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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 45  |  Page : 42-46

Essential oil from the resin of Protium heptaphyllum: Chemical composition, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, and antimutagenicity


Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Vila Velha, Av. Comissário José Dantas de Melo, n°21, Boa Vista Vila Velha – Espírito Santo. CEP 29102–920, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Denise Coutinho Endringer
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Vila Velha, Av. Comissário José Dantas de Melo, n°21, Boa Vista Vila Velha – Espírito Santo. CEP 29102–920
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.176113

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Background: Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March is popularly used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllum essential oil, its cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), antimicrobial activity, and its antimutagenicity in vivo. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the essential oil collected in three 3 years was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Annexin V conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate, caspase-3, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) assays were performed to evaluate apoptosis and inflammatory events. The antimutagenic activity at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg was determined using a micronucleus test in murine bone marrow. Results: The essential oil showed a predominance of monoterpene compounds, being the terpinolene, p-cymene-8-ol, and p-cymene, present in the essential oil extracted in the 3 years. The essential oil showed a protection against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity, and the cytotoxicity index polychromatic erythrocytes/normochromatic erythrocytes ratio in animals treated with oil at all doses (1.34 ± 0.33; 1.15 ± 0.1; 1.11 ± 0.13) did not differ from the negative control animal (1.31 ± 0.33), but from the cyclophosphamide group (0.61 ± 0.12). Cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 40.0 μg/mL, and antimicrobial activity were not observed for the essential oil (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥0.5 mg/mL). The essential oil did not change the levels of caspase-3 in the TNF-α level. Conclusion: The essential oil showed antimutagenic activity due to its chemical composition.


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