Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis and cytotoxicity of Asparagus adscendens roots against human cancer cell lines
Kashif Maqbool Khan1, Lutfun Nahar2, Abdul Mannan3, Muhammad Arfan4, Ghazanfar Ali Khan5, Afaf Al-Groshi2, Andrew Evans2, Nicola M Dempster2, Fyaz M D. Ismail2, Satyajit D Sarker2
1 School of Pharmacy and Bimolecular Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, Liverpool John Moores University, England, UK; Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad; Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
2 School of Pharmacy and Bimolecular Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, Liverpool John Moores University, England, UK
3 Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
4 Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
5 Department of Research and Development, Drug Regulatory Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan
Kashif Maqbool Khan
Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060
Satyajit D Sarker
Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products Research Group, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, James Parsons Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Asparagus adscendens Roxb. (Asparagaceae), is native to the Himalayas. This plant has been used in the prevention and effective treatment of various forms of cancers. Objective: This paper reports, for the first time, on the cytotoxicity of the methanol (MeOH) extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its solid-phase extraction (SPE) fractions against four human carcinoma cell lines and LC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of the SPE fractions. Materials and Methods: Finely powdered roots of A. adscendens were macerated in methanol and extracted through SPE using gradient solvent system (water: methanol) proceeded for analysis on LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and cytotoxicity against four human carcinoma cell lines: breast (MCF7), liver (HEPG2), lung (A549), and urinary bladder (EJ138), using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay. Results: The MeOH extract and four SPE fractions exhibited cytotoxicity against all cell lines with the IC50values ranging from 6 to 79 μg/mL. As observed in other Asparagus species, the presence of saponins and sapogenins in the SPE fractions was evident in the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. Conclusion: It is reasonable to assume that the cytotoxicity of the MeOH extract of the roots of A. adscendens and its SPE fractions, at least partly, due to the presence of saponins and their aglycones. This suggests that A. adscendens could be exploited as a potential source of cytotoxic compounds with putative anticancer potential.
Abbreviation used: SPE: Solid-phase extraction, MCF7: Breast cancer cell line, HEPG2: Liver cancer cell line, A549: Lung liver cancer cell line, EJ138: Urinary bladder cancer cell line, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.