Home | About PM | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |  Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
  Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 25  |  Page : 65-68  

Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts


1 Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Famous Prescription and Science of Formulas, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China; College of TCM, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China
2 College of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

Date of Submission12-Jul-2010
Date of Decision18-Sep-2010
Date of Web Publication20-Jan-2011

Correspondence Address:
Halmuart Upur
College of TCM, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi-830011, Xinjiang, China

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: Xinjiang Science and Technology Funding (no. 200821130), People’s Republic of China, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.75904

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%), chloroform (4.99%) and n-butanol extracts (3.94%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23%) and ethanol extracts (1.64%) contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%), chloroform (14.36%) and n-butanol extracts (10.76%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27%) and flavonoids (65.61%) owing to good antioxidant capacity.

Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, total flavonoids, total polyphenolic, Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam


How to cite this article:
Tian S, Shi Y, Zhou X, Ge L, Upur H. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts. Phcog Mag 2011;7:65-8

How to cite this URL:
Tian S, Shi Y, Zhou X, Ge L, Upur H. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids) content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Dec 15];7:65-8. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2011/7/25/65/75904


   Introduction Top


Free radicals produced by radiation, chemical reactions, and several redox reactions of various compounds may contribute to protein oxidation, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in living tissues and cells. [1] Oxidative stress may be related to many disorders such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and liver cirrhosis. [2],[3],[4] Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that the increased consumption of whole grains, fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases. [5] This association is attributed to the natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, tocopherol, carotenoids, polyphenolics and flavonoids which prevent free radical damage. [6] Free radical-induced oxidation of the human body is regarded as human ageing and the root cause of illnesses. Therefore, investigating the herbal anti-oxidation of the active ingredient has become a worldwide trend in botanical research.

Ziziphora clinopodioides is a traditional Uighur medicinal plant. This semi-perennial shrub-like herb grows in low hills, grassland, and arid slopes and is widely distributed in China, Mongolia, Turkey, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. [7] This plant is used mainly for the treatment of heart disease, high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation insomnia, oedema, cough, bronchitis, lung abscess and other diseases. Results of animal experiments show that Z. clinopodioides can significantly prolong the survival of the hypoxic mouse model and positively affect myocardial ischaemia and hypoxia.

Research on Z. clinopodioides focuses on the chemical constituents of volatile oil and antibacterial activity. Stability of the volatile oil has been studied in preliminary works but a survey of the different parts of polar solvent extraction of the total flavonoid and polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity is yet to be reported.


   Materials and Methods Top


Plant material

The plant (whole plant) used for the present study was collected from the Nan Mountains of China. Plant materials were further identified by Yonghe Li, a pharmacist from a Chinese medicine hospital of Xinjiang.

Rutin was obtained from National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products 100080 -200707; gallic acid monohydrate, ethanol, chloroform, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether were obtained from the Tianjin Reagent Co. (Tianjin, People's Republic of China). All other solvents and chemicals were analytical grade and purchased from Tianjing Guangfu Chemical Ltd., Co, (Tianjin).

Extraction process

The extract of dried and powdered plant (5 kg) was concentrated under decompression after impregnating with 90% ethanol extraction. Then using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and ethanol gradient to extract, concentrate the extracts, freeze-dried it into powder, spare.

Polarity gradient extraction flowchart [Figure 1]
Figure 1: Polarity gradient extraction

Click here to view


Determination of the total polyphenolic content

Total polyphenolic content
(TPC) values from Z. clinopodioides petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and ethanol extracts were determined according to the literature. [8] The various extracts were prepared as a 0.3 mg/ml aqueous solution. Each extract (0.5 ml) was mixed with 1 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (2 N) and was left to stand at room temperature for 1 min. The sodium carbonate (20% Na 2 CO 3 ) solution (2 ml) was added subsequently. Distilled water volume was increased to to 10 ml and the solution was allowed to stand at room temperature for 10 min. Supernatant absorbance was measured at 760 nm using a spectrophotometer (UV Cintra-40, GBC, Australia). The results were in contrast with the standards prepared similarly (with known gallic acid concentrations). All samples were analysed three times.

Determination of the total flavonoid content

The total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined using a colorimetric method. [9] TPC values from Z. clinopodioides petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and ethanol extracts were analysed using a colorimetric method. The various extracts were prepared as a 1 mg/ml 60% ethanol solution. Each extract (1 ml) was mixed with 0.4 ml of a 5% NaNO 2 solution. The mixture was allowed to stay at room temperature for 6 min; 0.4 ml of a 10% AlCl 3 × 9H 2 O solution was added for 6 min followed by the addition of a 4 ml 4% NaOH solution. The ethanol solution (60%) was added to reach a final volume of 10 ml. The solution was mixed and kept at room temperature for 15 min. Absorbance was measured immediately against the prepared blank at 510 nm using a spectrophotometer (UV Cintra-40, GBC). Comparisons were made against standards prepared similarly (with known rutin concentrations). All samples were analysed three times.

DPPH radical-scavenging capacity

The DPPH radical-scavenging (DPHH-RSC) activity of grains was estimated according to the method explained by Cheung, Cheung and Ooi [10] with some modifications. In this assay, antioxidants present in the sample reduced the DPPH radicals which have an absorption maximum at 517 nm. The DPPH radical solution was prepared by dissolving 12.4 mg DPPH in 1000 ml of ethanol (2 × 10−5 mol/l). First to occur is the extinction of the disposable cuvette with 1 ml of the ethanol DPPH solution. Ethanol (1.5 ml) was measured as blank. Then, Z. clinopodioides and the ethanol extract solutions were prepared at 1 mg/ml concentrations. Subsequently, add 1 mg/ml of extracts of different polarities (1 ml) along with 0.5 ml of anhydrous ethanol. The mixture was shaken vigorously and allowed to stand at room temperature in the dark for 30 min. The decrease in the absorbance of the resulting solution was monitored at 517 nm using a spectrophotometer (UV Cintra-40, GBC). The vitamin C standard solution (1 mg/ml) in ethanol was prepared under the same conditions.

Superoxide anion-scavenging capacity

Superoxide anion production was measured by observing the autoxidation of epinephrine in terms of the rate of adrenochrome accumulation. [11] In this assay, 1 ml of the hydrochloric acid Tris-buffer solution (pH = 8.21, 0.05 mol/l) was held in a heating water bath at 25°C for 20 min. One millilitre (1 mg/ml) of the extracts of different polarities followed by 0.4 ml of pro-phloroglucinol (25 mmol/l) was added to the solution while holding in a heating water bath at 25°C for 5 min. Finally, 1 ml of the hydrochloric acid solution (8 mmol/l) was added and diluted 10 times as the sample. Absorbance at 320 nm was determined using a spectrophotometer (UV Cintra-40, GBC) using distilled water as the blank. A vitamin C standard solution (1 mg/ml) in distilled water was prepared under the same conditions.

Hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity

The assay was based on the benzoic acid hydroxylation method. [12] Hydroxyl radicals were generated by direct addition of iron (II) salts to a reaction mixture containing the phosphate buffer. In this assay sample, 0.2 ml of the pro-phenanthroline solution (7.5 mmol/l) was added to 2 ml of the phosphate buffer solution; 1 ml (1 mg/ml) of the extracts of different polarities, 1.4 ml of the hydrogen peroxide solution (1%) and 2.8 ml of distilled water were added to 0.2 ml of the ferrous sulphate solution and held in a heating water bath at 37°C for 1 h. Distilled water measured at 0.4 ml was also used as the damage liquid instead of the extracts of different polarities. Distilled water (0.8 ml) was used to serve as a blank. Absorbance at 510 nm was determined using a spectrophotometer (UV Cintra-40, GBC). A vitamin C standard solution (1 mg/ml) in distilled water was prepared under the same conditions.


   Results and Discussion Top


[Table 1] shows that the total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%), chloroform (4.99%) and n-butanol extracts (3.94%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23%) and ethanol extracts (1.64%) contain almost no polyphenolic content. This is due to the total polyphenolic compounds resulting from polarity, low polarity of the total polyphenolic concentration in chloroform extracts and high polarity of the total polyphenolic concentration in n-butanol extracts. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%), chloroform (14.36%) and n-butanol extracts (10.76%) containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. Large absorbance is due to the petroleum ether extract-containing pigment making the solution turbid.
Table 1: Total polyphenolic content and total flavonoid content

Click here to view


[Table 2] shows the clear difference in antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate extract contains a large number of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids mainly due to the polarity of polyphenols determined. Polyphenolic compounds are one of the most effective antioxidative constituents in fruits, vegetables and grains. [13] Hence, it is important to quantify polyphenolic contents and to assess the contribution to the antioxidant activity.

No literature has been found regarding the total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of different Z. clinopodioides Lam. extracts. The results obtained herein are in agreement to a certain degree with the traditional uses of Z. clinopodioides Lam. as a valuable source for antioxidant drugs.
Table 2: DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH-RSC), superoxide anion-scavenging capacity
(superoxide-ASC) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (hydroxyl -RSC) in different polar solvents


Click here to view


The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. This also proves that polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activities are closely linked. This is the first study to provide determination data on different polarity extracts of Z. clinopodioides Lam.


   Acknowledgment Top


This work was supported by Xinjiang Science and Technology Funding (no. 200821130), People's Republic of China.

 
   References Top

1.Halliwell B. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annu Rev Nutr 1996;16 : 33-49.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem J 1984;219 : 1-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Muramatsu H, Kogawa K, Tanaka M, Okumura K, Koike K, Kuga T, et al. Superoxide dismutase in SAS human tongue carcinoma cell line is a factor defining invasiveness and cell motility. Cancer Res 1995;55 : 6210-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. Beyond cholesterol. Modification of low density lipoprotein that increase its artherogenicity. N Engl J Med 1989;320 : 915-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002;13 : 3-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Diplock AT, Charleux JL, Crozier WG, Kok FJ, Rice EC, Roberfroid M, et al. Functional food science and defense against reactive oxidative species. Br J Nutr 1998;80 : 77-112.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Baytop T. Turkiyede B, Tedavi IU. Yayinlari. Eczacilik Fak 1996;40 : 444.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with hosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enology Viticulture 1965;16 : 144-58.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, et al. Antioxidant activity of plant extract containing phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47 : 3954-62.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Cheung LM, Cheung PC, Ooi VE. Antioxidant activity and total polyphenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem 2003;81 : 249-55.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Misra HP, Fridovich I. The generation of superoxide radicals during the autoxidation of ferredoxins. J Biol Chem 1971;246 : 6886-90.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
12.Chung SK, Osawa T, Kawakishi S. Hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of spices and scavengers from brown mustard (Brassica nigra). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997;43 : 118-23.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BP. Antioxidant activity and total polyphenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46 : 4113-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Antimicrobial activity of puffball(Bovistella radicata) and separation of bioactive compounds
Yong Ye,Kun Liu,Qinghua Zeng,Qingmei Zeng
AMB Express. 2017; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties and medicinal applications of essential oils and extracts of different Ziziphora species
Majid Mohammadhosseini
Industrial Crops and Products. 2017; 105: 164
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice
Vahid Reza Askari,Vafa Baradaran Rahimi,Ahmad Ghorbani,Hassan Rakhshandeh
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2016; In press(In press)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Protoscolicidal and immunomodulatory activity of Ziziphora tenuior extract and its fractions
Mojtaba Shahnazi,Abbas Azadmehr,Ammar Andalibian,Reza Hajiaghaee,Mehrzad Saraei,Mahmood Alipour
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Kazakh Ziziphora Species as Sources of Bioactive Substances
Karel Šmejkal,Milan Malaník,Karlygash Zhaparkulova,Zuriyadda Sakipova,Liliya Ibragimova,Galya Ibadullaeva,Milan Žemlicka
Molecules. 2016; 21(7): 826
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Towards profiling differential distribution of bioactive molecules across four phenologies in Pleurotus djamor R22
Godfrey Nattoh,Fredrick Musieba,Erastus Gatebe,Julius Mathara
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2016; 6(6): 472
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Multi-elemental analysis of Ziziphora clinopodioides from different regions, periods and parts using atomic absorption spectrometry and chemometric approaches
Xuejia Zhang,Wenhuan Ding,Jie Li,Feng Liu,Xiaoying Zhou,Shuge Tian
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2015; 25(5): 465
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity ofTabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. Fruits and branches
MARIANA PIANA,ALINE A. BOLIGON,THIELE F. DE BRUM,MARINA ZADRA,BIANCA V. BELKE,AMANDA L.F. FROEDER,JANAÍNA K. FROHLICH,LETÍCIA T. NUNES,LAUREN PAPPIS,ALEXANDRA A. BOLIGON,MARGARETH L. ATHAYDE
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2014; 86(2): 881
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 pharmacognosy magazineæs new and improved impact factor - 1.525
nandan, s.
pharmacognosy magazine. 2013; 9(36): 283-284
[Pubmed]
10 Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases
Soodabeh Saeidnia,Mohammad Abdollahi
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Chemical constituents of Ziziphora clinopodioides a
Yuhua Ye,Yuhua Bahang,Yongqiang Liu,Guoan Zou,Haji Akber Aisa
Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 2012; 48(4): 681
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Chemical fingerprinting by RP-RRLC-DAD and principal component analysis of Ziziphora clinopodioides from different locations
Tian, S. and Yu, Q. and Xin, L. and Zhou, Z.S. and Upur, H.
Natural Product Communications. 2012; 7(9): 1181-1184
[Pubmed]
13 Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang
Tian, S. and Yu, Q. and Wang, D. and Upur, H.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2012; 8(32): 280-284
[Pubmed]
14 Effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of viola tricolor and its fractions on proliferation of cervix carcinoma cells
Mortazavian, S.M. and Ghorbani, A. and Hesari, T.G.
Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2012; 15(22): 9-16
[Pubmed]
15 Antiproliferative effect of viola tricolor on neuroblastoma cells in vitro
Mortazavian, S.M. and Ghorbani, A.
Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2012; 24(3): 93-96
[Pubmed]
16 GC-MS analysis of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil from North Xinjiang, China
Zhou, X. and Yu, Q. and Gong, H. and Tian, S.
Natural Product Communications. 2012; 7(1): 81-82
[Pubmed]
17 Simultaneous determination of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid in ziziphora clinopodioides lam. from different sources in xinjiang by a novel rapid resolution liquid chromatography method
Zhou, X., Yu, Q., Gong, H., Zhang, H., Wang, D.W., Tian, S.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy. 2011; 30(8): 1651-1655
[Pubmed]
18 Antioxidative effects of cinnamomi cortex: A potential role of iNOS and COX-II
Chung, J.-W., Kim, J.-J., Kim, S.-J.
Pharmacognosy Magazine. 2011; 7(28): 314-319
[Pubmed]



 

Top
   
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
    Acknowledgment
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4668    
    Printed255    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded29    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 18    

Recommend this journal