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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 51  |  Page : 385-391

Analysis of free amino acids in different extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction


1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Tembila Campus, Besut Terengganu, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Zhari Ismail
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.216337

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Background: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that OS leaves possess antioxidant, cytotoxic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and uricosuric effects. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids, and flavonoids. Objective: To develop and validate an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method combined with solid-phase extraction that involves precolumn derivatization with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of free amino acids in OS leaves extracts. Materials and Methods: OS leaves were extracted with water (OS-W), ethanol (OS-E), methanol (OS-M), 50% ethanol (OS-EW), and 50% methanol (OS-MW). The extracts were treated by C18 cartridge before derivatization, resulting in great improvement of separation by Zorbox Eclipse XDB-C18 column. Results: The HPLC–DAD method was successfully developed and validated for analyzing the contents of free amino acids in OS extracts. The results showed that l-aspartic acid with 0.93 ± 0.01 nmol/mg was the major free amino acid in OS-W extract. However, in OS-E, OS-M, OS-EW, and OS-MW, l-glutamic acid with 3.53 ± 0.16, 2.17 ± 0.10, 4.01 ± 0.12, and 2.49 ± 0.12 nmol/mg, respectively, was the major free amino acid. Subsequently, l-serine, which was detected in OS-W, OS-E, and OS-M, was the minor free amino acid with 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 nmol/mg, respectively. However, l-threonine with 0.26 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.08 nmol/mL in OS-EW and OS-MW, respectively, had the lowest concentration compared with other amino acid components. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate that the method is reliable and efficient to simultaneously determine the free amino acids content for routine analysis of OS extracts. Abbreviations used: HPLC-DAD: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection, OS: Orthosiphon stamineus, OS-W: Orthosiphon stamineus water extract, OS-E: Orthosiphon stamineus ethanol extract, OS-M: Orthosiphon stamineus methanol extract, OS-EW: Orthosiphon stamineus 50% ethanol extract, OS-MW: Orthosiphon stamineus 50% methanol extract, OPA: O-phthaladehyde, SPE: Solid Phase Extraction, UV: Ultraviolet, LOD: Limit of Detection, LOQ: Limit of Quantification, RSD: Relative Standard Deviation.


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