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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 57  |  Page : 409-416

Phenotype behavioral impairment after the administration of Xylopia Aromatica to male Balb-c mice and cytotoxicity to breast and cancer cell lines


1 Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University; Center for Research in Biodiversity, Extraction Laboratory, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Center For Research in Biodiversity, Botany Laboratory and Herbarium Unip, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil
3 Center for Research in Biodiversity, Extraction Laboratory, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil
4 Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology, Paulista University, São Paulo, Brazil
5 Engineering Department, Chemistry & Textile Engineering College, National Engineering University, Lima, Peru

Correspondence Address:
Ivana Barbosa Suffredini
Graduate Program in Environmental and Experimental Pathology and Graduate Program in Dentistry, Graduate and Research Vice-Dean Office, Paulista University, Sao Paulo. Center for Research in Biodiversity, Extraction Laboratory, Paulista University, Sao Paulo
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pm.pm_373_17

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Background: Crude extract obtained from the stem of Xylopia aromatica (Annonaceae, EB149) known as pimenta-de-macaco, a traditional Brazilian medicinal and edible plant, showed cytotoxicity against leukemia cell lines. Despite the initial findings, no information regarding its influence on behavioral phenotype (BP) has been previously reported. Objective: The objective was to assess the effect on EB149 on BP in male mice and to perform a bioguide-fractionation aimed at the verification of the cytotoxic potential against breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: BP was assessed by observation in an open cage and subsequent analysis in an open field (OF) at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min, after intraperitoneal administration of X. aromatica, in a two-stage experimental delineation. Results: EB149 impaired general activity, piloerection, defecation, breathing, auricular and corneal reflexes, tail squeeze, response to touch, hindquarter fall, surface-righting reflex, body tone, and grip reflex in the first stage. In the second stage, general activity, tail squeeze, touch response, and breathing were impaired, and a decrease in locomotion frequency in OF was also observed. All behavioral changes were recovered during the period of experiment in both stages. The LD50 of EB149 was 1.944 g/kg. Two fractions obtained from EB149 named FSIST, which contains sitosterol and stigmasterol as major compounds, and total alkaloid fraction, which contains total alkaloids, showed cytotoxicity against breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The traditional plant X. aromatica EB149 organic extract showed cytotoxicity against breast and prostate cancer cell lines and the recovery of behavioral impairment related to general activity, tail squeeze, touch response, breath, and locomotion frequency, causing no harm to male lab mice. Abbreviations used: MMA/ICMBio/SISBIO: Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade/Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade; CGen/IBAMA/MMA: Conselho de Gestão do Patrimônio Genético/Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis/Ministério do Meio Ambiente; AM: Amazonas State; UNIP: Universidade Paulista; g: Gram; mg: Milligram; μg: Microgram; kg: Kilogram; I. P: Intraperitoneal; CEUA/ICS/UNIP: Comissão de êtica no Uso de Animais/Instituto de Ciências da Saúde/Universidade Paulista; BP: Behavioral phenotype; OF: Open-field apparatus; NLD: Nonlethal dose; LD: Lethal dose; ANOVA: analysis of variance; FCHCl3: Fraction chloroform; FBuOH: Fraction buthanol; FH2O: Fraction water; FHEX: Fraction hexane; FDCM: Fraction dichloromethane; FMeOH: Fraction methanol; TLC: Thin-layer chromatography; U. V.: Ultraviolet; TAF: Total alkaloid fraction; nm: Nanometer; CC: Column chromatography; ATLC: Analytical thin-layer chromatography; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus; FSIST: Fraction containing sitosterol and stigmasterol; NC: Naive control; VC: Vehicle control; DIA: Diazepam


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