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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 24  |  Page : 320-322 Table of Contents     

Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, PES College of Pharmacy, 50 Feet Road, Hanumanth Nagar, Bangalore - 560 050, India
2 National Institute of Malaria Research, ICMR, Near Trumpet Bus Stop, Bangalore - 561 102, India

Date of Submission18-Mar-2010
Date of Decision19-Apr-2010
Date of Web Publication20-Oct-2010

Correspondence Address:
S Swathi
PES College of Pharmacy, 50 Feet Road, Hanumanth Nagar, Bangalore - 560 050
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.71796

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   Abstract 

Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%).

Keywords: Aedes aegypti , Coleus forskohlii, Culex quinquefasciatus, Datura stramonium, oviposition deterrent, Pongamia pinnata


How to cite this article:
Swathi S, Murugananthan G, Ghosh S K. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. Phcog Mag 2010;6:320-2

How to cite this URL:
Swathi S, Murugananthan G, Ghosh S K. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Aug 20];6:320-2. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2010/6/24/320/71796


   Introduction Top


Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. Of all the insects that transmit diseases, mosquitoes represent the greatest menace. [1] While most people consider mosquitoes as an annoyance, these tiny assassins have the potential and lethal capacity to kill more than a million victims a year around the world. [2] Prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases is one of the world's most health hazardous problems. [3] One of the methods available for the control of mosquitoes is the use of insecticides. Chemical control using synthetic insecticides had been favorable so far because of their speedy action and easy application. [1] Synthetic insecticides are toxic and adversely affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air. Botanical pesticides are promising in that they are effective, environment-friendly, easily biodegradable, and also inexpensive. [4]

The mosquito Aedes aegypti acts as a vector for an arbovirus responsible for yellow fever in Central and South America and in West Africa. It is also the vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is endemic to South East Asia, the Pacific islands area, Africa. [5] Culex quinquefasciatus Say is the main vector of bancroftian filariasis. Global prevalence of lymphatic filariasis is 120 million and population at risk is 1.3 billion. In India, there may be up to 31 million microfilareamics and 23 million cases of symptomatic filariasis. [6] Urbanization and changed lifestyles mainly contribute to the proliferation of larval habitats resulting in disease epidemics. [7]

It is estimated that every year at least 500 million people in the world suffer from one or the other tropical diseases that include malaria, lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasis, dengue, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. Of late chikungunya, a serious mosquito borne epidemic has gained momentum in India. These diseases not only cause high levels of morbidity and mortality, but also inflict great economic loss and social disruption on developing countries such as India, China, etc.

Mosquito population can be reduced by disrupting its oviposition. [7] To avoid the propensity of bioaccumulation and induction of malignancy in nontarget animals, a safe and more congenial method of vector control by natural and cheaper means of using plants as insecticides became popular. [8] Plants are considered as a rich source of bioactive chemicals and they may be an alternative source of mosquito control agents. [9] The co-evolution of plants with insects has equipped them with a plethora of chemical defenses, which can be used against insects. Since botanicals are less likely to cause ecological damage, a large number of plants have been screened for their insecticidal activities against mosquitoes and some of these have been found to possess promising effects. [10]

The present study was an attempt to explore oviposition deterrent activity from ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection of plants and extraction

Fully developed leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were collected and voucher specimens have been authenticated by Dr. Rajanna (Botanist), Department of botany, G.K.V.K, Bangalore, India. The leaves were washed with tap water, shade dried, and powdered. The powdered plant material was loaded in soxhlet apparatus and was extracted with ethanol. The solvent from the extract was subjected to vacuum evaporator to collect the crude extract. Standard stock solutions were prepared by dissolving the residues in the ethanol. These solutions were used for oviposition deterrent bioassay.

Oviposition deterrent bioassay

The oviposition deterrent test was performed using the method of Xue et al.[11] against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefaciatus. Fifteen gravid female were (10-day-old, 4 days after blood feeding) transferred to each mosquito cage (45 * 38 * 38 cm) covered with a plastic screen, with a glass top, and a muslin sleeve for access. A 10% sucrose solution was available at all times. Serial dilutions of leaf extract were made in ethanol. Enamel bowls containing 100 ml of rainwater were treated with leaf extract to obtain test solutions of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%. Two enamel bowls holding 100 ml of rainwater were placed in opposite corners of each cage, one treated with the test material, and the other with a solvent control that contained 1% ethanol. The positions of the bowls were alternated between the different replicates so as to nullify any effect of position on oviposition. Three replicates for each concentration were run, with cages placed side by side for each bioassay. All experiments were run at ambient temperature (27 ± 2C) with relative humidity of 70-80%. After 24 h, the number of eggs laid in treated and control bowls was recorded.

The percent effective repellency for each leaf extract concentration was calculated using the following formula. [12]



Where,

ER = Percent effective repellency

NC = Number of eggs in control

NT = Number of eggs in treatment


   Results Top


Results of the oviposition deterrent activity of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium ethanolic leaves extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus are presented in [Table 1]. The data was recorded and statistical data was calculated and presented.
Table 1: Oviposition deterrent activity of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium against gravid female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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   Discussion Top


The laboratory oviposition deterrent tests of Solanum trilobatum acetone extract of leaves reduced egg laying at higher concentration (0.1%) by 90 - 99% against Aedes albopictus and 99.4% against Anopheles stephensi. [13] The present oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, and 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at a higher concentration (0.1%).

From above results, we can conclude that Datura stramonium has more efficient oviposition deterrence against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus when compared to Pongamia pinnata and Coleus forskohlii.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors are thankful to National Institute of Malarial Research, ICMR, Bangalore.

 
   References Top

1.Mullai K, Jebanesan A. Larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of the leaf extract of two cucurbitacious plants against filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). Trop Biomed 2007;24:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 1  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Susan G, Vincent S. Comparative efficacy of Annona squamosa Linn. And Pongamia glabra Vent. to Azadirachta indica A. Juss against mosquitoes. Vector Borne Dis 2005;42:159-63.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Kumar S, Maneemegalai S. Evaluation of Larvicidal effect of Lantana camara Linn against mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.M. Adv Biol Res 2008;2:39-43.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Dharmagadda VS, Naik SN, Mittal PK, Vasudevan P. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes patula essential oil against three mosquito species. Bioresour Technol 2005;96:1235-40.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Carvalho AF, Melo VM, Craveiro AA, Machado MI, Bantim MB, Rabelo EF. Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. against Aedes aegypti Linn. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2003;98:569-71.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Madhu SK, Shaukath AK, Vijayan VA. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from Curcuma aromatica against mosquito larvae. Acta Trop 2010;113:7-11.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Madhu SK. Efficacy of bioactive compounds from Curcuma aromatica against mosquito larvae. Acta Trop 2009;555:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Madhumathy AP, Ali-Ashraf A, Vijayan VA. Larvicidal efficacy of Capsicum annum against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. J Vector Borne Dis 2007;44:223-6.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Das NG, Goswami D, Rabha B. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts. J Vector Borne Dis 2007;44:145-8.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
10.Kaushik R, Saini P. Larvicidal activity of leaf extract of Millingtonia hortensis (Family: Bignoniaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. J Vector Borne Dis 2008;45:66-9.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
11.Xue RD, Barnard DR, Ali A. Laboratory and field evaluation of insect repellents as oviposition deterrents against the mosquito Aedes Albopictus. Med Vet Entomol 2001;15:126-31.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
12.Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A. Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci 2005;5:11-15.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Rajkumar S, Jebanesan A. Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi. J Insect Sci 2005;22:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 13      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


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