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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 46  |  Page : 206-212

Evaluation of xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential and In vivo hypouricemic activity of Dimocarpus longan lour. extracts


1 School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University; Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital; Department of Occupational Therapy, Asia University, Taichung Branch, Taiwan
2 Department of Chinese Medicine, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital; School of Post-Baccalaureate Chinese Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Taichung Branch, Taiwan
3 Department of Agronomy, National University, Taichung Branch, Taiwan
4 School of Veterinary Medicine, National University, Taichung Branch, Taiwan
5 School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University; Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University; Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung Branch, Taiwan
6 College of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University; Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
7 School of Veterinary Medicine, National University; Department of Post-Baccalaureate Veterinary Medicine, Asia University, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Chun-Hsu Yao
School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404
Taiwan
Feng-Lin Hsu
Graduate Institute of Pharmacognosy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 101
Taiwan
Tzong-Fu Kuo
School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106
Taiwan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.182176

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Background: Longan is a fruit tree known to contain many phenolic components, which are capable of protecting people from oxidative damage through an anti-inflammatory mechanism. It may be also worthwhile to study the effect on lowering uric acid activity. Materials and Methods: This study investigates the lowering of uric acid using longan extracts, including flowers, pericarps, seeds, leaves, and twigs, on potassium-oxonate-induced hyperuricemia mice and its inhibitory actions against xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. Results: The findings revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of longan extracts exhibited strong XO-inhibitory activity, and the flower extracts (IC50 = 115.8 μg/mL) revealed more potent XO-inhibitory activity to those of pericarps (118.9 μg/mL), twigs (125.3 μg/mL), seeds (262.5 μg/mL), and leaves (331.1 μg/mL) in vitro. In addition, different dosages of longan extract (50–100 mg/kg) were administered to hyperuricemic mice. The lowering effect of longan extracts on uric acid at 75 mg/kg markedly reduced plasma uric acid levels in decreasing order: Flowers (80%) > seeds (72%) > pericarps (64%) > twigs (59%) > leaves (41%), compared with allopurinol (89%). Finally, 10 isolated phytochemicals from longan flowers were then examined in vitro. The results indicated that proanthocyanidin A2 and acetonylgeraniin A significantly inhibited XO activity in vitro. This is the first report providing new insights into the urate-reducing effect of phenolic dimer and hydrolyzable tannin, which can be developed to potential hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY
  • Longan flower extracts possess more potent XO-.inhibitory activity than pericarps, twigs, seeds, and leaves in vitro
  • The lowering effect of longan flowers and seeds extracts markedly reduced plasma uric acid levels as compared to allopurinol in vivo
  • The extract proanthocyanidin A2 and acetonylgeraniin A were demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro.
Abbreviations used: PO: Potassium-oxonate, XO: xanthine oxidase, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, i.p.: intraperitoneal, PBS: phosphate-buffered saline, AP: allopurinol, PUA: plasma uric acid.


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