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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 61  |  Page : 183-188

Chamuangone-enriched Garcinia cowa leaf extract with rice bran oil: Extraction and cytotoxic activity against cancer cells


1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand
2 Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany; Phytomedicine and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Excellence Center, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_472_18

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Background: Chamuangone has been isolated from Garcinia cowa leaves and exhibited various biological activities, i.e., antibacterial, anti-Leishmania major, and cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. n-Hexane has been reported to be the most suitable solvent for extraction of chamuangone. Objectives: Some vegetable oils were determined as an alternative green solvent for extraction of an anticancer compound, chamuangone from G. cowa leaf. The chamuangone-enriched extract was standardized and evaluated for cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were used for extraction and standardization. The cytotoxic activity was determined using a sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The chamuangone-enriched extract was obtained using rice bran oil as the alternative green solvent and standardized to contain 1.97 mg/mL chamuangone. The extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma, human breast adenocarcinoma, and human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines, with IC50 values of 15.3, 15.9, and 12.8 μg/mL, respectively, but was nontoxic to human gingival fibroblasts, a normal cell line, at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract contained several natural antioxidants, including α-tocopherol (76.7 mg/100 g), γ-oryzanol (cycloartenol ferulate: 67.1 μg/mL and 24-methylenecycloartanol ferulate: 85.6 μg/mL), and antioxidant capacity determined as ascorbic acid (258.7-mM ascorbic acid equivalent per gram). Conclusion: Based on these findings, the chamuangone-enriched extract may be considered as a novel functional food in cancer chemopreventive action. Abbreviations used: AAE/g: Ascorbic acid equivalent per gram; CEO: Chamuangone-enriched Garcinia cowa leaf extract with rice bran oil; DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; HGF: Human gingival fibroblasts; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; IC50:50% Inhibitory concentration; MAE: Microwave-assisted extraction; MHz: Megahertz; MUFAs: Monounsaturated fatty acids; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; ODS: Octadecylsilane; PUFAs Polyunsaturated fatty acids; SD: Standard deviation; SFAs: Saturated fatty acids; SRB: Sulforhodamine B; TCA: Trichloroacetic acid; UFAs: Unsaturated fatty acids; UV: Ultraviolet; W: Watt.


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