Durio zibethinus rind extract mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Characterization and biomedical applications
Samuggam Sumitha1, Sethu Vasanthi2, Sivadasan Shalini3, Suresh V Chinni1, Subash C B. Gopinath4, Sathasivam Kathiresan1, Periasamy Anbu5, Veerasamy Ravichandran6
1 Faculty of Applied Science, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
3 KMCH College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia
4 School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Perlis, Malaysia
5 Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon, Republic of Korea
6 Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia
Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Silver nanoparticles play a profound role in the field of biology and medicine due to its attractive physiochemical properties. Objective: The present work was aimed to develop green approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (DRAgNPs) using D. zibethinus rind aqueous extract and determination of its antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect against brine shrimp. Materials and Methods: Aqueous extract of D. zibethinus rind was used to reduce silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The various reaction parameters were optimized, and DRAgNPs were characterized for size, shape, and nature. Results: Surface plasmon resonance confirmed the formation of DRAgNP's with maximum absorbance at λmaxof 418 nm. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope images revealed the morphology of the DRAgNPs were spherical with size range of 20 and 60 nm. Atomic force microscopy images confirmed the average particles size of DRAgNPs was to be 55 nm. The stability of the nanoparticles was also confirmed by the zeta potential which was found to be −15.82 mV. X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirmed the nature and the presence of Ag. DRAgNPs showed considerable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis, and exhibited better cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (LC50 =2.55 mg/mL). Conclusion: Based on the present study, it can be concluded that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using D. zibethinus rind is an eco-friendly and inexpensive method, and DRAgNPs could be used in the field of water treatment, pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, biosensor, and nanotechnology in the near future.
Abbreviation used: SEM: Scanning transmission electron microscopy; TEM: Transmission electron microscope; AFM: Atomic force microscopy; XRD: X-ray powder diffraction; EDX: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.