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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 42  |  Page : 161-165

Effects of the extract and glycoalkaloids of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill on Giardia lamblia trophozoites


1 UNIFEB, University Center of the Educational Foundation of Barretos, Avenida Professor Roberto Monte Frade, Barretos, São Paulo state; Department of Principles Natural Actives and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Estadual Paulista University, Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil
2 Department of Principles Natural Actives and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Estadual Paulista University, Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil; Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga of Santa Comba, Health Science Campus, Coimbra, Portugal
3 Department of Principles Natural Actives and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Estadual Paulista University, Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil
4 Departament of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Estadual Paulista University, Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil
5 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, USP, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil
6 Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga of Santa Comba, Health Science Campus, Coimbra; Center of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Raquel R. D. Moreira
Department of Principles Natural Actives and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP-Estadual Paulista University, Rod. Araraquara-Jau, Km 1 S/N, CEP 14801-902, Araraquara, São Paulo state, Brazil

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Source of Support: This work was supported by ‘‘Programa Operacional Ciência e Inovação 2010 (POCI)/FEDER’ da Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). Ciência Sem Fronteiras/CNPq; INCT-if: Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia para Inovação Farmacêutica-Brazil, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.157721

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Background: Solanum lycocarpum has great importance for food and medicinal traditional use. Recently, it was also evidenced that extracts of S. lycocarpum St. Hill (Solanaceae) and its glycoalkaloids, solamargine (Sg) and solasonine (Sn), are active against flagellated protozoa. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of the extract of S. lycocarpum and its glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg, on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Materials and Methods: A crude extract (96% ethanol) (EB) of fruits of S. lycocarpum was prepared and fractionated by partition with 40% ethanol and n-hexane: Ethyl acetate. Glycoalkaloids, Sn, and Sg were recognized in the ethanol fraction (EF) and further isolated by column chromatography. EB, EF, the isolated Sn and Sg and a mixture (1:1) of both glycoalkaloids were tested on cultures of G. lamblia trophozoites and macrophages. Results: EB, EF and glycoalkaloids of S. lycocarpum showed activity against Giardia (95.0 < Inhibitory concentration 50 [IC 50 ] ≤120.3 μg/mL). The mixture of glycoalkaloids (1:1) was more active (IC 50 = 13.23 μg/mL) than each one individually, suggesting a synergic effect. Moreover, the mixture is nontoxic to macrophage cells. Conclusion: Results are optimistic concerning the anti-Giardia potential of the mixture Sn + Sg. Further studies, in vitro and in vivo, will be required to consolidate the usefulness of the mixture of Sn + Sg in view of a new therapeutic strategy for giardiasis.


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