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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 19  |  Page : 74-77 Table of Contents     

Bronchodilatory effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs


Department of Pharmacognosy, Smt.Saradchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, Jalgaon, India

Date of Submission06-Mar-2009
Date of Decision26-Apr-2009
Date of Acceptance06-Jun-2009
Date of Web Publication16-Feb-2010

Correspondence Address:
R V Sarpate
Department of Pharmacognosy, Smt.Saradchandrika Suresh Patil College of Pharmacy, Chopda, Jalgaon
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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   Abstract 

The methanolic extract of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn and its various fractions were tested for their bronchodilatory effect against histamine induced acute bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The methanolic extract and its fractions viz. petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate exhibited significant protection against bronchospasm, induced by histamine in guinea pigs. However significant (p<0.001) protection was exhibited by methanolic extract which was comparable with Chlorophenarmine maleate (2mg/kg) included as the standard in the study. The results of present study suggest that, the plant Sphaeranthus indicus shows the bronchodilatory activity.

Keywords: Sphaeranthus indicus , Bronchodilatory activity, Histamine


How to cite this article:
Sarpate R V, Deore T K, Tupkari S V. Bronchodilatory effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Phcog Mag 2009;5, Suppl S2:74-7

How to cite this URL:
Sarpate R V, Deore T K, Tupkari S V. Bronchodilatory effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn against allergen induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Phcog Mag [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Sep 18];5, Suppl S2:74-7. Available from: http://www.phcog.com/text.asp?2009/5/19/74/59787


   Introduction Top


Sphaeranthus indicus Linn (Asteraceae) commonly known as Gorakhmundi, is a herb found mostly in southern India. Dried and powdered leaves of Sphaeranthus indicus are useful in the treatment of chronic skin disease, urethral discharges and jaundice [1] . All parts of the plant possess medicinal uses and have been reported to have beneficial effects on several ailments. The juice of the plant is styptic and diuretic and it is said to be useful against liver and gastric disorders. Roots and seeds are used as stomachic and anthelmintic [2] . It is reported that flowers are highly alterative, depurative, cooling and tonic. They are also used as blood purifiers in skin disease [3] . Dried and powdered leaves of Sphaeranthus indicus are useful in the treatment of chronic skin disease, urethral discharges and jaundice [1] . Extract of Sphaeranthus indicus has been reported for the inhibition of hyaluronidase [4] . It exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria [5] . It is reported that flower head of Sphaeranthus indicus shows immunomodulatory activity [6] . The phytochemical analysis of the plant showed that it contains eudesmanolide type of sequiterpene possessing immunostimulating [7] and anti-inflammatory activities [8] . Traditionally the herb was used in cough, bronchitis [1] . In the light of above facts the present investigation was conducted to assess the protective effect of the methanolic extract and its various fractions against histamine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. Even though Sphaeranthus indicus was reported to be useful in a many ailments, scientific evaluation of the plant was not reported for its antiasthmatic activity. Hence, the antiasthmatic activity of Sphaeranthus indicus was studied using different animal models.


   Materials and Methods Top


Collection and authentication of Plant material:

The whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn was collected from Wada, Rajgurunagar, Pune. The plant was identified and authenticated from Botanical Survey of India, Pune. Its voucher number is 1-TKDS.The whole plant was powdered and used for the preparation of extracts.

Preparation of extracts

The whole plant was dried and powered in electric grinder. The powder obtained was passed through sieve no. 85 and weighed. The powdered material (3kg) was extracted with methanol (95%) using Soxhlet apparatus. The extract obtained was dried in rotary vacuum evaporator at 40°C, which yielded a syrupy viscous mass (6.5%). The methanolic extract was then fractionated by solvents of different polarity like petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethyl acetate. All the respective fractions were concentrated under vacuum and then used for the further studies.

Test Animal

For the experiment, Dunkin-Hartley Guinea pigs of either sex weighing 350- 400 gm respectively were used for studies. The Dunkin-Hartley Guinea pigs were obtained from animal house of National Chemical Laboratory, Pune. They were housed in standard conditions of temperature (22±20 °C), relative humidity (60±5 %) and light (12 h light/ dark cycle). They were housed in polypropylene cages with standard pellet chow and water ad libitum.

1. Histamine induced Bronchoconstriction in Guinea Pig:

Bronchospasm was induced in guinea pigs by exposing them to histamine aerosol (0.2%) produced by an ultra-sound nebulizer in an aerosol chamber (24Χ14Χ24 cm) made of Perspex glass. The time required for appearance of pre-convulsive dyspnoea caused due to histamine was recorded for each animal. The guinea pigs were overnight fasted and were randomly divided into 11 groups, (n=5). Group-I received Chlorpheniramine maleate (2 mg/kg, p.o.), Group-II to XI received methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn and its fractions 87 and 174 mg/kg, p.o. respectively. In prior drug treatment, each animal was placed in the histamine chamber and exposed to 0.2 % histamine aerosol. The preconvulsion time (PCT) i.e. the time of aerosol exposure to the onset of dyspnoea leading to the appearance of convulsion, was noted. The time for preconvulsion dyspnoea (PCD) was recorded from the time of aerosol exposure to the onset of dyspnoea leading to the appearance of convulsions [9] . As soon as PCD commenced, animals were removed from the chamber and placed in fresh air to recover. Time taken for the onset of PCD was taken as basal value. Guinea pigs were then allowed to recover from dyspnoea for 24 hrs. After 24 hrs the animals of Group II to XI were administered the test drug of Sphaeranthus indicus extract and its fractions and group I received Chlorpheniramine maleate. These animals were again subjected to histamine aerosol later at an interval of 1 hr, 4 hrs and 24 hrs to determine preconvulsion time (PCT). The protection offered by the treatment was calculated by using the following formula:

Where,

T1 = The mean of PCT before administration of test drugs.

T2 = The mean of PCT after administration of test drugs at 1hr, 4hrs and 24 hrs [10],[11],[12] .

Statistical analysis:

Results were reported as mean + SEM, the statistical analysis was performed by using one-way analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's test. Though the data was considered statistically significant at (p<0.05), when data was found to be very (p<0.01) or highly (p<0.001) significant, this is indicated in the results.


   Results Top


Ayurveda has recommended a number of plants for the treatment of asthma and other allergic disorders and has been successful in controlling the disease as well [13] . Phytoconstituents like alkaloids and flavonoids are attributed to possess bronchodilatory activity [14],[15],[16] . The results of preliminary phytochemical investigation of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn and its various fractions are shown in [Table 1]. The methanolic extract revealed the presence of an array of active constituents including alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and sugars.

In the early stage of asthma, release of inflammatory mediators like histamine, tryptase, acetylcholine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins are triggered by exposure to allergens, irritants, cold air or exercise [17] . Some of these mediators directly cause acute bronchoconstriction. Spasmolytic drugs like beta adrenergic agonists, xanthine derivatives and anticholinergics are used as quick relief medications in such acute asthmatic attacks [18] . In the present study, we have used histamine as spasmogens in the form of aerosols to cause immediate bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs. Chlorophenarmine maleate (2mg/kg) included as the reference standard against histamine induced bronchospasm respectively [19] . Due to the presence of various phytoconstituents like alkaloids and flavonoids in the methanolic fraction of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, was evaluated for its broncodilatory effect. The methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus and its fractions Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Benzene, Ethyl acetate (87 and 174 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prolonged the latent period of convulsions as compared to control following exposure to histamine aerosol. Effect of Sphaeranthus indicus linn extract against histamine induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs is shown in [Table 2].

Methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus at the dose of 174 mg/kg, p.o., showed maximum protection (46.36 %) as compared to other fractions. The other fractions Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Benzene, Ethyl acetate of Sphaeranthus indicus at the dose of 174 mg/kg, p.o., showed protection 41.59, 44.53, 41.59, 38.90 % respectively. The standard drug used, Chlorpheniramine maleate (1mg/kg, p.o.) also offered maximum protection 49.65 % in the present study.[Table 3]


   Discussion Top


Histamine causes very strong smooth muscle contraction, profound hypertension, and capillary dilation in cardiovascular system. The experimental bronchial asthma was induced in guinea pig by exposing it to 0.2 % histamine aerosol. The guinea pigs exposed to histamine aerosol showed preconvulsive dyspnoea leading to convulsion. The time of preconvulsive dyspnoea (PCD) was noted for each animal. The methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus at the dose of 174 mg/kg, p.o., and showed maximum protection (46.36 %) as compared to other fractions of Sphaeranthus indicus. Results are comparable to chlorpheniramine maleate. Further increase in the dose showed decreased activity. However, highly significant increase in preconvulsion time was observed due to treatment with methanol fraction when guinea pigs were exposed to histamine aerosol. The bronchodilatory effect of methanol fraction was found comparable to the protection offered by the reference standard drug Chlorpheniramine maleate. Thus, it can be concluded that methanolic extract and its fractions of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn possess significant antihistaminic (H1 receptor antagonist) activity. The methanolic extract and its fractions of whole plant of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn by virtue of its antihistaminic activity can be used in the treatment of asthma. Hence further detailed study needs to be undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn extract.


   Acknowledgment Top


The authors of the project especially Rupali V. Sarpate cordially thanks to the Dept of Pharmacognosy, Pad. Dr.D.Y.Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Pimpri, Pune-18, for the facilities provided for the present work.

 
   References Top

1.Nadkarni K. M., Indian Materia Medica, 3rd edition, Vol-III, (Popular Prakashan, Private Ltd Publication, Mumbai, 1976) 1163.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Said H. M., Medicinal Herbal A Textbook for Medical Students and Doctors, Vol-1 (A Research Publication, 1956) 239-241.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Kirtikar K. R., Basu B.P., Indian Medicinal Plants, 1-2 (Published by Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, India, 1918).  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.T. Nanba, Y. Hastsutori, K. Shimomura. Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 07,138,180 [95,138,180]: Chem. Abstr.123, 92919r (1995).  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Naqvi B. S., Hashmi K., Sheik D. Antibacterial activity in fruits and vegetables. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacology. 15 : 7-11 (1998).  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Bafna A. R., Mishra S.H. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol ex­tract of flower-heads of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. Ars Pharmaceutica. 45 (3): 281-291 (2004).  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Shekhani M. S., Shah P.M., Khan K.M. An immunostimulant sesquiterpene glycoside from Sphaeranthus indicus. Phytochemistry. 29 : 2573-2576 (1990).  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Heinrich M., Robles M., WestJ.E., MontellanoB.R. Ethnopharmacology of Mexican Asterceae (Compositae). Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicol­ogy. 38 : 539-565 (1998).  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Armitage A. K., BoswoodJ., LargeB.J. Thioxanthines with potent bron­chodilator and coronary dilator properties. Br. Pharm.Chemother. 16 : 59-76 (1961).  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Rajesh B., Raghu R. New bronchodilator -2; synthesis of 6-alky; benzimi­dazol [1, 2- c] quinazolines. Indian J Pharm Sciences. 62 (1): 41-45 (2000).  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Singh S., Agrawal S.S. Bronchorelaxant activity of Belamcanda chinensis (Adans). Indian.J Pharmacology 22 : 107-109 (1990).  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Tripathi R. M., Das P.K. Studies on antiasthmatic and antianaphylactic activity of AlizzIa lebbeck. Ind. J. Pharmacology. 9 (3): 189-194 (1977).  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Zhimmet I., Tashkin D.P. Alternative medicines for allergy and asthma J.Aller .Clin .Immunol. 106 : 603-614 (2000).  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Amin A. H., Mehta D. R. Bronchodilator alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Nature. 184 : 1317-1318 (1959).  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Tripathi R. M., DasP.K. Studies on anti-asthmatic and anti-anaphylactic activity of Albizzia lebbeck. Ind.J.Pharmacol. 9 :189-194 (1977).  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Saraf M. N., Patwardhan B. K. Pharmacological studies on Sarcostemma brevistigma. Part II Bronchodilator activity. Indian Drugs. 26 : 54-57 (1988).  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Bosquet J., Jeffery P.K., Busse W.W. Asthma: From bronchoconstriction to airway inflammation and remodeling. Am.J.Respi.Care.Med. 161 : 1745-1749 (2000).  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Horwitz R. J., Busse W.W. Inflammation and asthma. Clin. Chest. Med. 16 : 583-620 (1995).  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Shah G. B., Parmar N. S. Antiasthmatic property of polyherbal preparation E-721. B. Phytother.Res. 17 :1092-1097 (2003).  Back to cited text no. 19      



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Sphaeranthus indicus: A Review of its Chemical, Pharmacological and Ethnomedicinal Properties
Makhija, I.K., Richard, L., Kirti, S.P., Saleemullah, K., Jessy, M., Annie, S.
International Journal of Pharmacology. 2011; 7(2): 171-179
[Pubmed]



 

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