, GH Akhil, Dhanush Krishna Balakrishnan-Nair
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_233_19  
Background: Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker (Black ginger) is an important medicinal plant used as a health-promoting tonic i.e., both a stimulant and a vitalizing agent in Thailand. Research findings are available on its aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory activities. So far, there is no research work conducted on immunomodulatory effect of K. parviflora. Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of rhizomes of K. parviflora in cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Immunomodulatory status was assessed by physiological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological observations. The weight of organs such as liver and spleen was recorded at the time of sacrifice. Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed for profiling compounds present in the extract. Results: Significant increase in body weight was observed on 12th day in K. parviflora-treated immunosuppressed mice. In hematological parameters, there was significantly higher lymphocyte count for K. parviflora-treated immunosuppressed mice. In hemagglutination test, conducted for the evaluation of humoral immune response, both K. parviflora alone and K. parviflora-treated immunosuppressed mice showed significant increase in titer value compared with cyclophosphamide control. Bone marrow cellularity test performed for evaluation of cellular immune response showed cyclophosphamide control group with significant lower bone marrow cellularity on 12th and 19th day while K. parviflora alone-treated and K. parviflora-treated immunosuppressed mice showed a significant increase in the bone marrow cellularity. The result of histopathology of spleen revealed to prevent the depletion of red pulp and white pulp on 12th day, and this prevention was marked on 19th day. GC-MS profiling showed that the extract contained eight compounds. Majority of the compounds belong to flavonoids class which might have helped in immunomodulation. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that the test extract possessed promising immunomodulatory activity.
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Cytotoxic, α-glucosidase, and antioxidant activities of flavonoid glycosides isolated from flowers of Lotus lanuginosus Vent. (Fabaceae) p. 22
Mohamed Habib Oueslati, Jalloul Bouajila, Arbi Guetat, Fraj Al-Gamdi, Fayçal Hichri
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_232_19  
Background: Lotus taxa (Fabaceae) were well known as an important source of polyphenols and flavonoids. Lotus lanuginosus Vent. is a widespread plant in the northern region of Saudi Arabia. Phytochemical and biological activities screening focusing of the species are rare. Objective: The objectives of this study were to isolate secondary metabolites from the flowers of L. lanuginosus Vent., elucidate their structures, and evaluate their biological activities. Materials and Methods: Chromatography methods of the n-butanolic extract of fresh flowers of L. lanuginosus led five products (1–5). Their structures were characterized based on spectroscopic evidence (ultraviolet, infrared, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and compared to the spectral data signaled in the literature. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. α-glucosidase and antioxidant activities were also performed. Results: Five compounds were isolated and characterized for the first time in L. lanuginosus Vent.: Lotaustralin (1), kaempferol-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-apiofuranosyl-7-O-rhamnopyranosyl (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (4), and kaempferol-3-O-(2''-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (5). The results of cytotoxic activities against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines of the isolated compounds were presented. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 showed a moderate activity on HCT-116 cancer cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration values ranging between 8 and 31.5 μM. Moreover, compounds (2–5) displayed significant antioxidant and moderate α-glucosidase activities. Discussion and Conclusions: All the isolated products (1–5) are signaled for the first time in L. lanuginosus Vent. Among flavonoids glycosides, compound 2 showed the best cytotoxic activity. By the end of the present study, L. lanuginosus have been characterized as a highly cyanogenic plant and as an important source of polyphenols and flavonoids.
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Anticancer effects of piperine-free Piper nigrum extract on cholangiocarcinoma cell lines Highly accessed article p. 28
Aman Tedasen, Araya Khoka, Siribhorn Madla, Somchai Sriwiriyajan, Potchanapond Graidist
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_288_19  
Background: Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is widely used as a traditional medicine, including usage for pain relief, fevers, as well as an anticancer agent. Previously, we reported that piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) inhibited breast cancer in vitro and in vivo. Objective: In this present study, we explored the anticancer effects of PFPE on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed to analyze cytotoxic potential of PFPE whereas deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation followed by Western blot analysis were used. Results: PFPE composed of alkaloid, flavonoid, amide, lignans, opioid, and steroid. This crude extract represented cytotoxic effect against CCA cells which stronger than dichloromethane P. nigrum crude extract and piperine, especially on KKU-M213 (median inhibition concentration [IC50] at 13.70 μg/ml) and TFK-1 (IC50at 15.30 μg/ml). Interestingly, PFPE showed lower cytotoxicity against normal human cholangiocyte MMNK-1 cells (IC50at 19.65 μg/ml) than KKU-M213 and TFK-1 cells. Then, the molecular mechanisms of PFPE were firstly evaluated by DNA fragmentation followed by Western blot analysis. The degradation of DNA was observed on KKU-M213 and TFK-1 cells after treatment with PFPE at day 2. Then, proliferation proteins including topoisomerase II, AKT8 virus oncogene cellular homolog, avian myelocytomatosis virus oncogene cellular homolog, cyclin D1, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) were decreased and p21 was increased. Furthermore, apoptotic proteins, such as tumor protein p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein, and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis were upregulated. Meanwhile, antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 was down-regulated. Conclusion: These results indicated that PFPE inhibited CCA through the down-regulation of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis pathway.
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Computer-aided Box–Behnken outlook towards optimization of extraction of lawsone from mehendi leaves p. 39
Lubna Abidin, Mohd Mujeeb, Mohd Aqil, Abul Kalam Najmi, Aftab Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_345_19  
Background: Since ages lawsone, an orange-colored dye from leaves of Lawsonia inermis is being used by women for self-adornment and is also used in textile industries for dyeing reasons. Objective: Comparing traditional and modern extraction modes for extraction of lawsone from L. inermis leaves and simultaneous use of response surface methodology for optimizing its extraction procedure. Materials and Methods: Design-Expert software was exploited for optimization task. Quantification of lawsone in different extracts was done by high-performance liquid chromatography using aqueous acetic acid and methanol in the mobile phase. Results: Ultrasound-assisted extraction stood out to be a supreme technique among all. Moreover, of all solvents (ethylene glycol, dimethylformamide, and methanol) examined methanol stood out to be the most effective solvent for lawsone extraction. By the inverse matrix of the regression model and point prediction, optimal conditions for lawsone extraction were laid down as - extraction temperature - 50.24°C, extraction time - 15.70 min, liquor to material ratio - 24.16 mL/g, and methanol concentration - 75.15%v/v which yielded 17.129 g of lawsone. Under similar conditions (extraction temperature - 50°C, extraction time - 16 min, liquor to material ratio - 24 mL/g, and methanol concentration - 75%v/v), 16.98 g of lawsone was yielded which was close to predicted value. Conclusion: We conclude that a non-thermal method proved to a supreme technique for lawsone extraction which has an additional benefit which of avoiding thermal degradation of compound. Furthermore, by model fitting and analysis of regression coefficients, it was confirmed that all the factors studied significantly affected lawsone yield.
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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of Tinospora cordifolia aqueous extract and hypoglycemic drugs in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats p. 47
Amisha Vora, Alice Varghese, Yusuf Kachwala, Ankit P Laddha, Manju Bhaskar, Jamal Akhtar, Pawan Yadav
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_272_19  
Context: Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers is an antidiabetic herb globally marketed as a single or polyherbal formulation. The pharmacological activities of T. cordifolia suggest its potential to be co-administered with commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic drugs in the therapeutic management of diabetes mellitus. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions of the aqueous extract of T. cordifolia (TCE) with metformin (MET), sitagliptin (SITA), and glibenclamide (GLI) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Settings and Design: The aqueous TCE (400 mg/kg, p.o.) was co-administered with MET (90 mg/kg, p. o.), SITA (10 mg/kg, p. o.), and GLI (1 mg/kg, p. o.) for 28 days in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: The PK parameters of the three drugs were calculated using Phoenix WinNonlin®, and PD activity was determined by estimating fasting blood glucose, liver and kidney function tests, and lipid parameters. Further, histopathological examination of pancreatic cells and estimation of pancreatic antioxidant enzymes was carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: The pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using pharmacokinetic program WinNonlin® version 3.0 (Pharmasight corporation, Mountain view, CA). The pharmacodynamic parameters were analysed using Graph Pad prism Version 6.00 applying one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey–Kramer post test. Results: No significant PK interaction was observed between TCE and the three oral hypoglycemics. However, a significant improvement was observed in glycemic control and the conditions associated with diabetes mellitus. In addition, no incidences of hypoglycemia were observed. Conclusion: The co-administration of TCE with MET, SITA, and GLI helped in better management of diabetes and associated comorbidities than their individual administrations. There were no significant PK interactions observed. Our findings provide insights into the safety and efficacy of the combination therapy of TCE with MET, SITA, and GLI in the management of diabetes and associated conditions.
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Mahanimbine-induced neuroprotection via cholinergic system and attenuated amyloidogenesis as well as neuroinflammation in lipopolysaccharides-induced mice p. 57
Nur Syamimi Mohd Azahan, Vasudevan Mani, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Siong Meng Lim, Richard Muhammad Johari James, Mansour Alsharidah, Ahmad Alhowail, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_202_19  
Background: Murraya koenigii leaves are traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries as a spice in regular food dishes to improve taste and aroma. These leaves are known for the rich content of mahanimbine, a key carbazole alkaloid. Although there are numerous reports that support the neuroprotective role of various alkaloids, the effect of mahanimbine against memory impairment remains to be elucidated. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective potential of mahanimbine against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced memory deficit in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Materials and Methods: Group of mice were being fed with mahanimbine (1, 2, and 5 mg/kg, p. o.) for 30 days. Subsequently, neuroinflammation was induced with LPS (250 μg/kg, i. p.) for 4 days. Morris water maze (MWM) assessment was conducted to assess spatial memory. The brain was then collected and subjected to amyloid-beta (Aβ) (Aβ1-42and Aβ1-40) measurement, acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) assays and neuroinflammatory analyses (interleukin [IL]-1 β, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], IL-10 transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β], and cyclooxygenase [COX]). Results: The MWM test showed that treatment with mahanimbine significantly enhanced memory of LPS-challenged mice by decreasing both escape latency as well as escape distance. Pretreatment of the LPS-challenged mice with mahanimbine improved central cholinergic transmission by increasing ACh level through inhibition of AChE. It also significantly attenuated Aβ1-40level. While anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10) were upregulated, mahanimbine significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α), the total activity of COX, and expression of COX-2 gene in LPS-induced group. Conclusion: The overall findings supported the neuroprotective potential of mahanimbine against LPS-induced neuroinflammation.
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Rapid identification of the indigenous medicinal crop Cinnamomum osmophloeum from various adulterant Cinnamomum species by DNA polymorphism analysis p. 64
Bo-Cheng Yang, Meng-Shiunn Lee, Fang-Chun Sun, Heng-Hsiang Chao, Wen-Te Chang, Ming-Kuem Lin, Hsi-Jien Chen, Meng-Shiou Lee
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_267_19  
Background: Cinnamomum osmophloeum (Co), a member of the Lauraceae, is an indigenous medicinal crop in Taiwan, and it contains higher cinnamaldehyde in essential oil than do other Cinnamomum species. Among these species, Cinnamomum burmannii (Cb) is frequently adulterated as Co because of their similar morphological characteristics or features. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a DNA-based molecular method for rapid authentication of the indigenous Co and prevention of its adulteration. Materials and Methods: The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA from various Cinnamomum species were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and these obtained sequences were used for sequence analysis. Based on the sequence variants among various Cinnamomum species, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to differentiate these Cinnamomum plants. Results: Two restriction endonucleases, MylI and EcoRV, were specifically used to digest the PCR-amplified ITS DNA from seven Cinnamomum species. The PCR-RFLP results demonstrated that the different restriction patterns that were produced by these two restriction enzymes clearly distinguished Co from Cb and five other Cinnamomum species simultaneously. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP analysis developed in this study provides an alternative method for rapidly identifying Cinnamomum plants at the species level using DNA polymorphisms.
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Traditional use of ethnomedicinal plants among people of Kapurthala District, Punjab, India p. 69
Jaskirat Kaur, Rajinder Kaur, Avinash Kaur Nagpal
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_311_19  
Background: Plant-derived products have a vital biological role against various diseases. The present study was carried out to document and investigate the existing ethnomedicinal knowledge on local flora of Kapurthala district, Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: The ethnomedicinal investigation was carried out from March 2015 to October 2017. Key informants, rural as well as urban, i.e., herbal doctors, homemakers, farmers, elders, etc., were selected using snowball sampling method. Information on ethnomedicinal importance of plants of this region and methods of preparation and administration was gathered by questionnaire-based personal interviews, group discussions, informal meetings, and field observations with local people. Results: Fifty plant species belonging to thirty families were informed to be used for medicinal purposes. Fruits and leaves were the most used plant parts. The most commonly used mode of administration was raw form or juice of plant parts. Most of the information was recorded for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. Conclusions: This study reveals the interesting use of plants by the local people of Kapurthala district, which shows that use of medicinal plants still exists. However, because of modernization, traditional knowledge is losing at high rate; there is a need to conserve our ancestral knowledge. Further, medicinal plants should be examined for pharmacological and phytochemical studies for novel drug discovery.
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Regulation of pro-inflammatory enzymes by the dragon fruits from Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) and squalene - its major volatile constituents p. 81
Ibrahim M S. Eldeen, Shin Y Foong, Noraznawati Ismail, Keng C Wong
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_271_19  
Background: Hylocereus undatus produces fruits known as dragon fruit (Pitaya). The fruit and other parts of Hylocereus species are used for the treatment of diuretic, gastritis, kidney problems, and wound healing. Objectives: To investigate anti-inflammatory properties of the flesh and peel of Pitaya and to identify the major bioactive constituent(s). Materials and Methods: The flesh and the peel of the fruit were blended separately with water, vacuum-distilled, freeze-dried, and then used for the bioassay tests against the 5-Lipoxygenase (5-Lipox), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes. Results: Squalene appeared to be the dominant constituent (13.2%) in the flesh of the fruit. The crude flesh extract and the squalene showed strong activities against AChE with inhibition percentage >80% (IC50 <43 μg/mL). The peel was active against 5-Lipox with inhibition of 81%. Inhibition percentages recorded for the positive controls used were 77% for Zileuton against 5-Lipox (IC5028 μg/mL), 85% for the Galantamine against AChE (IC50 16 μg/mL), and 86% for the Celecoxib against COX-2 (IC5032 μg/mL). For maximum efficacy against the three enzymes, squalene showed the best performance with EC50values ranging between 46 and 47 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings showed that Pitaya has a significant potential for the management of inflammatory conditions through different mechanisms including, leukotriene, prostaglandins, and cholinergic pathways. To the best of our knowledge, identification of squalene in the dragon fruit flesh and the validated biological activities were not reported previously and therefore accounted for the novelty of the study.
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Antiobesity effects of lycii fructus in high-fat diet/fructose-induced obese rats p. 87
Junchao Yuan, Runfen Du, Zhuang Kang, Ben Niu, Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Yan Wang, Heng Su
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_276_19  
Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an enormous rate among all age groups which makes it one of the foremost health problems. Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the ethyl acetate extract from Lycii fructus (ETLF) against high-fat diet (HFD)/fructose-induced obesity in rats. Materials and Methods: Obesity was induced in rats by feeding them with HFD and 15% fructose for 8 weeks, while the animals in ETLF groups were administered with 100 and 400 mg/kg of ETLF once daily from the 5th to the 8th week. Results: ETLF displayed antiobesity by significantly reducing body weight gain, serum lipid levels as well as alleviating increased serum insulin and glucose levels. In addition, ETLF treatment when compared to the HFD/fructose fed group significantly alleviated oxidative stress and inflammation by reducing malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 β) and IL-6 levels as well as enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Conclusion: Thus, these results portrayed that ETLF had protective effects against metabolic disorders induced by HFD/fructose through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities.
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Isolation and biological evaluation of some secondary metabolites from seeds of Silybum marianum p. 93
Muhammad Latif, Muhammad Ihtisham Umar, Asim Rahim, Shujaat Ali Khan, Nighat Fatima, Izhar Hussain, Abdul Mannan, Mohamed Khadeer Ahamed Basheer
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_315_19  
Background: Despite the widespread ethnopharmacological use and significance of Silybum marianum (SM) seeds, most of its phytochemical and biological properties are still yet to be confirmed using validated scientific methods. Objectives: The current study was designed to investigate the phytochemical and biological properties of SM seed extract. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of SM (MESM) dried seeds was fractionated by column chromatography, and fractions (SA1–SA10) were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities (brine shrimp lethality assay and antileishmanial assay). Results: All fractions showed considerable level of antioxidant potential. Free radical scavenging activity of fraction (SA9) was maximum at 80.7%. Fraction SA4 exhibited substantial total antioxidant capacity (101.81 μg/mg). In ferric-based reducing antioxidant power assay, fraction SA4 showed the highest antioxidant power (258.93 μg/mg). Phytochemical screening of the fractions (SA1–SA10) inferred that total phenolic contents were maximum in fraction SA7 (85.13 μg/mg) and total flavonoid contents were found to be highest in fraction SA1 (58.24 μgQE/mg). However, mild antibacterial and antifungal activities were shown by different fractions. To evaluate cytotoxic potential, brine shrimp lethality bioassay was performed. Among all the fractions, the fraction SA9 revealed the lowest LD50of 49.99 μg/mL, whereas all the other fractions tested demonstrated significant cytotoxic property. The results of antileishmanial assay showed that the fraction SA6 possesses the highest mortality percent (84%) compared to the other fractions. Conclusion: These findings revealed that MESM can be an important source of natural antileishmanial herb that can be used as a therapeutic alternative for leishmaniasis.
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Response surface optimization of prodigiosin production by mutagen-treated Serratia marcescens in different growth media p. 99
Sumaira Gul, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Rubina Arshad, Haq Nawaz, Aleema Ali, Asma Altaf, Tehreem Gul, Wafa Iqbal
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_430_19  
Background: Prodigiosin is a bioactive bacterial pigment produced by Serratia marcescens and possesses anticancer, antibiotic, antifungal, antibacterial, and immunosuppressive activities without any toxic effects on human cells. Objectives: The study was planned to optimize the effect of ultravoilet (UV) light and acridine orange (AO), as mutagens and incubation time on prodigiosin production by S. marcescens in nutrient agar broth and peptone glycerol broth. Materials and Methods: The optimization was done by constructuing a quadratic polynomial response surface model using a bifactorial central composite design. The S. marcescens starian was treated with UV light (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 s) and various concentrations of AO (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μg/mL) and incubated in the selected growth media for different times (0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 h). The prodigiosin production was measured in terms of change in pH and optical density (OD) of the ethanolic extracts of culture media. Results: The prodigiosin production was found to be a significant linear and quadratic function of incubation time in both of the culture media. However, a statistically non-significant increased prodigiosin production, in terms of pH and OD of the extracts, was observed under the influence of both mutagens. The optimum values of incubation time to achieve optimal production of prodigiosin from UV light-exposed and AO-treated cultures were found to be in the range of 37–60 h, respectively. Conclusion: The pigment production was increased significantly with an increase in the incubation time. The study provides the optimum conditions for the production of prodigiosin in research and commercial field.
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Phenolic compounds of Heliotropium europaeum and their biological activities p. 108
Muneera S M. Al-Saleem, Lamya H Al-Wahaibi, Md Tabish Rehman, Mohamed F AlAjmi, Rawiyah A Alkahtani, Wael M Abdel-Mageed
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_376_19  
Background: Heliotropium europaeum L. is known to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids and possesses a wide variety of biological activities. Objective: The objective of the study was to discover antioxidant phytochemical compounds in H. europaeum and assess their in vitro lipoxygenase (LOX)- and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Materials and Methods: H. europaeum herbs were extracted exhaustively by maceration using 90% aqueous ethanol. Solvent fractionation with n-hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol was performed with the dried extract until complete exhaustion. Two antioxidant active fractions (CH2Cl2and EtOAc) were combined and subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Quantitative evaluation in terms of the antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds was performed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The potential limiting effects on the action of ACE and soybean LOX were assessed quantitatively. Results: Isolates of eight newly identified phenolic compounds from H. europaeum exhibited antioxidant and ACE- and LOX-inhibitory activities. The isolated compounds were identified as kaempferol (1), luteolin (2), quercetin (3), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (4), and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (5), in addition to caffeic acid (6), rosmarinic acid (7), and methyl rosmarinate (8). Among the isolated compounds, quercetin possessed the most potent antioxidant activity (IC50= 8.1 μM) and ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50= 17.5 μM), whereas rosmarinic acid and its methyl ester showed the strongest LOX-inhibitory activity (IC50s = 4.2 μM and 3.6 μM, respectively). Conclusion: Our study is the first report on the phenolic constituents of the H. europaeum herbal extract and their biological activities. A total of eight phenolics were identified in this extract and isolated for the first time. Our results on H. europaeum extract constituents provide some scientific evidence on the beneficial effects of its traditional uses.
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Sandalwood oil neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic brain stroke p. 117
Nancy Safwat Younis, Maged Elsayed Mohamed
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_398_19  
Background: Cerebral injury is a common health crisis that may affect the patient lifestyle or cause death. Although many drugs involved in the treatment of such cases and relieving symptoms, there is no precise cure. Accordingly, the importance of protection against the insult could be understood, especially when natural products can be a part of the protective agent. Objectives: The target of the current study was to inspect the pharmacological actions of sandalwood essential oil (SEO) through oxidative stress as well as inflammation pathways in mice exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery as a reproducible mean to generate focal brain ischemia. Materials and Methods: Ischemic animals were treated with sandalwood oil and were compared to cerbrolysin actions, atypical neuroprotective medication. Infarct volume, measured via sliver staining, as well as several behavioral tests including neurological deficits scores was measured to evaluate sandalwood oil defensive effects. Neural degeneration, measured via Fluoro-Jade B staining, levels of different inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL)-1 β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-kappa β, and antioxidants enzymes activities containing glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase swere assessed. Results: Sandalwood oil exposure improved the neurological deficits as well as behavioral experiments and diminished infarct volume and neural degeneration in ischemic mice. In addition, oxidative stress overproduction and inflammation cascade were significantly suppressed subsequent to SEO treatment. Conclusion: These results suggest that sandalwood oil abstains protective effects through deterring oxidative stress and inflammation cascade in cerebral ischemia.
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Effects of Anacyclus pyrethrum on affective behaviors and memory during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure in rats p. 123
Kenza Bezza, Jawad Laadraoui, Zineb El Gabbas, Mehdi Ait Laaradia, Sara Oufquir, Rachida Aboufatima, Issam Gharrassi, Abederrahman Chait
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_279_19  
Background: During smoking cessation, nicotine withdrawal is associated with many symptoms including cognitive impairment and depressed mood, which lower the desire to quit smoking and predicts smoking relapse. Thus, pharmacotherapies that improve cognitive functions during nicotine withdrawal would be paramount in developing efficacious smoking cessation agents. Medicinal plants are currently considered as a promising source to identify new therapeutics. The roots of Anacyclus pyrethrum are used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of ethanolic extract of A. pyrethrum (EEAP) on smoking withdrawal in a rat model. Subjects and Methods: EEAP was administered orally at a dose of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. Forced swimming test (FST), open-field, marble-burying, and plus-maze tests were used to measure the level of depression and anxiety in animals. In addition, the novel object recognition test was used to test memory impairment. Results: The results showed that EEAP-treated animals had decreased immobility time in forced swimming test and they buried fewer marbles. The percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within the elevated plus-maze test was increased in smoking withdrawn rat after treatment. On the other hand, EEAP increased the recognition of memory in the novel object recognition task. Conclusion: Taken together, our data indicated potential antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of EEAP in rats and the improvement of memory. Besides, this plant does not have any acute or subchronic toxicity effect.
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Amelioration of cognitive deficits by Spirulina platensis in L-methionine-induced rat model of vascular dementia p. 133
Pian Wang, Yan Wang, Qingbin Zhang, Hongbo Zhang, Zheng Li, Xiaoying Liu, Lavleen Kaur, Manish Kumar
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_438_19  
Background: Vascular dementia (VaD) is an age-associated highly prevalent brain disorder characterized by progressive cognitive insufficiency. Nutritional deprivation-associated rise in homocysteine (HCy), dyslipidemia, endothelial debility, and redox imbalance is a key facet of VaD. Spirulina platensis (spirulina) is a high-nutritional-value cyanobacterium appreciated by modern as well as diverse civilizations of antiquity (e.g., Mexican-Aztec, African-Kanambous). The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of spirulina (S. platensis) in VaD. Materials and Methods: L-methionine (1.7 g/kg) was given orally to simulate VaD in rats. Spirulina was administered (0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg; p.o.) for 4 weeks daily. The neurobehavioral assessments and biochemical analysis in the whole brain (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], glutathione [GSH], and acetylcholinesterase [AChE]) and serum (cholesterol, HCy, and nitrite) of rats were conducted. Results: Cognitive impairment in rats by L-methionine was attributable to statistically significant (P < 0.05) elevation in HCy, cholesterol levels, oxidative stress, AChE activity, and a decline of endothelial-derived nitric oxide. Spirulina attenuated (P < 0.05) the L-methionine-triggered cognitive insufficiency in rats. TBARS levels and AChE activity were reduced and GSH content was increased by spirulina in the brain of L-methionine-treated rats. Spirulina-attenuated L-methionine triggered increase in blood HCy and total cholesterol levels in rats. In aortic-ring tests, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was abolished by L-methionine, which showed endothelial mutilation and was potently attenuated by chronic treatment with spirulina. Conclusion: In L-methionine model of VaD, therapeutic intervention by spirulina (S. platensis) imparts appreciable relief in cognitive deficits.
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Wild- edible plants of Meghalaya State in India: Nutritional, minerals, antinutritional, vitamin content and toxicity studies p. 142
Tapan Seal, Kausik Chaudhuri, Basundhara Pillai, Shrabana Chakrabarti, Biswajit Auddy, Tanmoy Mondal
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_369_19  
Aim: The point of the present investigation planned to assess the nutritive value, minerals content, vitamin content, antinutritional properties, and toxicity studies in five wild-consumable plants, for example, Begonia hatacoa, Embelia floribunda, Artemisia vulgaris, Cardamine hirsuta, and Plantago major, devoured by the distinctive innate individuals of Meghalaya State in India as their nourishment. Materials and Methods: The proximate parameters such as protein, fat, fiber, sugar, minerals, and harmful overwhelming metals were assessed in the chose wild-eatable plants utilizing standard sustenance examination procedures. The cyanogenic glycoside, oxalates, tannins, saponins, and phytate substances were done to decide the counter wholesome properties of the considered plants. The quantitations of water-dissolvable vitamins in these plants were completed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The in vitro hemolytic measure of plant concentrates was completed on rodent erythrocytes. Appraisal of cytotoxicity of eatable plants was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide examine. The genotoxicity of the contemplated plants was tried by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. Results: The consequences of examination demonstrated that these plants are rich wellsprings of protein, sugar minerals, and vitamins, particularly the B gathering of vitamins. The substantial metals lead and chromium were distinguished in exceptionally low sum in all the consumable plants. The largest amount of phytate was found in P. major (0.38% ± 0.03%); oxalate was most astounding in E. floribunda (0.261% ± 0.06%) though tannin was most elevated in P. major (1.04% ± 0.12%). The estimations of antinutrients and overwhelming metals in all above-considered plants are underneath the harmful levels. Conclusion: These wild-eatable plants contribute gigantically to sustenance, nourishment security, well-being, and remedial advantages. The aftereffects of poisonous quality of every single eatable plant ensure the security at cell and genomic level and furthermore safe to expend.
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Gastric ulcer healing activity against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and gastroprotective mechanisms of Zingiber simaoense rhizome ethanol extract in rats p. 152
Chanyanuch Laprasert, Puongtip Kunanusorn, Ampai Panthong, Parirat Khonsung, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Chaiyong Rujjanawate
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_389_19  
Background: Zingiber simaoense Y. Y. Qian (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes have been widely used to alleviate gastric disorders in Thai traditional medicine. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the gastric ulcer healing activity of Z. simaoense rhizome ethanol extract (ZSE) against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and its possible gastroprotective mechanisms. Materials and Methods: The gastric ulcer healing activity of ZSE was evaluated using an acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds in ZSE gastroprotection was also examined in addition to the determination of NO, malondialdehyde (MDA), and prostaglandin (PG) E2levels in rat gastric tissues as well as the determination of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content in ZSE. Results: ZSE at the dose of 240 mg/kg/day significantly accelerated gastric ulcer healing when observed on days 4 and 8 following ulcer induction. Pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the gastroprotective activity of ZSE. Moreover, ZSE significantly increased NO and PGE2levels and decreased MDA levels in rat gastric tissues. DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic compounds were also presented in ZSE. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the gastric ulcer healing activity of ZSE against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The possible gastroprotective mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effect of ZSE might also involve gastric mucosal NO, SH compounds, and PGE2as well as its antioxidant activities.
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A new stilbene derivative and isolated compounds from Bauhinia pottsii var. pottsii with their anti-alpha-glucosidase activity p. 161
Sathianpong Phoopha, Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul, Thanet Pitakbut, Sukanya Dej-Adisai
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_433_19  
Background: Natural products are becoming important alternative medicines for diabetes treatment. Many Bauhinia plants in Thailand have been used in Thai traditional medicines for diabetic patients. Bauhinia plants have been reported on anti-alpha-glucosidase activity. However, Bauhinia pottsii var. pottsii G. Don which is a local plant in Southern Thailand has not been reported on antidiabetic activity and phytochemistry. Hence, it was selected for further study. Objectives: Isolation of chemical constituents from B. pottsii var. pottsii and determination of their biological activity on alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic techniques, enzymatic assay, and molecular docking were done in this study. Results: A new stilbene derivative, 1,3-benzenediol-5-(-2-phenylethyl)-6-(2',3'-butanediol)-3', methyl (1) and five known compounds such as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), quercetin (3), 3-O-methylquercetin (4), a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated from B. pottsii var. pottsii. The plant extracts and isolated compounds were determined for anti-alpha-glucosidase activity. The results showed that the compounds 2, 3, and 4 were inhibited alpha-glucosidase enzyme activity with inhibition concentration at 50% (IC50) values of 3.637 mM, 0.486 mM, and 0.292 mM, respectively. While positive control, acarbose exhibited IC50value as 0.166 mM. The mechanism of action was proved using computer molecular docking. Compound 2 was predicted as mixed-type inhibitor, whereas compounds 3 and 4 were predicted as competitive inhibitors. Conclusion: This study will be the first report of phytochemical and biological study from B. pottsii var. pottsii including the first report of new compound.
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Chronic khat (Catha edulis) chewing and genotoxicity: The role of antioxidant defense system and oxidative damage of DNA p. 168
Ashraf A Hassan, Yahya Hasan Hobani, Neji Mosbah, Saif Elden Abdalla, Mohammad Zaino, Syam Mohan, Maged El-Setouhy
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_455_19  
Background: Khat chewing is culturally endemic in the Southern areas of Saudi Arabia. Many health-related issues such as the incidence of carcinogenicity and comorbidities associated with the chewing of khat have been reported earlier. Objectives: Mainly, the objective of the study was to assess the risk of genotoxicity caused due to oxidative stress that may result from khat chewing among chronic chewers from Jazan Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Hundred and twenty-two adult males were recruited after signing informed consent. Ninety participants were chronic khat chewers (CKCs), while the control group consisted of 32 non-chewers of matched age and gender for the study group. A blood sample was collected from all participants and kept at 4°C until the time of assay. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) were estimated in erythrocyte lysate as well as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level in plasma. Results: There is a decreased SOD activity, which might be due to an increase in the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species resulted from the increase in lipid hydroperoxides. Furthermore, the significant elevation in GR activity was observed, reflecting the presence of highly toxic compounds. The 8-OHdG levels were higher in khat chewers group in comparison to the control, but this increase was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CKCs will be at considerable risk of oxidative stress as a result of a significant reduction in antioxidant enzymes. This would be a good reason for them to quit chewing khat for health benefits.
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Antiurolithic evaluation of Cucurbita pepo seeds extract against sodium oxalate-induced renal calculi p. 174
Aisha Shehzad, Uzma Saleem, Muhammad Ajmal Shah, Celia Vargas-de la Cruz, Abdul Haleem Khan, Bashir Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_166_19  
Background: Renal calculi, a painful kidney stone disease has worldwide health hazard. Cucurbita pepo is used for the management of lower urinary tract disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and micturition difficulty. Objective: The present study was investigated to resolve the antiurolithic potential of methanol extract of C. pepo (MECP) seed against sodium oxalate-induced renal calculi using both in vitro and in vivo models. Materials and Methods: MECP was prepared by macerating C. pepo seed powder in methanol. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed to characterize the phytochemical profile of MECP. In vitro techniques such as nucleation, aggregation, growth, and dissolution assays were performed using different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/mL) of MECP and the standard drug cystone to determine their calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals inhibitory potential. In male albino rats, calculi were induced by intraperitoneal administration of sodium oxalate (70 mg/kg) for 10 days. Various doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) of MECP were administered orally to male albino rats. Various pathological parameters such as body and kidney weights, serum (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and uric acid), urinary (calcium, potassium, oxalate, sodium, magnesium, phosphate, pH, and volume) analysis, and kidney histopathology were executed. Results: GC-MS fingerprints showed that beta-tocopherol, stigmasterol, and squalene are the major phytochemicals found in MECP. Results demonstrated that MECP significantly inhibited various steps of CaOx crystal formation such as nucleation, aggregation, growth, and dissolution in dose-dependent manner. MECP normalized the raised levels of oxalate, calcium, sodium, phosphate, uric acid, restored alterations in histopathology while elevated the reduced levels of magnesium, urine volume, and pH. Conclusion: The undertaken study rationalized the usage of C. pepo as an alternative or adjuvant treatment for renal calculi after clinical trials in human subjects.
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Tumor retardation and immunomodulatory potential of polyherbal formulation HC9 in mouse melanoma model p. 181
Snehal Suryavanshi, Kavita Shinde, Prerna Raina, Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_289_19  
Background: HC9, a polyherbal formulation, is based on Stanyashodhana Kashaya (an Ayurvedic formulation) that is being prescribed by Ayurvedic physicians for the treatment of various disorders of mammary glands. We have recently reported anticancer activity of HC9 in breast cancer cell lines through various molecular mechanisms. Few studies have shown an association between breast cancer and melanoma that has prompted us to find whether HC9 could regulate the melanoma growth as well. Aim of the Study: The aim was to investigate the tumor retardation and immunomodulatory potential of HC9 in mouse melanoma model. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6 mice, with B16F10-induced melanoma tumors, were divided into six groups: tumor control, doxorubicin (2 mg/kg body weight [b.w.]), low dose (100 mg/kg b.w.), intermediate (200 mg/kg b.w.), and high dose (400 mg/kg b.w.) of HC9. No tumor control served as the negative control group. The mice were orally gavaged with HC9 daily for 3 weeks. The urine and blood samples from all the animals were taken before necropsy. The expression of T-helper type 1 (Th1) (interferon-γ and interleukin [IL]-2) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) serum cytokines was evaluated by ELISA assay. Results: HC9 significantly retarded the tumor growth in C57BL/6 mouse melanoma model. The animals did not show any changes in body weight and food consumption throughout the study period. Urine and histopathological analysis revealed no signs of toxicity in HC9-treated animals. HC9 appreciably increased the serum levels of Th1 with a concomitant decrease in Th2 cytokines. Conclusion: HC9 retarded the tumor growth in mouse melanoma model and induced immunomodulation, thereby suggesting the potential of the formulation against melanomas.
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Secondary metabolites and pesticide screening in organic and inorganic tomatoes by gas Chromatography–Mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry p. 187
MS Shwetha, VR Sinija, M Durgadevi
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_76_19  
Background: Tomato is considered as “protective foods” because of its special nutritive values which are very low in fat and have zero cholesterol level, with an excellent source of lycopene, carotene, anthocyanin, antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of pesticides and to analyze the secondary metabolite differences in selected organic and inorganic tomatoes (Variety: Sivam). Materials and Methods: The samples were analyzed for nearly 167 pesticides using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The samples were analyzed for nearly 167 pesticides in which pesticide residues were found to be absent in organic tomatoes; however, inorganic samples indicated the presence of aldoxycarb (aldicarb sulfone) and pymetrozine. The organic tomatoes contain nearly 27 phytocomponents out of which 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, methyl ester (15.68%), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z, Z, Z)- (12.78%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (10.26%), ethyl oleate (9.48%), linoleic acid ethyl ester (8.09%), oleic acid (7.60%), pentadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (5.08%), n-hexadecanoic acid, and dl-α-tocopherol (4.90%) are major groups, whereas 24 components were noticed in inorganic samples where 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, (Z, Z, Z)- (23.77%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (11.27%), n-propyl 9,12-octadecadienoate (10.93%), ethyl oleate (8.43%), n-hexadecanoic acid (7.69%), linoleic acid ethyl ester (7.52%), hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester (4.06%), and dl-α-tocopherol (3.78%) were majorly found. Conclusion: Organic tomatoes selected were found to be free from pesticide residues with majority of phytocompounds at higher peaks which are found to be beneficial to fight against many diseases.
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The toothache plant (Acmella oleracea) exhibits anthelmintic activity on both parasitic tapeworms and roundworms p. 193
PB Lalthanpuii, Zar Zokimi, Kholhring Lalchhandama
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_321_19  
Background: Among its many uses, Acmella oleracea (L.) R. K. Jansen as an anthelmintic agent for general intestinal helminthiasis is remarkable because of its indigenous usage in the Mizo traditional medicine. However, the rationale has not been established. Objectives: The objective of this study is to perform chemical analysis of the plant extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and to test the anthelmintic activity on intestinal helminths. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the whole plant was prepared and volatile compounds were analyzed using GC-MS. Anthelmintic activity was studied by survival test on the cestode Raillietina echinobothrida and the nematode Ascaridia galli. Anthelmintic effects were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Thirteen compounds were detected, with methyl n-hexadecanoate (palmitic acid) as the major constituents. N-Alkylamides such as N-isobutyl-(2E,4Z,8Z,10E)-dodecatetraenamide and N-(2-phenylethyl) non-2(E)-en-6, 8-diynamide were present. The plant extract was significantly effective (P < 0.05) at all concentrations tested on both the parasites and showed dose-dependent activity similar to that of albendazole. On the cestode, tegumental shrinkage, erosion of microtriches, and destruction of suckers with clumping of the spines were observed. The nematode was also extensively deformed with its lips collapsed, warty surface on the head, and contracted cuticle on the main body. Conclusion: A. oleracea contains bioactive compounds that have broad-spectrum activity on cestode and nematode parasites.
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A bioinformatics-based investigation to screen and analyze the bioactivity of Piper longum Linn. compounds as a ground-breaking hostile to antidiabetic activity p. 199
Bikash Thakuria, Sorforaj Laskar, Samrat Adhikari
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_400_19  
As of today, the utilization of herbal medicines has taken up the pace in treating diseases. This is due to the fact that they have lower risk of adverse reactions. Numerous plants are being used traditionally to treat various dreadful diseases including diabetes. Piper longum is one of the major and important medicinal plants in various systems of medicine, including the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Among the major bioactive compounds found in this plant, few compounds, viz., piperine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, and retrofractamide A, have been selected for studying the effectiveness on antidiabetic activity. An in silico approach was utilized to observe the major phytochemical properties and interaction studies of the constituents of P. longum, and finally, a pharmacophore investigation was carried out. In this study, we have observed the interaction of the four bioactive compounds taken from P. longum with the receptors via molecular docking technique. The binding of the ligands firmly with the receptors confirmed the fact that piperine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, and retrofractamide A act as inhibitors for dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GKRP, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which encourage the glucose digestion and increment insulin affectability. The information acquired from this investigation might be taken further for in vitro examinations, which may, in the long run, be useful in recognizable proof of novel and successful particles. The outcomes acquired from this examination might provide strong understanding in the utility of phytochemicals against diabetes.
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Topical delivery of curcumin and caffeine mixture-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers for effective treatment of psoriasis p. 206
Padmini Iriventi, N Vishal Gupta
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_260_19  
Background: Curcumin (CUR) is a well-known herbal constituent used in treating psoriasis. However, combination of CUR with other anti-inflammatory drugs such as caffeine shows amplified antipsoriatic action compared to CUR alone. Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs)-based topical gels of CUR and caffeine combination for facilitated treatment of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Preparation of NLC's loaded with CUR and caffeine was done by hot homogenization and ultrasonication methods and incorporated in topical gels. Factorial design (32) was constructed in a fully randomized manner to formulate and evaluate all nine possible experimental runs. Detailed evaluation studies for NLC and NLC-based gels were conducted. In vivo animal studies were carried out for optimized formulation using mouse model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis. Results: The physical and chemical characteristics displayed by the prepared NLC's (F1–F9) and gels were found to be optimal. The optimization using experimental design approach resulted in achieving formulation F10 with 103.01 nm particle size and 61.52% entrapment efficiency. In vivo and histopathology studies revealed that prepared NLC-based gel exhibits promising antipsoriatic activity. Conclusion: The present study signified that the CUR and caffeine combination has better antipsoriatic activity. Moreover, NLC-loaded gels have provided sustained drug release till the end of 12 h.
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Protective effect of Withania somnifera on nandrolone decanoate-induced biochemical alterations and hepatorenal toxicity in wistar rats p. 218
Smitha Syamala Vasavan, Vijayakumar Jagadesan, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_349_19  
Background: Despite the beneficial effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids in the treatment of osteoporosis, hypogonadism, bone mineralization, and some muscle-wasting disorders, its misuse by athletes and non-athletes causes hepatorenal toxicity. Withania somnifera (WS) is a very important herb in Ayurveda and has adaptogenic, anticonvulsant, cytoprotective, and antioxidant properties. Objectives: The main objective of the study is to investigate the protective effect of WS also known as Ashwagandha on nandrolone decanoate (ND)-induced liver and kidney injury in Wistar rats using biochemical and histopathological assessment. Materials and Methods: Group 1 – control rats received corn oil intramuscularly, Group 2 – ND group received 16 mg/kg of ND intramuscularly, Group 3 (ND+WS100), Group 4 (ND+WS200), and Group 5 (ND+WS400) were treated with water emulsion of WS root powder (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) along with ND (16 mg/kg). All ND treatments were given twice weekly for 4 weeks. WS was diluted in distilled water and administered orally once daily for 30 days. Liver marker enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, total protein (TP), creatinine, and urea levels were evaluated followed by histopathological assessment of liver and kidney. Results: ND group showed elevated levels of liver enzymes, TP, creatinine, urea, and severe alterations in the hepatic and renal histology as compared with control. Drug treatments with WS to ND group considerably reversed liver marker enzymes, TP, creatinine, urea levels, and pathological damage caused to liver and renal tissue. Conclusion: The study findings reveal the protective role of WS on ND-induced hepatorenal toxicity implicating its antioxidant and therapeutic functions.
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Antioxidant activity and enhanced cytotoxicity of aqueous Mucuna pruriens L. leaf extract by doxorubicin on different human cancer cell lines p. 224
Vesna Tumbas-Šaponjac, Oke-Oghene Philomena Akpoveso, Oluwatosin Imoleayo Oyeniran, Jelena Desančić, Dragana Četojević-Simin
DOI:10.4103/pm.pm_413_19  
Background: Conventional cancer drugs have the disadvantage of severe side effects and resistance. Therefore, research targeted toward developing novel therapeutic strategies is needed. Mucuna pruriens (MP) leaf extracts have been suggested to be useful for the management of several diseases including cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of MP in different human cancer cell lines. This study also evaluated the enhanced cytotoxic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of MP with Doxorubicin (Dox) in the selected human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: In this study, the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), cervix carcinoma cell line (HeLa), and colon cancer cell line (HT-29) were used. As a control, the non-cancer lung cell line (MRC-5) was used. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the sulforhodamine B method. Antioxidant activity was measured with 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Results: Aqueous MP leaf exhibited cytotoxicity in all the cell lines. The highest cytotoxic activity of the test extract was observed in HeLa cells at half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 92.8 μg/ml. Furthermore, the IC50value of the test extract when combined with Dox was significantly reduced. Specifically, in HeLa cells, the IC50was reduced by approximately 40 fold. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that aqueous MP leaf extracts could be useful as a source of antioxidants and compounds for cancer therapy. Further research is required to evaluate the chemical constituents of the leaf extracts and potential benefits for cancer therapy.
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